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|System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Services (DNS, NIS, and LDAP) Oracle Solaris 11 Express 11/10|
The NIS naming service is composed of the following elements:
Domains (see The NIS Domain)
Daemons (see NIS Daemons)
Utilities (see NIS Utilities)
Maps (see NIS Maps)
NIS Command Set (see NIS-Related Commands)
An NIS domain is a collection of machines which share a common set of NIS maps. Each domain has a domain name and each machine sharing the common set of maps belongs to that domain.
Any machine can belong to a given domain, as long as there is a server for that domain's maps in the same network. An NIS client machine obtains its domain name and binds to an NIS server as part of its boot process.
NIS service is provided by five daemons as shown in Table 4-1. The NIS service is managed by the Service Management Facility. Administrative actions on this service, such as enabling, disabling, or restarting, can be performed by using the svcadm command. For an overview of SMF, refer to Chapter 11, Managing Services (Overview), in System Administration Guide: Basic Administration. Also refer to the svcadm(1M) and svcs(1) man pages for more details.
Table 4-1 NIS Daemons
Note - rpc.yppasswdd considers all shells that begin with an r to be restricted. For example, if you are in /bin/rksh, you are not allowed to change from that shell to another one. If you have a shell that begins with r but is not intended to be restricted as such, refer to Chapter 7, NIS Troubleshooting for the workaround.
NIS service is supported by nine utilities as shown in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2 NIS Utilities
NIS maps were designed to replace UNIX /etc files, as well as other configuration files, so they store much more than names and addresses. On a network running NIS, the NIS master server for each NIS domain maintains a set of NIS maps for other machines in the domain to query. NIS slave servers also maintain duplicates of the master server's maps. NIS client machines can obtain namespace information from either master or slave servers.
NIS maps are essentially two-column tables. One column is the key and the other column is information related to the key. NIS finds information for a client by searching through the keys. Some information is stored in several maps because each map uses a different key. For example, the names and addresses of machines are stored in two maps: hosts.byname and hosts.byaddr. When a server has a machine's name and needs to find its address, it looks in the hosts.byname map. When it has the address and needs to find the name, it looks in the hosts.byaddr map.
An NIS Makefile is stored in the /var/yp directory of machines designated as an NIS server at installation time. Running make in that directory causes makedbm to create or modify the default NIS maps from the input files.
Note - Always create maps on the master server, as maps created on a slave will not automatically be pushed to the master server.
A default set of NIS maps are provided in the Oracle Solaris system. You might want to use all these maps or only some of them. NIS can also use whatever maps you create or add when you install other software products.
Default maps for an NIS domain are located in each server's /var/yp/domainname directory. For example, the maps that belong to the domain test.com are located in each server's /var/yp/test.com directory.
Table 4-3 describes the default NIS maps, information they contain, and whether the software consults the corresponding administrative files when NIS is running.
Table 4-3 NIS Map Descriptions
New ipnodes maps (ipnodes.byaddr and ipnodes.byname) are added to NIS. The maps store both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
Note - The Oracle Solaris release does not have two separate hosts files. The /etc/inet/hosts file is the single hosts file that contains both IPv4 and IPv6 entries. You do not need to maintain IPv4 entries in two hosts files that always require synchronization. For backward compatibility, the /etc/inet/ipnodes file is replaced with a symbolic link of the same name to the /etc/inet/hosts file.
For more information, see the hosts(4) man page.
NIS clients and servers can communicate using either IPv4 or IPv6 RPC transports.
The ageing.byname mapping contains information used by yppasswdd to read and write password aging information to the DIT when the NIS-to-LDAP transition is implemented. If password aging is not being used, then it can be commented out of the mapping file. For more information about the NIS-to-LDAP transition, see Chapter 15, Transitioning From NIS to LDAP (Overview/Tasks).
NIS makes updating network databases much simpler than with the /etc files system. You no longer have to change the administrative /etc files on every machine each time you modify the network environment.
For example, when you add a new machine to a network running NIS, you only have to update the input file in the master server and run make. This automatically updates the hosts.byname and hosts.byaddr maps. These maps are then transferred to any slave servers and are made available to all of the domain's client machines and their programs. When a client machine or application requests a machine name or address, the NIS server refers to the hosts.byname or hosts.byaddr map as appropriate and sends the requested information to the client.
% ypcat mapname
where mapname is the name of the map you want to examine or its nickname. If a map is composed only of keys, as in the case of ypservers, use ypcat -k. Otherwise, ypcat prints blank lines. The ypcat(1) man page describes more options for ypcat.
% ypwhich -m mapname
where mapname is the name or the nickname of the map whose master you want to find. ypwhich responds by displaying the name of the master server. For complete information, refer to the ypwhich(1) man page.
Nicknames are aliases for full map names. To obtain a list of available map nicknames, such as passwd for passwd.byname, type ypcat -x or ypwhich -x.
Nicknames are stored in the /var/yp/nicknames file, which contains a map nickname followed by the fully specified name for the map, separated by a space. This list might be added to or modified. Currently, there is a limit of 500 nicknames.
The NIS service includes specialized daemons, system programs, and commands, which are summarized in the following table.
Table 4-4 NIS Command Summary