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Linker and Libraries Guide     Oracle Solaris 11 Information Library
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Part I Using the Link-Editor and Runtime Linker

1.  Introduction to the Oracle Solaris Link Editors

2.  Link-Editor

Invoking the Link-Editor

Direct Invocation

Using a Compiler Driver

Cross Link-Editing

Specifying the Link-Editor Options

Input File Processing

Archive Processing

Shared Object Processing

Linking With Additional Libraries

Library Naming Conventions

Linking With a Mix of Shared Objects and Archives

Position of an Archive on the Command Line

Directories Searched by the Link-Editor

Directories Searched by the Runtime Linker

Initialization and Termination Sections

Symbol Processing

Symbol Resolution

Simple Resolutions

Complex Resolutions

Fatal Resolutions

Undefined Symbols

Generating an Executable Output File

Generating a Shared Object Output File

Weak Symbols

Tentative Symbol Order Within the Output File

Defining Additional Symbols

Defining Additional Symbols with the -u option

Defining Symbol References

Defining Absolute Symbols

Defining Tentative Symbols

Augmenting a Symbol Definition

Reducing Symbol Scope

Symbol Elimination

External Bindings

String Table Compression

Generating the Output File

Identifying Capability Requirements

Identifying a Platform Capability

Identifying a Machine Capability

Identifying Hardware Capabilities

Identifying Software Capabilities

Creating a Family of Symbol Capabilities Functions

Creating a Family of Symbol Capabilities Data Items

Converting Object Capabilities to Symbol Capabilities

Exercising a Capability Family

Relocation Processing

Displacement Relocations

Stub Objects

Debugging Aids

3.  Runtime Linker

4.  Shared Objects

5.  Interfaces and Versioning

6.  Establishing Dependencies with Dynamic String Tokens

Part II Quick Reference

7.  Link-Editor Quick Reference

8.  Versioning Quick Reference

Part III Advanced Topics

9.  Direct Bindings

10.  Mapfiles

11.  Extensibility Mechanisms

Part IV ELF Application Binary Interface

12.  Object File Format

13.  Program Loading and Dynamic Linking

14.  Thread-Local Storage

Part V Appendices

A.  Linker and Libraries Updates and New Features

B.  System V Release 4 (Version 1) Mapfiles


Relocation Processing

After you have created the output file, all data sections from the input files are copied to the new image. Any relocations specified by the input files are applied to the output image. Any additional relocation information that must be generated is also written to the new image.

Relocation processing is normally uneventful, although error conditions might arise that are accompanied by specific error messages. Two conditions are worth more discussion. The first condition involves text relocations that result from position-dependent code. This condition is covered in more detail in Position-Independent Code. The second condition can arise from displacement relocations, which is described more fully in the next section.

Displacement Relocations

Error conditions might occur if displacement relocations are applied to a data item, which can be used in a copy relocation. The details of copy relocations are covered in Copy Relocations.

A displacement relocation remains valid when both the relocated offset and the relocation target remain separated by the same displacement. A copy relocation is where a global data item within a shared object is copied to the .bss of an executable. This copy preserves the executable's read-only text segment. If the copied data has a displacement relocation applied to the data, or an external relocation is a displacement into the copied data, the displacement relocation becomes invalidated.

Two areas of validation attempt to catch displacement relocation problems.

To help diagnose these problem areas, the link-editor indicates the displacement relocation use of a dynamic object with one or more dynamic DT_FLAGS_1 flags, as shown in Table 13-10. In addition, the link-editor's -z verbose option can be used to display suspicious relocations.

For example, say you create a shared object with a global data item, bar[], to which a displacement relocation is applied. This item could be copy-relocated if referenced from a dynamic executable. The link-editor warns of this condition.

$ cc -G -o -z verbose -K pic foo.o
ld: warning: relocation warning: R_SPARC_DISP32: file foo.o: symbol foo: \
    displacement relocation to be applied to the symbol bar: at 0x194: \
    displacement relocation will be visible in output image

If you now create an application that references the data item bar[], a copy relocation is created. This copy results in the displacement relocation being invalidated. Because the link-editor can explicitly discover this situation, an error message is generated regardless of the use of the -z verbose option.

$ cc -o prog prog.o -L. -lfoo
ld: warning: relocation error: R_SPARC_DISP32: file symbol foo: \
    displacement relocation applied to the symbol bar at: 0x194: \
    the symbol bar is a copy relocated symbol

Note - ldd(1), when used with either the -d or -r options, uses the displacement dynamic flags to generate similar relocation warnings.

These error conditions can be avoided by ensuring that the symbol definition being relocated (offset) and the symbol target of the relocation are both local. Use static definitions or the link-editor's scoping technology. See Reducing Symbol Scope. Relocation problems of this type can be avoided by accessing data within shared objects by using functional interfaces.