A web service is a program that can be accessed remotely using different standards-based languages. What this program can do (that is, the functionality it implements) is described in a standard vocabulary.
Major benefits of web services include:
Interoperability among distributed applications that span diverse hardware and software platforms
Easy, widespread access to applications through firewalls using web protocols
A cross-platform, cross-language data model (XML) that facilitates developing heterogeneous distributed applications
Web services are characterized by three factors:
What they do (the business functionality they expose)
Where they are (the web site which exposes that functionality)
How they can be accessed (the set of published interfaces necessary to use the exposed functionality)
Web services rely on industry standards. SOAP web services are based on the following standards:
Extensible Markup Language (XML): A data format that allows uniform communication between web services consumers and web services providers.
XML Schema: A framework that describes XML vocabularies used in business transactions.
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP): A protocol for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services.
Web Services Description Language (WSDL): An XML-based language providing a model for describing SOAP-based web services.
WS-Policy: The WS-Policy framework provides a flexible and extensible grammar for describing the capabilities, requirements, and general characteristics of web services using policies.
In summary, web services are loosely coupled, distributed environments that allow companies to integrate heterogeneous applications within the enterprise or expose business functions to their customers and partners over the Internet. Because you access web services using standard web protocols such as XML and HTTPS, the diverse and heterogeneous applications on the web (which typically already understand XML and HTTPS) can automatically access web services and communicate with each other.
Oracle Fusion Applications provides web services as one of many mechanisms to integrate with and extend Oracle Fusion Applications in Oracle Applications Cloud Services. The web services are typically based on business objects and allow the caller to perform operations on the business objects. As an example, the Opportunity Service can be used to perform a
find operation to identify opportunities meeting a search criteria or to perform an update to a field, like a quantity on a particular revenue item, or an opportunity.
This document provides general information about web services in Oracle Fusion Applications in Oracle Applications Cloud Services. Oracle Fusion Applications in Oracle Applications Cloud Services includes:
Human Capital Management Cloud: Oracle Global Human Resources Cloud
Enterprise Resource Planning Cloud
Customer Experience Cloud: Oracle Sales Cloud
Supply Chain Management Cloud
A business object web service goes through three life cycle phases:
Active: This phase starts when the service is first delivered until it is deprecated.
Deprecated: A service may be deprecated when it is superseded by a newer version of the service or there is a planned obsolescence in a future release. The deprecated status means that the service is still supported but it will be obsolete in a later release.
New service consumers should consume the newer active version of the service and existing customers should migrate to the newer active version of the service.
Obsolete: The service is no longer shipped or supported
Public external Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) services are supported throughout their life cycle until they are obsolete.
Services may be updated as part of an upgrade to a major release or part of a bundle patch. Regardless of the delivery mechanism, the kinds of changes to the service are limited to changes that are backward compatible, meaning that the changes will not break existing code. These changes are examples of backward compatible changes:
Adding new operations
Adding new optional service data object attributes
Backward incompatible changes are not allowed on any public external service because they will break existing code which invokes the service. Here are a few examples of backward incompatible changes:
Removing an operation
Removing an operation parameter
Changing the type of an existing operation parameter
Renaming a service data object attribute
Adding a new mandatory service data object attribute
Changing the functional behavior of an operation (for example, the service returns a different output when the same payload values are passed in)
Generally, changes to a service are backward compatible. When a backward incompatible change is required, the change is not made directly to the existing service. Instead, the existing service is left as-is and its life cycle is updated to the Deprecated phase. A new version of the service is introduced where it is effectively a copy of the existing service and the backward incompatible changes are applied to it. The new service version is marked as Active and has its own end point and WSDL. The version number is reflected in the service namespace.
The following diagram illustrates the life cycle of a service and coexistence of the multiple service versions. Note that both versions continue to be supported until the deprecated service is finally obsolete. At that point, the active service continues to be supported.
The following topics provide guidance on using web services.
|What do you want to do?||How to do it...|
|Browse all web services in Oracle Fusion Applications.||Look up all web services in the Oracle Enterprise Repository (OER) by following the instructions in Searching for Public External Services.
Note that all web services listed in the OER may not be provisioned in your cloud instance. To browse services on your cloud instance, see Using the Service Catalog Service.
|Identify all web services provisioned on my cloud instance.||Follow Using the Service Catalog Service.|
|Learn about a particular web service.
I would like to know what operations which are defined on the service and the shape of the request and response payloads.
|Look up a web service in the Oracle Enterprise Repository (OER) by following the instructions in Searching for Public External Services.|
|Learn about using the create, get, update, merge, delete, find and process (CRUD) operations. I would like to see example payloads for the CRUD operations.||The CRUD operations are typically defined on the business object services. See About Operations.|
|Get the service end point URL for a particular web service deployed to my cloud instance.||Find the end point URL using one of two options:
|Learn about services with a
The service which I am invoking as part of my integration is marked as
|See About Web Service Life Cycle.|
|Learn about the kinds of service interface changes which may be introduced as part of an upgrade.
I am planning an integration using web services. I want to know the kinds of changes to the service interface which I can expect when my cloud instance is upgraded to a new Oracle Fusion Applications release.
|See About Backward Compatibility.|
|What do you want to do?||How to do it...|
|Implement one of the documented use cases in Oracle Cloud Use Cases for Implementing Partner Applications for Oracle Sales Cloud:
The use case exactly matches my use case requirements.
|Implement one of the documented use cases in Oracle Cloud Use Cases for Implementing Partner Applications for Oracle Sales Cloud. However, my requirements are not completely met by the documented use case. I want to learn more about the other operations available for the services described in the use case and other elements available in the payloads.||
|Implement a use case that is not documented in Oracle Cloud Use Cases for Implementing Partner Applications for Oracle Sales Cloud, or implement a use case that is for an Oracle Cloud service other than Oracle Sales Cloud.
I first want to discover the web services that are defined for a particular business object in my use case.
|Look up a web service in the Oracle Enterprise Repository (OER) by following the instructions in Searching for Public External Services. Use the name or logical business object as the search criteria.|