JavaScript is required to for searching.
Skip Navigation Links
Exit Print View
Oracle Solaris Studio 12.3: Debugging a Program With dbx     Oracle Solaris Studio 12.3 Information Library
search filter icon
search icon

Document Information


1.  Getting Started With dbx

2.  Starting dbx

3.  Customizing dbx

4.  Viewing and Navigating To Code

5.  Controlling Program Execution

6.  Setting Breakpoints and Traces

7.  Using the Call Stack

8.  Evaluating and Displaying Data

9.  Using Runtime Checking

Capabilities of Runtime Checking

When to Use Runtime Checking

Runtime Checking Requirements

Using Runtime Checking

Turning On Memory Use and Memory Leak Checking

Turning On Memory Access Checking

Turning On All Runtime Checking

Turning Off Runtime Checking

Running Your Program

Using Access Checking

Understanding the Memory Access Error Report

Memory Access Errors

Using Memory Leak Checking

Detecting Memory Leak Errors

Possible Leaks

Checking for Leaks

Understanding the Memory Leak Report

Generating a Leak Report

Combining Leaks

Fixing Memory Leaks

Using Memory Use Checking

Suppressing Errors

Types of Suppression

Suppression by Scope and Type

Suppression of Last Error

Limiting the Number of Errors Reported

Suppressing Error Examples

Default Suppressions

Using Suppression to Manage Errors

Using Runtime Checking on a Child Process

Using Runtime Checking on an Attached Process

On a System Running Solaris

On a System Running Linux

Using Fix and Continue With Runtime Checking

Runtime Checking Application Programming Interface

Using Runtime Checking in Batch Mode

bcheck Syntax

bcheck Examples

Enabling Batch Mode Directly From dbx

Troubleshooting Tips

Runtime Checking Limitations

Works Better With More Symbols and Debug Information

SIGSEGV and SIGALTSTACK Signals Are Restricted on x86 Platforms

Works Better When Sufficient Patch Area is Available Within 8 MB of All Existing Code (SPARC platforms only).

Runtime Checking Errors

Access Errors

Bad Free (baf) Error

Duplicate Free (duf) Error

Misaligned Free (maf) Error

Misaligned Read (mar) Error

Misaligned Write (maw) Error

Out of Memory (oom) Error

Read From Array Out-of-Bounds (rob) Error

Read From Unallocated Memory (rua) Error

Read From Uninitialized Memory (rui) Error

Write to Array Out-of-Bounds Memory (wob) Error

Write to Read-Only Memory (wro) Error

Write to Unallocated Memory (wua) Error

Memory Leak Errors

Address in Block (aib) Error

Address in Register (air) Error

Memory Leak (mel) Error

10.  Fixing and Continuing

11.  Debugging Multithreaded Applications

12.  Debugging Child Processes

13.  Debugging OpenMP Programs

14.  Working With Signals

15.  Debugging C++ With dbx

16.  Debugging Fortran Using dbx

17.  Debugging a Java Application With dbx

18.  Debugging at the Machine-Instruction Level

19.  Using dbx With the Korn Shell

20.  Debugging Shared Libraries

A.  Modifying a Program State

B.  Event Management

C.  Macros

D.  Command Reference


Using Access Checking

Access checking checks whether your program accesses memory correctly by monitoring each read, write, allocate, and free operation.

Programs might incorrectly read or write memory in a variety of ways; these are called memory access errors. For example, the program may reference a block of memory that has been deallocated through a free()call for a heap block. Or a function might return a pointer to a local variable, and when that pointer is accessed an error would result. Access errors might result in wild pointers in the program and can cause incorrect program behavior, including wrong outputs and segmentation violations. Some kinds of memory access errors can be very hard to track down.

Runtime checking maintains a table that tracks the state of each block of memory being used by the program. Runtime checking checks each memory operation against the state of the block of memory it involves and then determines whether the operation is valid. The possible memory states are:

Using runtime checking to find memory access errors is not unlike using a compiler to find syntax errors in your program. In both cases, a list of errors is produced, with each error message giving the cause of the error and the location in the program where the error occurred. In both cases, you should fix the errors in your program starting at the top of the error list and working your way down. One error can cause other errors in a chain reaction. The first error in the chain is, therefore, the “first cause,” and fixing that error might also fix some subsequent errors.

For example, a read from an uninitialized section of memory can create an incorrect pointer, which when dereferenced can cause another invalid read or write, which can in turn lead to yet another error.

Understanding the Memory Access Error Report

Runtime checking prints the following information for memory access errors:

Type of error.
Type of access attempted (read or write).
Size of attempted access.
Address of attempted access.
Size of leaked block.
More detailed information about address. For example, if the address is in the vicinity of the stack, then its position relative to the current stack pointer is given. If the address is in the heap, then the address, size, and relative position of the nearest heap block is given.
Call stack at time of error (with batch mode).
If the address is in the heap, then the allocation trace of the nearest heap block is given.
Where the error occurred. If line number information is available, this information includes line number and function. If line numbers are not available, runtime checking provides function and address.

The following example shows a typical access error.

Read from uninitialized (rui):
Attempting to read 4 bytes at address 0xefffee50
    which is 96 bytes above the current stack pointer
Variable is ”j’
Current function is rui
   12           i = j;

Memory Access Errors

Runtime checking detects the following memory access errors: