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Updated: Friday, August 13, 2021

intel (4)


intel - Intel integrated graphics chipsets


Section "Device"
Identifier "devname"
Driver "intel"


intel(4)                   Kernel Interfaces Manual                   intel(4)

       intel - Intel integrated graphics chipsets

       Section "Device"
         Identifier "devname"
         Driver "intel"

       intel  is  an  Xorg driver for Intel integrated graphics chipsets.  The
       driver supports depths 8, 15, 16 and 24.  All  visual  types  are  sup-
       ported  in  depth  8.  For the i810/i815 other depths support the True-
       Color and DirectColor visuals.  For the i830M and later, only the True-
       Color  visual  is supported for depths greater than 8.  The driver sup-
       ports hardware accelerated 3D via the Direct  Rendering  Infrastructure
       (DRI),  but only in depth 16 for the i810/i815 and depths 16 and 24 for
       the 830M and later.

       intel supports the i810, i810-DC100, i810e, i815, i830M,  845G,  852GM,
       855GM,  865G,  915G,  915GM,  945G,  945GM,  965G,  965Q, 946GZ, 965GM,
       945GME, G33,  Q33,  Q35,  G35,  GM45,  G45,  Q45,  G43,  G41  chipsets,
       Pineview-M  in  Atom  N400 series, Pineview-D in Atom D400/D500 series,
       Intel(R) HD Graphics: 2000-6000, Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics: 5100/6100,
       and Intel(R) Iris(TM) Pro Graphics: 5200/6200/P6300.

       Please  refer  to xorg.conf(5) for general configuration details.  This
       section only covers configuration details specific to this driver.

       The Intel 8xx and 9xx families of integrated graphics chipsets  have  a
       unified memory architecture meaning that system memory is used as video
       RAM.  For the i810 and i815 family of chipsets, operating  system  sup-
       port  for  allocating  system  memory  is required in order to use this
       driver.  For the 830M and later, this is  required  in  order  for  the
       driver  to  use more video RAM than has been pre-allocated at boot time
       by the BIOS.  This is usually achieved with an "agpgart" or "agp"  ker-
       nel  driver.   Linux,  FreeBSD,  OpenBSD, NetBSD, and Solaris have such
       kernel drivers available.

       By default, the i810/i815 will use 8 MB of system memory  for  graphics
       if  AGP  allocable  memory  is  < 128 MB, 16 MB if < 192 MB or 24 MB if
       higher. Use the VideoRam option to change the default value.

       For the 830M and later, the driver will automatically size  its  memory
       allocation  according  to the features it will support.  Therefore, the
       VideoRam option, which in the past had been  necessary  to  allow  more
       than some small amount of memory to be allocated, is now ignored.

       The following driver Options are supported

       Option "ColorKey" "integer"
              This sets the default pixel value for the YUV video overlay key.

              Default: undefined.

       Option "DRI" "string"
              Disable  or enable DRI support. A driver name to use can be pro-
              vided instead of simple boolean value, which will be  passed  to
              the  GL  implementation  for it to load the appropriate backend.
              Alternatively the maximum level of DRI to enable (e.g. "1",  "2"
              or "3") can be specified.

              Default:  All levels of DRI are enabled for configurations where
              it is supported.

       The following driver Options  are  supported  for  the  i810  and  i815

       Option "CacheLines" "integer"
              This  allows  the  user  to change the amount of graphics memory
              used for 2D acceleration and  video  when  XAA  acceleration  is
              enabled.   Decreasing  this  amount leaves more for 3D textures.
              Increasing it can improve 2D performance at the  expense  of  3D

              Default:  depends  on the resolution, depth, and available video
              memory.  The driver attempts to allocate space for at 3  screen-
              fuls of pixmaps plus an HD-sized XV video.  The default used for
              a specific configuration can be found by examining the Xorg  log

       Option "DDC" "boolean"
              Disable or enable DDC support.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "Dac6Bit" "boolean"
              Enable or disable 6-bits per RGB for 8-bit modes.

              Default: 8-bits per RGB for 8-bit modes.

       Option "XvMCSurfaces" "integer"
              This  option  enables XvMC.  The integer parameter specifies the
              number of surfaces to use.  Valid values are 6 and 7.

              Default: XvMC is disabled.

       VideoRam integer
              This option specifies the amount of system  memory  to  use  for
              graphics, in KB.

              The  default  is 8192 if AGP allocable memory is < 128 MB, 16384
              if < 192 MB, 24576 if higher. DRI require at least  a  value  of
              16384.  Higher values may give better 3D performance, at expense
              of available system memory.

       Option "NoAccel" "boolean"
              Disable or enable acceleration.

              Default: acceleration is enabled.

       The following driver Options are  supported  for  the  830M  and  later

       Option "NoAccel" "boolean"
              Disable or enable acceleration.

              Default: acceleration is enabled.

       Option "Present" "boolean"
              Enable use of hardware counters and flow control for the Present

              Default: Enabled

       Option "AccelMethod" "string"
              Select acceleration method.  There  are  a  couple  of  backends
              available  for accelerating the DDX. "UXA" (Unified Acceleration
              Architecture) is the mature backend that was introduced to  sup-
              port  the GEM driver model. It is in the process of being super-
              seded by "SNA"  (Sandybridge's  New  Acceleration).  Until  that
              process  is complete, the ability to choose which backend to use
              remains for backwards compatibility.  In addition, there  are  a
              pair of sub-options to limit the acceleration for debugging use.
              Specify "off" or "none" to disable all acceleration, or "blt" to
              disable render acceleration and only use the BLT engine.

              Default: use SNA (render acceleration)

       Option "TearFree" "boolean"
              Disable or enable TearFree updates. This option forces X to per-
              form all rendering to a backbuffer prior to updating the  actual
              display. It requires an extra memory allocation the same size as
              a framebuffer, the occasional extra copy,  and  requires  Damage
              tracking.  Thus  enabling  TearFree  requires more memory and is
              slower (reduced throughput) and introduces  a  small  amount  of
              output latency, but it should not impact input latency. However,
              the update to the screen is then  performed  synchronously  with
              the vertical refresh of the display so that the entire update is
              completed before the display starts its refresh.  That  is  only
              one  frame is ever visible, preventing an unsightly tear between
              two visible and differing frames. Note that this replicates what
              the  compositing  manager should be doing, however TearFree will
              redirect the compositor updates (and those of fullscreen  games)
              directly on to the scanout thus incurring no additional overhead
              in the composited case. Also note that not all compositing  man-
              agers  prevent  tearing,  and  if the outputs are rotated, there
              will still be tearing without TearFree enabled.

              Default: TearFree is disabled.

       Option "ReprobeOutputs" "boolean"
              Disable or  enable  rediscovery  of  connected  displays  during
              server  startup.   As  the kernel driver loads it scans for con-
              nected displays and configures a console spanning those outputs.
              When  the  X  server  starts, we then take the list of connected
              displays and framebuffer layout and use  that  for  the  initial
              configuration.   Sometimes,   not  all  displays  are  correctly
              detected by the kernel and so it is  useful  in  a  few  circum-
              stances  for  X to force the kernel to reprobe all displays when
              it starts. To make the X server recheck the status of  connected
              displays,  set  the  "ReprobeOutputs" option to true.  Please do
              file a bug for any circumstances which require this workaround.

              Default: reprobing is disabled for a faster startup.

       Option "VideoKey" "integer"
              This is the same as the "ColorKey" option described  above.   It
              is provided for compatibility with most other drivers.

       Option "XvPreferOverlay" "boolean"
              Make  hardware  overlay  be  the  first XV adaptor.  The overlay
              behaves incorrectly in the presence  of  compositing,  but  some
              prefer  it  due  to  it syncing to vblank in the absence of com-
              positing.  While most  XV-using  applications  have  options  to
              select which XV adaptor to use, this option can be used to place
              the overlay first for applications which don't have options  for
              selecting adaptors.

              Default: Textured video adaptor is preferred.

       Option "Backlight" "string"
              Override  the  probed backlight control interface. Sometimes the
              automatically selected backlight interface may not correspond to
              the  correct,  or simply most useful, interface available on the
              system. This allows you to override that  choice  by  specifying
              the entry under /sys/class/backlight to use.

              Default: Automatic selection.

       Option "FallbackDebug" "boolean"
              Enable  printing  of debugging information on acceleration fall-
              backs to the server log.

              Default: Disabled

       Option "DebugFlushBatches" "boolean"
              Flush the batch buffer after every single operation.

              Default: Disabled

       Option "DebugFlushCaches" "boolean"
              Include an MI_FLUSH at the end of every batch  buffer  to  force
              data  to be flushed out of cache and into memory before the com-
              pletion of the batch.

              Default: Disabled

       Option "DebugWait" "boolean"
              Wait for the completion of every batch buffer before continuing,
              i.e. perform synchronous rendering.

              Default: Disabled

       Option "VSync" "boolean"
              This  option  controls the use of commands to synchronise
              rendering with the vertical refresh of the display.  Some
              rendering  commands  have the option to be performed in a
              "tear-free" fashion by stalling the GPU to wait  for  the
              display  to  be outside of the region to be updated. This
              slows down all rendering, and historically has  been  the
              source of many GPU hangs.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "PageFlip" "boolean"
              This  option  controls  the  use  of commands to flip the
              scanout address on a VBlank. This  is  used  by  glXSwap-
              Buffers to efficiently perform the back-to-front exchange
              at the end of a frame without incurring the penalty of  a
              copy,  or  stalling the render pipeline (the flip is per-
              formed asynchronrously to the render  command  stream  by
              the  display  engine).  However, it has historically been
              the source of many GPU hangs.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "SwapbuffersWait" "boolean"
              This option controls the behavior of  glXSwapBuffers  and
              glXCopySubBufferMESA   calls   by  GL  applications.   If
              enabled, the calls will avoid tearing by making sure  the
              display  scanline  is  outside  of  the area to be copied
              before the copy occurs.  If disabled,  no  scanline  syn-
              chronization  is  performed,  meaning tearing will likely

              Default: enabled.

       Option "TripleBuffer" "boolean"
              This option enables the use of a third buffer  for  page-
              flipping.  The third buffer allows applications to run at
              vrefresh rates even if they occasionally  fail  to  swap-
              buffers  on  time. The effect of such missed swaps is the
              output jitters between 60fps and 30fps, and in the  worst
              case  appears  frame-locked to 30fps. The disadvantage of
              triple buffering is that  there  is  an  extra  frame  of
              latency,  due  to  the  pre-rendered frame sitting in the
              swap queue, between input and any display update.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "Tiling" "boolean"
              This option controls whether memory buffers  for  Pixmaps
              are  allocated  in tiled mode.  In most cases (especially
              for complex rendering), tiling dramatically improves per-

              Default: enabled.

       Option "LinearFramebuffer" "boolean"
              This  option  controls whether the memory for the scanout
              (also known as the front or frame buffer) is allocated in
              linear  memory. A tiled framebuffer is required for power
              conservation features, but for certain system  configura-
              tions  you  may  wish to override this and force a linear

              Default: disabled

       Option "RelaxedFencing" "boolean"
              This option controls whether we attempt to  allocate  the
              minimal  amount  of  memory required for the buffers. The
              reduction in working set has a substantial improvement on
              system performance. However, this has been demonstrate to
              be buggy on older hardware (845-865 and 915-945,  but  ok
              on  PineView  and later) so on those chipsets defaults to

              Default: Enabled for G33 (includes PineView), and  later,
              class machines.

       Option "XvMC" "boolean"
              Enable  XvMC  driver. Current support MPEG2 MC on 915/945
              and G33 series.  User should  provide  absolute  path  to
              libIntelXvMC.so in XvMCConfig file.

              Default: Disabled.

       Option "Throttle" "boolean"
              This  option  controls  whether  the  driver periodically
              waits for pending drawing operations to complete.  Throt-
              tling  ensures  that  the GPU does not lag too far behind
              the CPU and thus noticeable delays in user responsible at
              the cost of throughput performance.

              Default: enabled.

       Option "HotPlug" "boolean"
              This  option  controls  whether  the driver automatically
              notifies applications when monitors are connected or dis-

              Default: enabled.

       Option "Virtualheads" "integer"
              This option controls specifies the number of fake outputs
              to create in addition to the normal outputs  detected  on
              your  hardware.  These  outputs cannot be assigned to the
              regular displays attached to the GPU,  but  do  otherwise
              act as any other xrandr output and share a portion of the
              regular framebuffer. One use case for these  extra  heads
              is  for  extending your desktop onto a discrete GPU using
              the Bumblebee project. However, the  recommendation  here
              is  to  use PRIME instead to create a single Xserver that
              can addresses and coordinate between multiple GPUs.

              Default: 0

       Option "ZaphodHeads" "string"

              Specify the randr output(s) to use with zaphod mode for a
              particular  driver instance.  If you this option you must
              use it with all instances of the driver
              For  example:  Option  "ZaphodHeads"  "LVDS1,VGA1"   will
              assign  xrandr outputs LVDS1 and VGA0 to this instance of
              the driver.

       On 830M and better chipsets, the driver supports runtime config-
       uration  of  detected  outputs.   You can use the xrandr tool to
       control outputs on the command line as follows:

              xrandr --output output --set property value

       Note that you may need to quote  property  and  value  arguments
       that  contain  spaces.  Each output listed below may have one or
       more properties associated with it (like a binary EDID block  if
       one  is  found).   Some outputs have unique properties which are
       described below.  See  the  "MULTIHEAD  CONFIGURATIONS"  section
       below for additional information.

       VGA output port (typically exposed via an HD15 connector).

       Low  Voltage  Differential Signalling output (typically a laptop
       LCD panel).  Available properties:

       BACKLIGHT - current backlight level (adjustable)
              By adjusting the BACKLIGHT property,  the  brightness  on
              the  LVDS  output  can  be adjusted.  In some cases, this
              property may be unavailable (for example if your platform
              uses  an  external  microcontroller  to control the back-

       scaling mode - control LCD panel scaling mode
              When the currently selected display mode differs from the
              native  panel  resolution,  various  scaling  options are
              available. These include

              Center Simply center the image on-screen without scaling.
                     This  is  the  only scaling mode that guarantees a
                     one-to-one correspondence between native and  dis-
                     played  pixels, but some portions of the panel may
                     be unused (so-called "letterboxing").

              Full aspect
                     Scale the image as much as possible while preserv-
                     ing aspect ratio. Pixels may not be displayed one-
                     to-one (there may be some blurriness).  Some  por-
                     tions  of  the  panel  may be unused if the aspect
                     ratio of the selected mode does not match that  of
                     the panel.

              Full   Scale  the  image to the panel size without regard
                     to aspect ratio. This is the only mode which guar-
                     antees that every pixel of the panel will be used.
                     But  the  displayed  image  may  be  distorted  by
                     stretching  either horizontally or vertically, and
                     pixels may not be displayed one-to-one (there  may
                     be some blurriness).

       The  precise  names of these options may differ depending on the
       kernel video driver, (but the functionality should be  similar).
       See  the  output of xrandr --prop for a list of currently avail-
       able scaling modes.

       Integrated TV output.  Available properties include:

       BOTTOM, RIGHT, TOP, LEFT - margins
              Adjusting these properties  allows  you  to  control  the
              placement  of  your  TV  output buffer on the screen. The
              options with the same name can also be set  in  xorg.conf
              with integer value.

       BRIGHTNESS - TV brightness, range 0-255
              Adjust TV brightness, default value is 128.

       CONTRAST - TV contrast, range 0-255
              Adjust  TV contrast, default value is 1.0 in chipset spe-
              cific format.

       SATURATION - TV saturation, range 0-255
              Adjust TV saturation, default value  is  1.0  in  chipset
              specific format.

       HUE - TV hue, range 0-255
              Adjust TV hue, default value is 0.

       TV_FORMAT - output standard
              This  property  allows you to control the output standard
              used on your TV output  port.   You  can  select  between
              NTSC-M, NTSC-443, NTSC-J, PAL-M, PAL-N, and PAL.

       TV_Connector - connector type
              This  config option should be added to xorg.conf TV moni-
              tor's section, it allows you to force the TV output  con-
              nector  type, which bypass load detect and TV will always
              be taken as connected. You can  select  between  S-Video,
              Composite and Component.

       First DVI SDVO output

       Second DVI SDVO output

   TMDS-1 , TMDS-2 , HDMI-1 , HDMI-2
       DVI/HDMI outputs. Avaliable common properties include:

       BROADCAST_RGB - method used to set RGB color range
              Adjusting this property allows you to set RGB color range
              on each channel in order to match HDTV requirment(default
              0  for  full  range).  Setting 1 means RGB color range is
              16-235, 0 means RGB color range is 0-255 on each channel.
              (Full range is 0-255, not 16-235)

       SDVO  and DVO TV outputs are not supported by the driver at this

       See xorg.conf(5) for information on associating Monitor sections
       with  these outputs for configuration.  Associating Monitor sec-
       tions with each output can be helpful if you need  to  ignore  a
       specific   output,  for  example,  or  statically  configure  an
       extended desktop monitor layout.

       The number of independent outputs is dictated by the  number  of
       CRTCs  (in X parlance) a given chip supports.  Most recent Intel
       chips have two CRTCs, meaning that two separate framebuffers can
       be  displayed  simultaneously, in an extended desktop configura-
       tion.  If a chip supports more outputs than it  has  CRTCs  (say
       local  flat  panel, VGA and TV in the case of many outputs), two
       of the outputs will have to be "cloned", meaning that they  dis-
       play  the same framebuffer contents (or one displays a subset of
       another's framebuffer if the modes aren't equal).

       You can use the "xrandr" tool, or various desktop utilities,  to
       change your output configuration at runtime.  To statically con-
       figure your outputs, you can use  the  "Monitor-<type>"  options
       along with additional monitor sections in your xorg.conf to cre-
       ate your screen topology.  The example below puts the VGA output
       to  the  right  of  the  builtin  laptop screen, both running at

       Section "Monitor"
         Identifier "Laptop FooBar Internal Display"
         Option "Position" "0 0"

       Section "Monitor"
         Identifier "Some Random CRT"
         Option "Position" "1024 0"
         Option "RightOf" "Laptop FoodBar Internal Display"

       Section "Device"
         Driver "intel"
         Option "monitor-LVDS" "Laptop FooBar Internal Display"
         Option "monitor-VGA" "Some Random CRT"

       The driver supports the following X11 Xv attributes for Textured
       Video.   You  can  use  the  "xvattr"  tool  to  query/set those
       attributes at runtime.

       XV_SYNC_TO_VBLANK is used to control  whether  textured  adapter
       synchronizes  the screen update to the vblank to eliminate tear-
       ing. It is a Boolean attribute with values of 0 (never sync)  or
       1 (always sync). An historic value of -1 (sync for large windows
       only) will now be interpreted as 1, (since the current  approach
       for sync is not costly even with small video windows).

       The  xf86-video-intel  driver is part of the X.Org and Freedesk-
       top.org umbrella projects.  Details  on  bug  reporting  can  be
       found  at https://01.org/linuxgraphics/documentation/how-report-
       bugs.  Mailing lists are also commonly used  to  report  experi-
       ences  and  ask  questions about configuration and other topics.
       See   lists.freedesktop.org   for    more    information    (the
       xorg@lists.freedesktop.org  mailing list is the most appropriate
       place to ask X.Org and driver related questions).

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |ATTRIBUTE TYPE |            ATTRIBUTE VALUE              |
       |Availability   | x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-intel |
       |Stability      | Volatile                                |
       Xorg(1), xorg.conf(5), Xserver(1), X(7)

       Authors include: Keith Whitwell, and also Jonathan Bian, Matthew
       J  Sottek,  Jeff Hartmann, Mark Vojkovich, Alan Hourihane, H. J.
       Lu.  830M and 845G support reworked for  XFree86  4.3  by  David
       Dawes  and Keith Whitwell.  852GM, 855GM, and 865G support added
       by David Dawes and Keith Whitwell.  915G,  915GM,  945G,  945GM,
       965G,  965Q  and 946GZ support added by Alan Hourihane and Keith
       Whitwell. Lid status support added by Alan  Hourihane.  Textured
       video  support  for 915G and later chips, RandR 1.2 and hardware
       modesetting added by Eric Anholt and Keith Packard. EXA and Ren-
       der  acceleration  added by Wang Zhenyu. TV out support added by
       Zou Nan Hai and Keith Packard. 965GM, G33, Q33, and Q35  support
       added by Wang Zhenyu.

       This    software    was   built   from   source   available   at
       https://github.com/oracle/solaris-userland.  The original commu-
       nity          source         was         downloaded         from

       Further information about this software can be found on the open
       source community website at https://www.x.org.

X Version 11               xf86-video-intel 2.99.917                  intel(4)