1 Installing Oracle REST Data Services

This section describes how to install and deploy Oracle REST Data Services. (REST stands for Representational State Transfer.)

Note:

Oracle REST Data Services was called Oracle Application Express Listener before Release 2.0.6.

Topics:

1.1 About Oracle REST Data Services

Oracle REST Data Services is a Java EE-based alternative for Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql. The Java EE implementation offers increased functionality including a command line based configuration, enhanced security, file caching, and RESTful web services. Oracle REST Data Services also provides increased flexibility by supporting deployments using Oracle WebLogic Server, GlassFish Server, Apache Tomcat, and a standalone mode.

The Oracle Application Express architecture requires some form of web server to proxy requests between a web browser and the Oracle Application Express engine. Oracle REST Data Services satisfies this need but its use goes beyond that of Oracle Application Express configurations. Oracle REST Data Services simplifies the deployment process because there is no Oracle home required, as connectivity is provided using an embedded JDBC driver.

1.2 Understanding the Installation Process

This section offers an overview of Oracle REST Data Services and provides information about supported Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) application servers and system requirements.

Topics:

1.2.1 Supported Java EE Application Servers

Oracle REST Data Services supports the following Java EE application servers:

Application Server Supported Release

Oracle WebLogic Server

11g Release 1 (10.3.6) or later

GlassFish Server

Release 3.1.2 or later

For 4.0 (but not 4.1), the global switch for cdi 1-1 must be used to disable the injection check, as follows:

asadmin set configs.config.server-config.cdi-service.enable-implicit-cdi=false

However, it is strongly recommend that you not use 4.0, because setting that global switch affects all subsequent deployments on this web server, which may result in other deployments failing.

Apache Tomcat

Release 7.0.56 or later

1.2.2 System Requirements

Oracle REST Data Services system requirements are as follows:

  • Oracle Database (Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition or Standard Edition One) release 11.1 or later, or Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Express Edition.

  • Java JDK 1.7 or later.

  • Java Servlet Specification 2.3 or later.

  • Web browser requirements:

    • Microsoft Internet Explorer 8.0 or later.

    • Mozilla Firefox 3.0 or later.

    • Google Chrome 2.0 or later.

Note:

Oracle Application Express is not a prerequisite for using Oracle REST Data Services.

If Oracle Application Express is installed and if RESTful services have been configured during the installation (see the step "Configure RESTful Services" in Oracle Application Express Installation Guide), then Oracle REST Data Services supports it, including executing the RESTful services defined in Oracle Application Express.

1.2.3 About Installing Oracle REST Data Services

To install Oracle REST Data Services:

  1. Download, install, and configure Oracle REST Data Services.

  2. Deploy Oracle REST Data Services. Deployment options include:

    • Standalone Mode.

    • Oracle WebLogic Server.

    • GlassFish Server.

    • Apache Tomcat.

1.3 Configuring and Installing Oracle REST Data Services

Before you deploy Oracle REST Data Services, you must install and configure it using a command-line interface.

Topics:

1.3.1 About Using the Command-Line Interface

Oracle REST Data Services provides several command line commands. For example, you can configure the location where Oracle REST Data Services stores configuration files, configure the database Oracle REST Data Services uses, and start Oracle REST Data Services in standalone mode.

To display a full list of available commands, go to the directory or folder containing the ords.war file and execute the following command:

java -jar ords.war help

A list of the available commands is displayed. To see instructions on how to use each of these commands, enter help followed by the command name, for example:

java -jar ords.war help configdir

1.3.2 About the Database Users Used by Oracle REST Data Services

Oracle REST Data Services uses the following database users:

User Name Required Description

APEX_PUBLIC_USER

Only if using Oracle REST Data Services with Oracle Application Express

If you use Oracle REST Data Services with Oracle Application Express, this is the database user used when invoking PL/SQL Gateway operations, for example, all Oracle Application Express operations.

For information on unlocking the APEX_PUBLIC_USER, see "Configure APEX_PUBLIC_USER Account" in Oracle Application Express Installation Guide.

APEX_REST_PUBLIC_USER

Only if using RESTful Services defined in Application Express

The database user used when invoking Oracle Application Express RESTful Services if RESTful Services defined in Application Express workspaces are being accessed

APEX_LISTENER

Only if using RESTful Services defined in Application Express

The database user used to query RESTful Services definitions stored in Oracle Application Express if RESTful Services defined in Application Express workspaces are being accessed

ORDS_METADATA

Yes

Owner of the PL/SQL packages used for implementing many Oracle REST Data Services capabilities. ORDS_METADATA is where the metadata about Oracle REST Data Services-enabled schemas is stored.

It is not accessed directly by Oracle REST Data Services; the Oracle REST Data Services application never creates a connection to the ORDS_METADATA schema. The schema password is set to a random string, connect privilege is revoked, and the password is expired.

ORDS_PUBLIC_USER

Yes

User for invoking RESTful Services in the Oracle REST Data Services-enabled schemas.

The APEX_<xxx> users are created during the Oracle Application Express installation process.

1.3.3 Privileges Granted by Oracle REST Data Services

As part of the Oracle REST Data Services installation, privileges are granted to several users:

  • PUBLIC is granted SELECT on many ORDS_METADATA tables and views.

  • PUBLIC is granted EXECUTE on PL/SQL packages that are available for users to invoke.

  • ORDS_METADATA is granted EXECUTE on the following:

    • SYS.DBMS_ASSERT

    • SYS.DBMS_CRYPTO

    • SYS.DBMS_LOB

    • SYS.DBMS_OUTPUT

    • SYS.DBMS_REGISTRY

    • SYS.DBMS_SESSION

    • SYS.DBMS_UTILITY

    • SYS.VALIDATE_ORDS

    • SYS.HTF

    • SYS.HTP

    • SYS.OWA

    • SYS.WPG_DOCLOAD

  • ORDS_METADATA is granted SELECT on the following:

    • SYS.DBA_DIRECTORIES

    • SYS.DBA_OBJECTS

  • ORDS_METADATA is granted the following system privileges:

    • ALTER USER

    • CREATE TRIGGER

  • ORDS_METADATA is granted the necessary object privileges to migrate Application Express REST data to ORDS_METADATA tables.

1.3.4 Downloading, Configuring and Installing Oracle REST Data Services

The procedures in this topic apply to installing Oracle REST Data Services in a traditional (non-CDB) database. If you want to install and use Oracle REST Data Services in a multitenant database environment, see Using the Multitenant Architecture with Oracle REST Data Services section.

Note:

You must complete the configuration steps in this topic before deploying to an application server.

To install and configure Oracle REST Data Services:

  1. Download the file ords.version.number.zip from the Oracle REST Data Services download page.

    Note that the version.number in the file name reflects the current release number.

  2. Unzip the downloaded zip file into a directory (or folder) of your choice:

    • UNIX and Linux: unzip ords.version.number.zip

    • Windows: Double-click the file ords.version.number.zip in Windows Explorer

  3. Choose one of the following installation options:

    • Simple Installation Using Parameters File.

    • Advanced Installation Using Command-Line Prompts.

  4. You can reinstall or uninstall Oracle REST Data Services if required.

1.3.4.1 Simple Installation Using a Parameters File

You can perform a simple installation using the parameters specified in the <path-to-params-file>/ords_params.properties file under the location where you installed Oracle REST Data Services. You can edit that file beforehand to change default values to reflect your environment and preferences. If a parameter is missing in the file, you will be prompted for it.

To perform a simple installation using the parameters file:

  1. Optionally, if you want to use the database default and temporary tablespaces, you can remove the following tablespace-related entries in the ords_params.properties file:

    schema.tablespace.default=SYSAUX
    schema.tablespace.temp=TEMP
    user.tablespace.default=USERS
    user.tablespace.temp=TEMP
    
  2. Make any desired values to default values to reflect your environment and preferences. If you change any of the tablespace-related values, you must ensure that the tablespaces you specify already exist in the database.

    The default ords_params.properties file includes the following:

    db.hostname=localhost
    db.port=1521
    db.servicename=
    db.sid=
    db.username=APEX_PUBLIC_USER
    migrate.apex.rest=false
    rest.services.apex.add=
    rest.services.ords.add=true
    schema.tablespace.default=SYSAUX
    schema.tablespace.temp=TEMP
    standalone.http.port=8080
    standalone.mode=true
    standalone.static.images=
    user.tablespace.default=USERS
    user.tablespace.temp=TEMP
    

    Note:

    On Microsoft Windows systems, if you specify an Application Express static images location for standalone.static.images, use the backslash (escape character) before the colon, and use a forward slash as the folder separator. Example: standalone.static.images=d\:/test/apex426/apex/images/

  3. Enter either of the following commands:

    java -jar ords.war
    java -jar ords.war install simple
    

    (You can omit install simple because the simple installation is the default.)

When you install Oracle REST Data Services for the first time, you are prompted for passwords for these users: the PL/SQL gateway database user and ORDS_PUBLIC_USER. The encrypted passwords are stored in the parameter file (for example, user.public.password=@0585904F6C9B442532D5212962835D00C8).

If you later want to change the passwords, you must remove the encrypted passwords from the parameter file. For security reasons, readable (non-encrypted) passwords are not allowed in the parameter file.

1.3.4.2 Advanced Installation Using Command-Line Prompts

You can perform an advanced installation in which you are prompted for the necessary parameter values, after which your choices are stored in the params/ords_params.properties file under the location where you installed Oracle REST Data Services.

To perform an advanced installation, enter the following command:

java -jar ords.war install advanced

During installation, Oracle REST Data Services checks if configuration files already exist in your specified configuration folder:

  • If configuration files do not exist in that folder, they are created (examples: defaults.xml, apex_pu.xml).

  • If configuration files from an earlier release exist in that folder, Oracle REST Data Services checks if <name>_pu.xml is present; and if it is not, you are prompted for the password for the ORDS_PUBLIC_USER account. If the configuration files <name>_al.xml and <name>_rt.xml from Release 2.0.n exist, they are preserved. (However, in Releases 2.0.n RESTful Services was optional, and therefore the files might not exist in the configuration folder.)

  • If multiple configuration files exist from a previous release (examples: apex.xml, apex_al.xml, apex_rt.xml, sales.xml, sales_al.xml, sales_rt.xml, …), and if <name>_pu.xml does not exist, then you are prompted to select the database configuration so that the ORDS schema can be created in that database.

The following shows an example advanced installation. In this example, if you accepted the default value of 1 for Enter 1 if you wish to start in standalone mode or 2 to exit [1], the remaining prompts are displayed; and if you will be using Oracle Application Express, you must specify the APEX static resources location.

d:\ords>java -jar ords.war install advanced
This Oracle REST Data Services instance has not yet been configured.
Please complete the following prompts
Enter the location to store configuration data:d:\path\to\config\
Enter the name of the database server [localhost]:
Enter the database listen port [1521]:
Enter 1 to specify the database service name, or 2 to specify the database SID [1]:2
Enter the database SID [xe]:
Enter 1 if you want to verify/install Oracle REST Data Services schema or 2 to skip this step [1]:
Enter the database password for ORDS_PUBLIC_USER:
Confirm password:
Please login with SYSDBA privileges to verify Oracle REST Data Services schema. Installation may be required.
Enter the username with SYSDBA privileges to verify the installation [SYS]:
Enter the database password for SYS:
Confirm password:
Oracle REST Data Services schema does not exist and will be created.
Enter the default tablespace for ORDS_METADATA [SYSAUX]:
Enter the temporary tablespace for ORDS_METADATA [TEMP]:
Enter the default tablespace for ORDS_PUBLIC_USER [USERS]:
Enter the temporary tablespace for ORDS_PUBLIC_USER [TEMP]:
Enter 1 if you want to use PL/SQL Gateway or 2 to skip this step [1]:
Enter the PL/SQL Gateway database user name [APEX_PUBLIC_USER]:
Enter the database password for APEX_PUBLIC_USER:
Confirm password:
Enter 1 to specify passwords for Application Express RESTful Services database users (APEX_LISTENER, APEX_REST_PUBLIC_USER) or 2 to skip this step [1]:
Enter the database password for APEX_LISTENER:
Confirm password:
Enter the database password for APEX_REST_PUBLIC_USER:
Confirm password:
Enter 1 if you wish to start in standalone mode or 2 to exit [1]:
Enter the APEX static resources location:d:\apex426\apex\images\
Enter 1 if using HTTP or 2 if using HTTPS [1]:
Enter the HTTP port [8080]:
  OR
Enter 1 if using HTTP or 2 if using HTTPS [1]:2
Enter the HTTPS port [8443]:
Enter the SSL hostname:
Enter 1 to use the self-signed certificate or 2 if you will provide the SSL certificate [1]:

1.3.4.3 Validating the Oracle REST Data Services Installation

If you want to check that the Oracle REST Data Services installation is valid, go to the directory or folder containing the ords.war file and enter the validate command in the following format:

java -jar ords.war validate [--database <dbname>]

Note:

When you install ORDS, it attempts to find the Oracle Application Express (APEX) schema and creates a view. This view joins the relevant tables in the APEX schema to the tables in the ORDS schema. If you install ORDS before APEX, then ORDS cannot find the APEX schema and it creates a stub view in place of the missing APEX tables.

Oracle highly recommends that you install ORDS after APEX to ensure that the APEX objects, which ORDS needs to query, are present. If you install ORDS before APEX, then use the validate command to force ORDS to reconstruct the queries against the APEX schema.

If --database is specified, <dbname> is the pool name that is stored in the Oracle REST Data Services configuration files.

You are prompted for any necessary information that cannot be obtained from the configuration of pool name, such as host, port, SID or service name, and the name and password of a user with SYSDBA privilege (such as SYS AS SYSDBA).

Note:

If the validate command is run against a CDB, then it will validate the CDB and all of its PDBs.

1.3.4.4 If You Want to Reinstall or Uninstall (Remove) Oracle REST Data Services

If you want to reinstall Oracle REST Data Services, you must first uninstall the existing Oracle REST Data Services; and before you uninstall, ensure that Oracle REST Data Services is stopped.

Uninstalling Oracle REST Data Services removes the ORDS_METADATA schema, the ORDS_PUBLIC_USER user, and Oracle REST Data Services-related database objects (including public synonyms) if they exist in the database. To uninstall (remove, or deinstall) Oracle REST Data Services, go to the directory or folder containing the ords.war file and enter the uninstall command as follows:

java -jar ords.war uninstall

The uninstall command prompts you for some necessary information (host, port, SID or service name, username, password).

See Also:

To uninstall Oracle REST Data Services from a CDB, see Using the Multitenant Architecture with Oracle REST Data Services.

1.3.5 Using SQL Developer Oracle REST Data Services Administration (Optional)

This section describes how to use Oracle SQL Developer to administer Oracle REST Data Services.

See Also:

"Oracle REST Data Services Administration" in Oracle SQL Developer User's Guide

Topics:

1.3.5.1 About SQL Developer Oracle REST Data Services Administration

Oracle SQL Developer enables you to administer Oracle REST Data Services using a graphical user interface. To take full advantage of these administration capabilities, you must use SQL Developer Release 4.1 or later. Using SQL Developer for Oracle REST Data Services administration is optional.

Using this graphical user interface, you can update the database connections, JDBC settings, URL mappings, RESTful connections, security (allowed procedures, blocked procedures, validation function and virus scanning), Caching, Pre/Post Processing Procedures, Environment, and Excel Settings. Oracle SQL Developer also provides statistical reporting, error reporting, and logging.

See Also:

"Oracle REST Data Services Administration" in Oracle SQL Developer User's Guide

1.3.5.2 Configuring an Administrator User

If you want to be able to administer Oracle REST Data Services using SQL Developer, then you must configure an administrator user as follows:

  • Execute the following command:

    java -jar ords.war user adminlistener "Listener Administrator"
    
  • Enter a password for the adminlistener user.

  • Confirm the password for the adminlistener user.

  • If you are using Oracle REST Data Services without HTTPS, follow the steps listed under the section,Using OAuth2 in Non-HTTPS Environments.

When using SQL Developer to retrieve and/or upload an Oracle REST Data Services configuration, when prompted, enter the credentials provided in the preceding list.

1.3.6 Using OAuth2 in Non-HTTPS Environments

RESTful Services can be protected with the OAuth2 protocol to control access to nonpublic data. To prevent data snooping, OAuth2 requires all requests involved in the OAuth2 authentication process to be transported using HTTPS. The default behavior of Oracle REST Data Services is to verify that all OAuth2 related requests have been received using HTTPS. It will refuse to service any such requests received over HTTP, returning an HTTP status code of 403 Forbidden.

This default behavior can be disabled in environments where HTTPS is not available as follows:

  1. Locate the folder where the Oracle REST Data Services configuration is stored.

  2. Edit the file named defaults.xml.

  3. Add the following setting to the end of this file just before the </properties> tag.

    <entry key="security.verifySSL">false</entry>
    
  4. Save the file.

  5. Restart Oracle REST Data Services if it is running.

Note that it is only appropriate to use this setting in development or test environments. It is never appropriate to use this setting in production environments because it will result in user credentials being passed in clear text.

Note:

Oracle REST Data Services must be restarted after making configuration changes. See your application server documentation for information on how to restart applications.

1.4 Running in Standalone Mode

Although Oracle REST Data Services supports the Java EE application servers, you also have the option of running in standalone mode. This section describes how to run Oracle REST Data Services in standalone mode.

Standalone mode is suitable for development use and is supported in production deployments. Standalone mode, however, has minimal management capabilities when compared to most Java EE application servers and may not have adequate management capabilities for production use in some environments.

Topics:

1.4.1 Starting in Standalone Mode

To launch Oracle REST Data Services in standalone mode:

  1. To start Standalone mode, execute the following command:
    java -jar ords.war
    

    If you have not yet completed configuration, you are prompted to do so.

    Tip:

    To see help on standalone mode options, execute the following command:

    java -jar ords.war help standalone
    

    Note:

    If you want to use RESTful services that require secure access, you should use HTTPS.

  2. When prompted, specify the location of the folder containing the Oracle Application Express static resources used by Oracle REST Data Services, or press Enter if you do not want to specify this location.
  3. When prompted select if you want Oracle REST Data Services to generate a self-signed certificate automatically or if you want to provide your own certificate. If you want to use your own certificate, provide the path for the Certificate and DER encoded related private key when prompted.

    If the private key has not already been converted to DER, see section, Converting a Private Key to DER (Linux and Unix) before you enter the values here.

    You are only prompted for these values the first time you launch standalone mode.

    Note:

    Ensure that no other servers are listening on the port you choose. The default port 8080 is commonly used by HTTP or application servers, including the embedded PL/SQL gateway; the default secure port 8443 is commonly used by HTTPS.

1.4.1.1 Converting a Private Key to DER (Linux and Unix)

Usually, you would have created a private key and a Certificate Signing Request before obtaining your signed certificate. The private key needs to be converted into DER in order for Oracle REST Data Services to read it properly.

For example, assume that the original private key was created using the OpenSSL tool with a command similar to either of the following:

openssl req -new -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout yourdomain.key -out yourdomain.csr

or

openssl genrsa -out private.em 2048

In this case, you must run a command similar to the following to convert it and remove the encryption: openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -inform PEM -outform DER -in yourdomain.key -out yourdomain.der -nocrypt

openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -inform PEM -outform DER -in yourdomain.key -out yourdomain.der -nocrypt

After doing this, you can include the path to yourdomain.der when prompted by Oracle REST Data Services, or you can modify the following entries in conf/ords/standalone/standalone.properties:

ssl.cert=<path to yourdomain.crt>
ssl.cert.key=<path to yourdomain.der>
ssl.host=yourdomain

Also, ensure that jetty.secure.port is set.

1.4.2 Stopping the Server in Standalone Mode

To stop the Oracle REST Data Services server in standalone mode, at a command prompt press Ctrl+C.

1.4.3 Configuring a Doc Root for Non-Application Express Static Resources

You can configure a doc root for standalone mode to deploy static resources that are outside the /i folder that is reserved for Application Express static resources.

To do so, specify the --doc-root parameter with the standalone mode command, as in the following example:

java -jar ords.war standalone --doc-root /var/www/html

The preceding example makes any resource located within /var/www/html available under http://server:port/. For example, if the file /var/www/html/hello.txt exists, it will be accessible at http://server:port/hello.txt.

The value specified for --doc-root is stored in ${config.dir}/ords/standalone/standalone.properties in the standalone.doc.root property. If a custom doc root is not specified using --doc-root, then the default doc-root value of ${config.dir}/ords/standalone/doc_root is used. Any file placed within this folder will be available at the root context.

This approach has the following features and considerations:

  • HTML resources can be addressed without their file extension. For example, if a file named hello.html exists in the doc root, it can be accessed at the URI http://server:port/hello.

  • Attempts to address a HTML resource with its file extension are redirected to the location without an extension. For example, if the URI http://server:port/hello.html is accessed, then the client is redirected to http://server:port/hello.

    The usual practice is to serve HTML resources without their file extensions, so this feature facilitates that practice, while the redirect handles the case where the resource is addressed with its file extension.

  • Index pages for folders are supported. If a folder contains a file named index.html or index.htm, then that file is used as the index page for the folder. For example, if /var/www/html contains /abc/xyz/index.html, then accessing http://server:port/abc/xyz/ displays the contents of index.html.

  • Addressing a folder without a trailing slash causes a redirect to the URI with a trailing slash. For example, if a client accesses http://server:port/abc/xyz, then the server issues a redirect to http://server:port/abc/xyz/.

  • Resources are generated with weak etags based on the modification stamp of the file and with a Cache Control header that causes the resources to be cached for 1 hour.

1.5 Deploying to Oracle WebLogic Server

This section describes how to deploy Oracle REST Data Services on Oracle WebLogic Server. It assumes that you have completed the installation process and are familiar with Oracle WebLogic Server. If you are unfamiliar with domains, managed servers, deployment, security, users and roles, refer to your Oracle WebLogic Server documentation.

Topics:

1.5.1 About Oracle WebLogic Server

You can download Oracle WebLogic Server from Oracle Technology Network.

To learn more about installing Oracle WebLogic Server, see Oracle Fusion Middleware Getting Started With Installation for Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle Fusion Middleware Installation Guide for Oracle WebLogic Server.

1.5.2 Downloading, Installing, and Configuring Oracle REST Data Services

You must complete this step before deploying Oracle REST Data Services on WebLogic.

1.5.3 Configuring Oracle Application Express Images

If you are using Oracle Application Express, you must create a web archive to reference the Oracle Application Express, image files. However, if you are not using Oracle Application Express, you may skip the rest of this section about configuring Oracle Application Express images.

Before you begin, you must create a web archive (WAR) file to reference the Oracle Application Express image files. Use the static command to create a web archive file named i.war:

java -jar ords.war static <apex directory>\images

Where:

  • <apex directory> is the directory location of Oracle Application Express.

This command runs the static command contained in the ords.war file. It packages the Application Express static images into an archive file named i.war.

The created images WAR does not contain the static resources; instead, it references the location where the static resources are stored. Therefore the static resources must be available at the specified path on the server where the WAR is deployed.

Tip:

Use java -jar ords.war help static to see the full range of options for the static command.

Use the i.war file to deploy to WebLogic in the following steps:

  1. Launching the Administration Server Console

  2. Installing the Oracle WebLogic Server Deployment

  3. Configuring WebLogic to Handle HTTP Basic Challenges Correctly

1.5.4 Launching the Administration Server Console

To launch the Administration Server console:

  1. Start an Administration Server.
  2. Launch the WebLogic Administration Console by typing the following URL in your web browser:
    http://<host>:<port>/console
    

    Where:

    • <host> is the DNS name or IP address of the Administration Server.

    • <port> is the port on which the Administration Server is listening for requests (port 7001 by default).

  3. Enter your WebLogic Administrator username and password.
  4. If your domain is in Production mode, click the Lock & Edit button on the left-pane below the submenu Change Center. If your domain is in Development mode, this button does not appear.

1.5.5 Installing the Oracle WebLogic Server Deployment

Tip:

The Oracle REST Data Services files, ords.war and i.war, must be available before you start this task.

To install the deployment:

  1. Go to the WebLogic Server Home Page. Below Domain Configuration, select Deployments.

    The Summary of Deployments is displayed.

  2. Click Install.

  3. Specify the location of the ords.war file and click Next.

    The ords.war file is located in the folder where you unzipped the Oracle REST Data Services ZIP file.

    Tip:

    WebLogic Server determines the context root from the file name of a WAR archive. If you need to keep backward compatibility, so that URLs are of the form http://server/apex/... rather than http://server/ords/..., then you must rename ords.war to apex.war before the deployment.

    The Install Application assistant is displayed.

  4. Select Install this deployment as an application and click Next.

  5. Select the servers and/or clusters to which you want to deploy the application or module and click Next.

    Tip:

    If you have not created additional Managed Servers or clusters, you do not see this assistant page.

  6. In the Optional Settings, specify the following:

    1. Name - Enter:

      ords
      
    2. Security - Select the following:

      Custom Roles: Use roles that are defined in the Administration Console; use policies that are defined in the deployment descriptor

    3. Source accessibility - Select:

      Use the defaults defined by the deployment's targets

  7. Click Next.

    A summary page is displayed.

  8. Under Additional configuration, select one of the following:

    • Yes, take me to the deployment's configuration - Displays the Configuration page.

    • No I will review the configuration later - Returns you to the Summary of Deployments page.

  9. Review the summary of configuration settings that you have specified.

  10. Click Finish.

  11. Repeat the previous steps to deploy the i.war file.

    In the optional settings, specify the following:

    1. Name - Enter:

      i
      
    2. Security - Select:

      Custom Roles: Use roles that are defined in the Administration Console; use policies that are defined in the deployment descriptor

    3. Source Accessibility - Select:

      Use the defaults defined by the deployment's targets

  12. If your domain is in Production Mode, then on the Change Center click Activate Changes.

1.5.6 Configuring WebLogic to Handle HTTP Basic Challenges Correctly

By default WebLogic Server attempts to intercept all HTTP Basic Authentication challenges. This default behavior needs to be disabled for Oracle REST Data Services to function correctly. This is achieved by updating the enforce-valid-basic-auth-credentials flag. The WebLogic Server Administration Console does not display the enforce-valid-basic-auth-credentials setting. You can use WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) commands to check, and edit the value in a running server. 

The following  WLST commands  display the domain settings:

connect('weblogic','weblogic','t3://localhost:7001')
cd('SecurityConfiguration')
cd('mydomain') 
ls()

If the domain settings displayed, contains the following entry:

-r--   EnforceValidBasicAuthCredentials             true

Then you must set this entry to false.

To set the entry to false, use the WLST commands as follows:

connect('weblogic', 'weblogic', 't3://localhost:7001')
edit()
startEdit()
cd('SecurityConfiguration')
cd('mydomain')  
set('EnforceValidBasicAuthCredentials','false')
save()
activate()
disconnect()
exit()

Note:

WebLogic Server must be restarted for the new settings to take effect.
In the preceding example:
  • weblogic is the WebLogic user having administrative privileges

  • weblogic is the password

  • mydomain is the domain

  • The AdminServer is running on the localhost and on port7001

1.5.7 Verifying the State and Health of ords and i

In the Summary of Deployments, select the Control tab and verify that both the ords and i State are Active and the Health status is OK.

If ords and/or i are not Active, then enable them. In the Deployments table, select the check box next to ords and/or i. Click Start and select Servicing all requests to make them active.

1.6 Deploying to GlassFish Server

This section describes how to deploy Oracle REST Data Services on GlassFish Server.

Topics:

Tip:

This section assumes that you have completed the installation process and are familiar with GlassFish Server. If you are unfamiliar with domains, servers, applications, security, users and roles, see your GlassFish Server documentation.

1.6.1 About GlassFish Server

You can install Oracle REST Data Services with GlassFish Server. GlassFish Server is available for download from the Oracle Technology Network.

1.6.2 Downloading, Installing, and Configuring Oracle REST Data Services

You must complete this step before deploying Oracle REST Data Services on GlassFish.

1.6.3 Configuring Oracle Application Express Images

If you are using Oracle Application Express, you must create a web archive to reference the Oracle Application Express, image files. However, if you are not using Oracle Application Express, you may skip the rest of this section about configuring Oracle Application Express images.

Before you begin, you must create a web archive (WAR) file to reference the Oracle Application Express image files. Use the static command to create a web archive file named i.war:

java -jar ords.war static <apex directory>\images

Where:

  • <apex directory> is the directory location of Oracle Application Express.

The created images WAR does not contain the static resources; instead, it references the location where the static resources are stored. Therefore the static resources must be available at the specified path on the server where the WAR is deployed.

Tip:

Use java -jar ords.war help static to see the full range of options for the static command.

Use the i.war file to deploy to GlassFish in the following steps:

  1. Launching the Administration Server Console

  2. Installing the GlassFish Server Deployment

1.6.4 Launching the Administration Server Console

At least one GlassFish server domain must be started before you start the Administration Console.

To launch the Administration Console:

  1. Launch the Administration Console by typing the following URL in your web browser:
    http://localhost:4848
    
  2. If prompted, log in to the Administration Console.

    Tip:

    You are prompted to log in if you chose to require an administration password at the time GlassFish server was installed.

1.6.5 Installing the GlassFish Server Deployment

Tip:

The Oracle REST Data Services files, ords.war and i.war must be available before you start this task.

To install the deployment:

  1. On the navigation tree, click the Application node.

    The Applications page is displayed.

  2. Click the Deploy button.

    The Deploy Applications or Modules page is displayed.

  3. Select Packaged File to be Uploaded to the Server and click Browse.

  4. Navigate to the location of the ords.war file, select the file, and click Open.

    The Deploy Applications or Modules page is displayed.

  5. On the Deploy Applications or Modules page, specify the following:

    1. Type: Web Application

    2. Context Root: ords

      Tip:

      The Context Root value defaults to ords. However you can change it to apex if you need to keep backward compatibility, so that URLs are of the form http://server/apex/... rather than http://server/ords/....

    3. Application Name: ords

    4. Status: Enabled

    5. Description: Oracle REST Data Services

    6. Accept all other default settings and click OK.

  6. Repeat the previous steps to deploy the i.war file. Clear the Context Root field so that the context root set in the sun-web.xml is used.

The Applications page is displayed. A check mark should appear in the Enabled field for ords

Tip:

If a check mark does not appear in the Enabled column for ords, then select the check box next to ords and click Enable.

1.7 Deploying to Apache Tomcat

This section describes how to deploy Oracle REST Data Services on Apache Tomcat.

Topics:

1.7.1 About Apache Tomcat

Tip:

This section assumes that you have completed the installation process and are familiar with Apache Tomcat. If you are unfamiliar with domains, servers, applications, security, users and roles, see your Apache Tomcat documentation.

You can download Apache Tomcat from:

1.7.2 Downloading, Installing, and Configuring Oracle REST Data Services

You must complete this step before deploying Oracle REST Data Services on Apache Tomcat.

1.7.3 Configuring Oracle Application Express Images

If you are using Oracle Application Express, you must create a web archive to reference the Oracle Application Express, image files. However, if you are not using Oracle Application Express, you may skip the rest of this section about configuring Oracle Application Express images.

To configure Oracle Application Express Images on Apache Tomcat:

  • Copy the contents of the <apex directory>/images folder to <Tomcat directory>/webapps/i/.

    Where:

    • <apex directory> is the directory location of the Oracle Application Express distribution.

    • <Tomcat directory> is the folder where Apache Tomcat is installed.

1.7.4 Installing the Apache Tomcat Deployment

Tip:

The Oracle REST Data Services file ords.war must be available before you start this task.

To install the Apache Tomcat deployment:

  1. Move the ords.war file into the webapps folder where Apache Tomcat is installed.

    Tip:

    Apache Tomcat determines the context root from the file name of a WAR archive. If you need to keep backward compatibility, so that URLs are of the form http://server/apex/... rather than http://server/ords/..., then you must rename ords.war to apex.war before moving it into to the webapps folder.

  2. Access Oracle Application Express by typing the following URL in your web browser:
    http://<hostname>:<port>/ords/
    

    Where:

    • <hostname> is the name of the server where Apache Tomcat is running.

    • <port> is the port number configured for Apache Tomcat application server.

1.8 Upgrading Oracle REST Data Services

If you want to upgrade to a new release of Oracle REST Data Services, you must do the following:

  1. Stop the Oracle REST Data Services instance.

    • If you are running Oracle REST Data Services on your application server (such as Oracle WebLogic Server, GlassFish Server, or Apache Tomcat), stop Oracle REST Data Services.

    • If you are running Oracle REST Data Services in standalone mode, refer to section, Stopping the Server in Standalone Mode.

  2. Go to the folder where you unzipped the new Oracle REST Data Services release distribution.

  3. Enter the following on the command line:

    java -jar ords.war install advanced
    

    or

    java -jar ords.war 
    
  4. When prompted for the configuration folder, use the configuration folder where the Oracle REST Data Services configuration files are stored. (The configuration location will be stored in the ords.war file.)

    • If you specified an existing Oracle REST Data Services configuration folder that contains the configuration files, Oracle REST Data Services will attempt to connect to each database defined in the configuration folder and check the installed version.

    • If you specified an Oracle REST Data Services configuration folder that does not exist, you will be prompted for the database connection information, the ORDS_PUBLIC_USER credentials, and additional configuration information. Oracle REST Data Services will attempt to connect to this database and check the installed version.

When Oracle REST Data Services checks the installed version, it does the following, depending on whether an earlier 3.0.n version is already installed in the database.

  • If the installed version is an earlier 3.0.n version of Oracle REST Data Services, you are prompted for the SYS credentials to enable Oracle REST Data Services to apply the in-place upgrade. The in-place upgrade will modify the existing installation to add the updated schema objects and packages. The existing metadata stored in the ORDS schema will remain intact.

  • If Oracle REST Data Services is not already installed in the database (or if you are upgrading from Release 2.0.n), you are prompted for the SYS credentials to enable Oracle REST Data Services to perform the installation, and you will also be prompted for the default and temporary tablespaces for the ORDS_METADATA schema and ORDS_PUBLIC_USER.

When the upgrade or installation completes, you can re-deploy the ords.war file to your application server or start Oracle REST Data Services in standalone mode.

1.9 Using a Bequeath Connection to Install, Upgrade, Validate, or Uninstall Oracle REST Data Services

You can use the bequeath connection to install, upgrade, validate, or uninstall Oracle REST Data Services. The installer will not prompt you for the SYS username and password for the operation

In the parameter file, add the property: bequeath.connect=true

Using a bequeath connection for installing, validating, or uninstalling Oracle REST Data Services is supported on Linux and Windows systems for Oracle Database Release 12, but only on Linux systems for Oracle Database Release 11.

The command used must be run by an operating system user that is a member of the DBA group. Example of installing Oracle REST Data Services:

java -jar ords.war

Bequeath Connection Using Linux

On a Linux system, you must set the following environment variables to use the bequeath connection:

  • ORACLE_HOME

  • ORACLE_SID

  • LD_LIBRARY_PATH (to point to ORACLE_HOME/lib)

For Oracle Database Release 11 (but not for Release 12), you must specify the option -DuseOracleHome=true. Examples of installing Oracle REST Data Services on a Linux system:

  • For Oracle Database Release 11: java -DuseOracleHome=true -jar ords.war

  • For Oracle Database Release 12: java -jar ords.war