6 Preparing the Servers for an Enterprise Deployment

This chapter describes how to prepare the servers for an enterprise deployment.

This chapter includes the following sections:

6.1 Overview of Preparing the Servers

Before you deploy Oracle Fusion Middleware on new hardware, you should set up the servers you plan to use so that the Oracle Software can work with optimum performance. Specifically, you should verify the following configuration:

  • The servers are running on a certified operating system with the required software patches installed.

  • You have configured the UNIX Kernel correctly.

  • You have created users and groups to own the Oracle software.

The settings in this chapter are only a guide. After using your Oracle software, you should use operating system utilities to tune the configuration to ensure that you are maximizing the potential of your servers.

6.2 Verifying Your Server and Operating System

Ensure that the server and operating system that you plan to use is are a certified combination for the products you plan to use. For details, see the Oracle Certification Matrix.

6.3 Meeting the Minimum Hardware Requirements

To use a server in an Oracle enterprise deployment, you must verify that it meets the minimum specification described in Section 2.2, "Hardware Requirements for an Enterprise Deployment on a Linux System." If you plan to use a different deployment architecture, such as one with more or fewer components deployed on a different number of machines, check the Oracle Fusion Middleware System Requirements and Specifications to ensure that you have the minimum specification to support the products you plan to deploy on these servers.

If you are deploying to a virtual server environment, such as Oracle Exalogic, ensure that each of the virtual servers meets the minimum requirements.

Ensure that you have sufficient local disk space and that shared storage is configured as described in Chapter 4, "Preparing Storage for an Enterprise Deployment."

Allow sufficient swap space and temporary space:

  • Swap Space: 500 MB minimum

  • Temporary Space: 500 MB minimum in /tmp.

6.4 Meeting Operating System Requirements

Before starting your operating system provisioning, perform the following tasks:

  1. Install a certified operating system.

  2. Install all necessary patches and packages.

The following topics describe configuration tasks for meeting the Oracle software requirements for a UNIX or Linux operating system:

  • Configuring Kernel Parameters

  • Setting the Open File Limit

  • Setting Shell Limits

  • Configuring Local Hosts File

6.4.1 Configuring Kernel Parameters on a UNIX or Linux System

Oracle recommends that you tune the following kernel parameter and shell-limit values to optimize the performance of a production database system. For more information about tuning kernel parameters, see your operating system documentation.

Kernel parameters must be set to at least the minimum values in the following table for all nodes in a cluster.

The values in the following table are the current Linux recommendations. For more information, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware System Requirements and Specifications. If you are deploying a database onto the host, you might need to modify additional kernel parameters.

Table 6-1 UNIX Kernel Parameters

Parameter Value


256 32000 100 142



To set these kernel parameters:

  1. Log in as root, and add or amend the entries in the file /etc/sysctl.conf.

  2. Save the file.

  3. Activate the changes by issuing this command:

  4. /sbin/sysctl -p

6.4.2 Setting the Open File Limit on a UNIX or Linux System

On all UNIX operating systems, the minimum Open File Limit should be 4096.


The following examples are for Linux operating systems. Consult your operating system documentation to determine the commands to be used on your system.

You can see how many files are open with the following command:

/usr/sbin/lsof | wc -l

To check your open file limits, use the commands below.

C shell:

limit descriptors


ulimit -n

6.4.3 Setting Shell Limits on a UNIX or Linux System

To change the shell limits, login as root and edit the /etc/security/limits.conf file.

Add the following lines:

* soft  nofile  4096
* hard  nofile  65536
* soft  nproc   2047
* hard  nproc   16384

After editing the file, reboot the machine.

For the latest suggested values, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware System Requirements and Specifications.

6.4.4 Configuring Local Hosts File on a UNIX or Linux System

Before you begin the installation of the Oracle software, ensure that your local hosts file is formatted like this:

IP_Address Fully_Qualified_Name Short_Name

6.5 Enabling Unicode Support

Your operating system configuration can influence the behavior of characters supported by Oracle Fusion Middleware products.

On UNIX operating systems, Oracle highly recommends that you enable Unicode support by setting the LANG and LC_ALL environment variables to a locale with the UTF-8 character set. This enables the operating system to process any character in Unicode. Oracle SOA Suite technologies, for example, are based on Unicode.

If the operating system is configured to use a non-UTF-8 encoding, Oracle SOA Suite components may function in an unexpected way. For example, a non-ASCII file name might make the file inaccessible and cause an error. Oracle does not support problems caused by operating system constraints.

6.6 Enabling Virtual IP Addresses

The enterprise deployment requires that certain hosts, such as those running the WebLogic Administration Server or Oracle SOA Suite Managed Servers, use virtual IP addresses. You must enable the appropriate IP address on each server.

Section 3.4, "IP Addresses and Virtual IP Addresses," describes the mapping of IP addresses to servers.

6.6.1 Determining Virtual IP Addresses to Enable

Virtual IP addresses are required for failover of the WebLogic Administration Server, regardless of whether other Oracle Fusion Middleware components are installed later or not.

You associate the Administration Server and each of the Managed Servers with a virtual IP address. This allows the Administration Server to be started on a different host if the primary host fails.

Check that each virtual host is enabled as Table 6-2 shows.

Table 6-2 Virtual Hosts for the Domain

Virtual IP Address Enabled on Host
















This is the DNS name associated with the floating IP address. It is not the DNS name of the virtual host configured on the load balancer.

6.6.2 Enabling Virtual IP Addresses for the Enterprise Deployment

This step is required for failover of the WebLogic Server Administration Server, regardless of whether other Oracle Fusion Middleware components are installed later or not.

You associate an Administration Server with a virtual IP address. This allows the Administration Server to be started on a different host if the primary host fails.

To enable a virtual IP address from a Linux system, run the following commands as root:

/sbin/ifconfig interface:index IP_Address netmask netmask
/sbin/arping -q -U -c 3 -I interface IP_Address

In the commands, interface is eth0 or eth1, and index is 0, 1, or 2.

For example:

/sbin/ifconfig eth0:1 netmask

Enable your network to register the new location of the virtual IP address:

/sbin/arping -q -U -c 3 -I eth0

Validate that the address is available by issuing the ping command from another node; for example:


6.7 Configuring Users and Groups


You must create the following groups on each node.

  • oinstall

  • dba


You must create the following users on each node.

  • oracle: The group that owns the Oracle software. You may use a different name. The primary group for this account must be oinstall. The account must also be in the dba group.

  • nobody: An unprivileged user.


  • The group oinstall must have the write privilege for all the file systems on shared and local storage that are used by the Oracle software.

  • Each group must have the same group ID on every node.

  • Each user must have the same user ID on every node.