This chapter describes the VMS language extensions that Sun Fortran 77 supports. These extensions are all, of course, nonstandard. @
This FORTRAN compiler includes the VMS extensions to make it as easy as possible to port FORTRAN programs from VMS environments to Solaris environments. The compiler provides almost complete compatibility with VMS FORTRAN. These extensions are included in dbx as well as f77.
This list is a summary of the VMS features that are included in f77. Details are elsewhere in this manual.
Unlabeled DO END DO
Indefinite DO WHILE END DO
BYTE data type
Logical operations on integers, and arithmetic operations on logicals
Additional field and edit descriptors for FORMAT statements:
Remaining characters (Q)
Carriage Control ($)
Default field indicators for w, d, and e fields in FORMAT statements
Reading into Hollerith edit descriptors
APPEND option for OPEN
Long names (32 characters)
_ and $ in names
Long source lines (132-character), if the -e option is on
Records, structures, unions, and maps
Getting addresses by the %LOC function
Passing arguments by the %VAL function
VMS Tab-format source lines are valid.
Initialize in common
You can initialize variables in common blocks outside of BLOCK DATA subprograms. You can initialize portions of common blocks, but you cannot initialize portions of one common block in more than one subprogram.
Radix-50 constants are implemented as f77 bit-string constants, that is, no type is assumed.
IMPLICIT NONE is treated as IMPLICIT UNDEFINED (A-Z)
VIRTUAL is treated as DIMENSION.
Initialize in declarations
CHARACTER*10 NAME /'Nell'/
Noncharacter format specifiers
If a runtime format specifier is not of type CHARACTER, the compiler accepts that too, even though the FORTRAN Standard requires the CHARACTER type.
Omitted arguments in subprogram calls
The compiler accepts omitted actual argument in a subroutine call, that is, two consecutive commas compile to a null pointer. Reference to that dummy argument gives a segmentation fault.
(SPARC only) The compiler treats variables of type REAL*16 as quadruple precision.
The FORTRAN Standard requires the FILE= specifier for OPEN and INQUIRE to be an expression of type CHARACTER. f77 accepts a numeric variable or array element reference.
X = A ** -B
X = A ** (-B)
Illegal real expressions
When the compiler finds a REAL expression where it expects an integer expression, it truncates and makes a type conversion to INTEGER.
Examples: Contexts for illegal real expressions that f77 converts to integer:
Dimension declarators and array subscripts
Computed GO TO
Logical unit number, record number, and record length
Typeless numeric constants
Binary, hexadecimal and octal constants are accepted in VMS form.
DATA N1 /B'0011111'/, N2/O'37'/, N3/X'1f'/, N4/Z'1f'/
Function length on function name, rather than on the word FUNCTION
The compiler accepts nonstandard length specifiers in function declarations.
INTEGER FUNCTION FCN*2 ( A, B, C )
TYPE and ACCEPT statements are allowed.
CALL SUBX ( I, *100, Z ) ! Standard CALL SUBX ( I, &100, Z ) ! Nonstandard alternate syntax
The ENCODE and DECODE statements are accepted.
Direct I/O with 'N record specifier
The nonstandard record specifier 'N for direct-access I/O statements is accepted.
READ ( K ' N ) LIST
READ ( UNIT=K, REC=N ) LIST
The logical unit number is K and the number of the record is N.
NAME, RECORDSIZE, and TYPE options--OPEN has the following alternative options:
NAME is treated as FILE
RECORDSIZE is treated as RECL
TYPE is treated as STATUS
The DISPOSE=p clause in the CLOSE statement is treated as STATUS=p.
The compiler processes certain special intrinsic functions:
%VAL is accepted
%LOC is treated as LOC
%REF(expr) is treated as expr (with a warning if expris CHARACTER)
%DESCR is reported as an untranslatable feature
Variable Expressions in FORMAT Statements
In general, inside a FORMAT statement, any integer constant can be replaced by an arbitrary expression; the single exception is the n in an nH edit descriptor. The expression itself must be enclosed in angle brackets.
1 FORMAT( 3F6.1 )
1 FORMAT( 3F<N>.1 )
You get most VMS features automatically without any special options. For a few of them, however, you must add the -xl option on the f77 command line.
In general, you need this -xl option if a source statement can be interpreted for either a VMS way of behavior or an f77 way of behavior, and you want the VMS way of behavior. The -xl option forces the compiler to interpret it as VMS FORTRAN.
Note also the --vax=spec option, which allows specification of these VMS extensions individually. See the Fortran User's Guide for details.
You must use -xl[d] to access the following features:
Unformatted record size in words rather than bytes (-xl)
VMS-style logical file names (-xl)
Quote (") character introducing octal constants (-xl)
Backslash (\) as ordinary character within character constants (-xl)
Nonstandard form of the PARAMETER statement (-xl)
Debugging lines as comment lines or FORTRAN statements (-xld)
Align structures as in VMS FORTRAN (-xl)
Here are the details:
Unformatted record size in words rather than bytes
In f77, direct-access, unformatted files are always opened with the logical record size in bytes.
If the -xl[d] option is not set, then the argument n in the OPEN option RECL=n is assumed to be the number of bytes to use for the record size.
If the -xl[d] option is set, then the argument n in the OPEN option RECL=n is assumed to be the number of words, so the compiler uses n*4 as the number of bytes for the record size.
If the -xl[d] option is set, and if the compiler cannot determine if the file is formatted or unformatted, then it issues a warning message that the record size may need to be adjusted. This result could happen if the information is passed in variable character strings.
The record size returned by an INQUIRE statement is not adjusted by the compiler; that is, INQUIRE always returns the number of bytes.
These record sizes apply to direct-access, unformatted files only.
VMS-style logical file names
If the -xl[d] option is set, then the compiler interprets VMS logical file names on the INCLUDE statement if it finds the environment variable, LOGICALNAMEMAPPING, to define the mapping between the logical names and the UNIX path name.
"lname1=path1; lname2=path2; "
Remember these rules for VMS style logical file names:
Each lname is a logical name and each path1, path2, and so forth, is the path name of a directory (without a trailing /).
It ignores all blanks when parsing this string.
It strips any trailing /[no]list from the file name in the INCLUDE statement.
Logical names in a file name are delimited by the first : in the VMS file name.
It converts file names from lname1:file to the path1/file form.
For logical names, uppercase and lowercase are significant. If a logical name is encountered on the INCLUDE statement which is not specified in the LOGICALNAMEMAPPING, the file name is used, unchanged.
Quote (") character introducing octal constants
If the -xl[d] compiler option is on, a VMS FORTRAN octal integer constant is treated as its decimal form.
JCOUNT = ICOUNT + "703
JCOUNT = ICOUNT + 451
If the -xl[d] option is not on, then the "703 is an error.
With -xl[d], the VMS FORTRAN notation "703 signals f77 to convert from the integer octal constant to its integer decimal equivalent, 451 in this case. In VMS FORTRAN, "703 cannot be the start of a character constant, because VMS FORTRAN character constants are delimited by apostrophes, not quotes.
Backslash (\) as ordinary character within character constants
If the -xl[d] option is on, a backslash in a character string is treated as an ordinary character; otherwise, it is treated as an escape character.
Nonstandard form of the PARAMETER statement
The alternate PARAMETER statement syntax is allowed, if the -xl[d] option is on.
PARAMETER FLAG1 = .TRUE.
Debugging lines as comment lines or FORTRAN statements (-xld)
The compiler interprets debugging lines as comment lines or FORTRAN statements, depending on whether the -xld option is set. If set, they are compiled; otherwise, they are treated as comments.
REAL A(5) / 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0 / DO I = 1, 5 X = A(I)**2 D PRINT *, I, X END DO PRINT *, 'done' END
With -xld, this code prints I and X. Without -xld, it does not print them.
Align structures as in VMS FORTRAN
Use this feature if your program has some detailed knowledge of how VMS structures are implemented. If you need to share structures with C, you should use the default: no -xl
Most VMS FORTRAN extensions are incorporated into the f77 compiler. The compiler writes messages to standard error for any unsupported statements in the source file. The following is a list of the few VMS statements that are not supported.
DEFINE FILE statement
KEYID and key specifiers in READ statements
Nonstandard OPEN specifiers
The intrinsic function, %DESCR
The following parameters on the OPTIONS statement:
Some of the INCLUDE statement
Some aspects of the INCLUDE statement are converted. The INCLUDE statement is operating system-dependent, so it cannot be completely converted automatically. The VMS version allows a module-name and a LIST control directive that are indistinguishable from a continuation of a UNIX file name. Also, VMS ignores alphabetic case, so if you are inconsistent about capitalization, distinctions are made where none are intended.
Getting a long integer--expecting a short
In VMS FORTRAN, you can pass a long integer argument to a subroutine that expects a short integer. This feature works if the long integer fits in 16 bits, because the VAX addresses an integer by its low-order byte. This feature does not work on SPARC systems.
Those VMS system calls that are directly tied to that operating system
Initializing a common block in more than one subprogram
Alphabetizing common blocks so you can rely or depend on the order in which blocks are loaded. You can specify the older with the -M mapfile option to ld.