Sun Java System Directory Server Enterprise Edition 6.1 Deployment Planning Guide

Part I Overview of Deployment Planning for Directory Server Enterprise Edition

This part provides an introduction to Directory Server Enterprise Edition and explains the steps involved in planning a deployment (solution life cycle). It contains the following chapters:

For more information about the deployment planning process, see the Sun Java Enterprise System Deployment Planning Guide.

Chapter 1 Introduction to Deployment Planning for Directory Server Enterprise Edition

This chapter provides an overview of Sun Java System Directory Server Enterprise Edition, and describes at a high level the deployment planning process.

This chapter covers the following topics:

About Directory Server Enterprise Edition

Directory Server Enterprise Edition provides secure, highly available, scalable directory services for storing and managing identity data. Directory Server Enterprise Edition is the foundation of an enterprise identity infrastructure. It enables mission-critical enterprise applications and large-scale extranet applications to access consistent and reliable identity data.

Directory Server Enterprise Edition provides a central repository for storing and managing identity profiles, access privileges, application and network resource information. Directory Server Enterprise Edition integrates smoothly into multi-platform environments. It also provides secure, on-demand synchronization of passwords, users, and groups with Microsoft Active Directory.

Prior to Directory Server Enterprise Edition, Sun provided these functions in four separate product offerings including Directory Server, Directory Proxy Server, Directory Server Resource Kit and Identity Synchronization for Windows. These and other products are now components of one comprehensive, integrated solution.

Quality of Service Requirements for a Robust Directory Service

The more users and applications in an enterprise, the more critical is the need for a robust directory service. Directory Server Enterprise Edition addresses the challenges faced by a rapidly changing and expanding enterprise by providing the following quality of service requirements:

This chapter briefly describes how the components of Directory Server Enterprise Edition fill the quality of service requirements. The requirements are discussed in detail in the remainder of this guide.

Directory Server Enterprise Edition Components and Their Capabilities

Directory Server Enterprise Edition includes these separate components:

Each of these components addresses one or more of the quality of service requirements described previously. This section describes the components and illustrates how they fit together to provide a robust directory service.

Directory Server

Directory Server provides a scalable, high-performance data store for identity information. Directory Server supports the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) v3 and the Directory Service Markup Language (DSML) v2 natively for standards-based access. With LDAP and DSML over HTTP or SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), clients anywhere on a network are able to securely search and update directory data objects. Clients are also able to receive changes made by other applications and to authenticate users or applications even through firewalls.

Directory Server and Security

Directory Server provides several security features to achieve compliance with information security policies. These features ensure that only users with proper authorization have access to information.

Directory Server and Availability

Directory Server natively supports a variety of access protocols and offers a highly flexible, scalable replication environment that helps to ensure availability in distributed environments.

Directory Server replication prevents a single point of failure for applications that are using these protocols to access identity data. Directory Server supports a theoretically unlimited number of masters and read-only consumers in a replicated environment across both local and wide area networks. Special features of the replication protocol allow for optimizations when replicating data over high-latency networks. For more information, see Using Replication and Redundancy for High Availability.

On Solaris platforms, Directory Server supports clustering, a pre-packaged high availability hardware and software solution. For more information, see Using Clustering for High Availability.

Directory Server and Scalability

Directory Server provides for both vertical and horizontal growth without major deployment redesign. This level of scalability becomes increasingly critical as deployment grows.

Depending on the hardware, Directory Server can provide sustained search performance of 20,000 entries per second on a single machine and horizontal scalability to several thousand searches per second. For information about how to deploy Directory Server for read scalability, see Chapter 10, Designing a Scaled Deployment.

The requirement to store and update information constantly increases with the expansion of use across the organization. Update performance of Directory Server is close to relational database-write performance. For information about how to deploy Directory Server for write scalability, see Chapter 10, Designing a Scaled Deployment.

Directory Server provides linear CPU scalability to up to 28 CPUs for “read from cache” operations. It allows access to maximum memory capacity and delivers high performance that accommodates large directories on a single system for maximum hardware benefit.

Directory Server and Serviceability

Directory Server provides a comprehensive set of management tools for administering individual servers as well as the entire directory service.

A centralized, web-based administration console can be used to configure and manage multiple Directory Servers. The interface includes all the tools required for effective, day-to-day server administration and service from configuration to monitoring. In addition, the dsadm and dsconf command-line utilities can be used dynamically while the servers are running. These management features mean that most management operations can be performed while the directory is online, thus maximizing availability.

Management flexibility simplifies the deployment of the directory service into many different environments. The command-line utilities make remote management as easy as if the service were in a local data center.

Directory Proxy Server

Directory Proxy Server is an LDAP application-layer protocol gateway. It is designed to deliver enhanced directory access control, schema compatibility, and high availability.

Directory Proxy Server and Availability

With features such as configurable load balancing, failover, and failback, Directory Proxy Server ensures that systems have access to required data.

Directory Proxy Server works with Directory Server to ensure reliability and to protect against denial-of-service attacks. Directory Proxy Server automatically routes requests appropriately and provides secure firewall-like services for Directory Server.

To prevent a single point of failure for mission-critical applications, Directory Proxy Server detects outages and routes traffic around affected areas, effectively load balancing requests across systems. When the affected areas are restored to operation, Directory Proxy Server detects the restored servers automatically.

For more information, see Using Directory Proxy Server as Part of a Redundant Solution.

Directory Proxy Server and Security

Directory Proxy Server accommodates large numbers of users who are accessing the directory and minimizes the security risks associated with providing this level of access. Security features enable administrators to determine where a request is coming from, whether the request is allowed, and what type of authentication is required. In the event of a search request, Directory Proxy Server can also ensure that the request meets minimum requirements.

Directory Proxy Server uses groups to define how to identify an LDAP client and what restrictions to enforce on clients that match a particular group. Groups can be defined using a variety of criteria.

To protect private directory information from unauthorized access, Directory Proxy Server can configure a fine-grained access control policy on LDAP directories. Such a policy can include controlling who can perform different types of operations on different parts of directories. Directory Proxy Server can be configured to prevent certain kinds of operations typically performed by web trawlers and robots in search of information.

Identity Synchronization for Windows

Identity Synchronization for Windows provides basic synchronization of identity data between Directory Server Enterprise Edition and Microsoft Active Directory.

Identity Synchronization for Windows fulfills the requirement of interoperability. Synchronization of key identity data such as passwords eliminates the need for users to modify passwords several times to accommodate different application authentication mechanisms.

Use of a non intrusive implementation for synchronizing key identity data eliminates the time-consuming and maintenance-intensive need to install a client component on Active Directory servers.

Identity Synchronization for Windows enables users to change passwords and other identity data in either the Windows environment or the web-based application environment. In this way, Identity Synchronization for Windows maintains synchronization between Active Directory and Directory Server. Disabled accounts can also be synchronized between Active Directory and Directory Server. This synchronization ensures conformance of access policies to applications and data between the Windows desktops and web-based applications.

Directory Editor

Directory Editor is a Java web application that provides efficient, cost-effective management of directory data.

Directory Editor fulfills the requirement of serviceability by enabling users to manage identity data within the directory service. Administrators can create a forms-based web interface with which users can perform everyday tasks. Directory Editor supports extensive customization, branding, and embedding for the interface. Customization is done using a form-based interface for configuration rather than writing code. To ensure data security and privacy, built-in authorization controls limit visibility of menus and actions. In this way, users see only what they are authorized to see within the application.

Directory Server Resource Kit

The Directory Server Resource Kit provides tools and application programming interfaces (APIs) for deploying, accessing, tuning, and maintaining Directory Server Enterprise Edition. These utilities help to implement and maintain more robust LDAP-based solutions.

Performance testing and capacity planning tools help administrators to measure performance and to perform capacity planning on installations of Directory Server Enterprise Edition. Debugging and maintenance tools help with troubleshooting as well as daily maintenance of Directory Server Enterprise Edition. Deployment utilities and tools facilitate the rollout of new installations of Directory Server Enterprise Edition and migration to new releases. LDAP productivity tools include sample LDAP applications that were developed using Directory Server Enterprise Edition.

In addition, Sun has developed SLAMD, a powerful load-generation testing application that includes all the tests needed to thoroughly performance-test Directory Server Enterprise Edition applications. SLAMD is available free of charge at

Directory Server Enterprise Edition Components in a Deployment

The combination of Directory Server Enterprise Edition components that you deploy depends on the requirements of your organization. The following figure shows a typical deployment scenario using the components described previously.

Figure 1–1 Directory Server Enterprise Edition Components

Figure shows a typical Directory Server Enterprise Edition
deployment scenario, using all the components.

About Deployment Planning

Deployment planning is a critical step in the successful implementation of a Directory Server Enterprise Edition solution. Each enterprise has its own set of goals, requirements, and priorities to consider. Successful planning starts with analyzing the goals of an enterprise and determining the business requirements to meet those goals. The business requirements must then be converted into technical requirements. The technical requirements can be used as a basis for designing and implementing a system that meets the goals of the enterprise.

Successful deployment planning is the result of careful preparation, analysis, and design. Errors and missteps that occur anywhere during the planning process can result in a system that can be problematic in many ways. Significant problems can arise from a poorly planned system. For example, the system could under perform or be difficult to maintain, expensive to operate, or unable to scale.

The principles of deployment planning are discussed in depth in the Sun Java Enterprise System Deployment Planning Guide. This guide refers to the solution life cycle, which addresses deployment planning in clearly defined steps.

Solution Life Cycle

The solution life cycle shown in the following figure depicts the steps in the planning, design, and implementation of an enterprise software solution based on Java Enterprise System. The life cycle is a useful tool for keeping a deployment project on track. The solution life cycle is described in detail in the Sun Java Enterprise System Deployment Planning Guide.

Figure 1–2 Solution Life Cycle

Figure shows the solution life cycle with the six steps
involved in an enterprise software deployment.

Chapter 2 Business Analysis for Directory Server Enterprise Edition

During the business analysis phase of the solution life cycle, you define business goals by analyzing a business problem. You then identify the business requirements and business constraints to meet those goals.

This chapter contains the following sections:

About Business Analysis

Business analysis starts with stating business goals. You then analyze the business problems that you must solve and identify the business requirements that must be met to achieve the business goals. Consider any business constraints that limit your ability to achieve the goals. The analysis of business requirements and constraints results in a set of business requirements documents.

You use the resulting set of business requirements documents as a basis for deriving technical requirements in the technical requirements phase. Throughout the solution life cycle, you measure the success of your planning and of your solution according to the analysis performed in the business analysis phase.

Defining Directory Server Enterprise Edition Business Requirements

No simple formula exists to identify business requirements. Business requirements are determined based on collaboration with the stakeholders requiring an identity management solution, your own knowledge about the business domain, and applied creative thinking. The Sun Java Enterprise System Deployment Planning Guide describes the business analysis process in detail. It includes factors to consider when defining business requirements and constraints. This section outlines the business requirements that drive the need for a robust directory service.

Your enterprise requires a robust directory service in the following situations:

A directory service addresses these needs by providing a highly available, scalable, manageable, integratable, and secure foundation for an effective identity management infrastructure. The service delivers a set of capabilities to provide a centralized data store for users' identity data and for supporting data for web services architectures.

By delivering an effective identity management infrastructure, the directory service addresses the key enterprise requirements associated with serving users and the applications that help users perform their jobs.

These requirements include the following:

A high-performing directory service that is highly available, reliable, and secure addresses the primary business drivers : security, quality of service, and cost-efficiency.