6 Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC

This chapter describes the users, groups user environment and management environment settings to complete before you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters.

This chapter contains the following topics:

6.1 Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure

Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle Inventory group and a software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure.

Note:

During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) are installed. You no longer can have separate Oracle Clusterware installation owners and Oracle ASM installation owners.

6.1.1 Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists

When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, OUI creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (by default, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle central inventory directory. An oraInst.loc file has contents similar to the following:

inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group

In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle central inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to write to the central inventory (the OINSTALL system privilege).

For Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations, the central inventory must be on local storage on the node.

If you have an existing Oracle central inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.

To determine if you have an Oracle central inventory directory (oraInventory) on your system:

Enter the following command:

# more /etc/oraInst.loc

If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

inventory_loc=/u01/app/oracle/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall

In the previous output example:

  • The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory.

  • The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in this example, oinstall).

Use the command grep groupname /etc/group to confirm that the group specified as the Oracle Inventory group still exists on the system. For example:

$ grep oinstall /etc/group
oinstall:x:54321:grid,oracle

6.1.2 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist

If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by entering a command similar to the following:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54321 oinstall

The preceding command creates the oraInventory group oinstall, with the group ID number 54321. Members of the oraInventory group are granted privileges to write to the Oracle central inventory (oraInventory), and other system privileges for Oracle installation owner users.

By default, if an oraInventory group does not exist, then the installer lists the primary group of the installation owner for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster software as the oraInventory group. Ensure that this group is available as a primary group for all planned Oracle software installation owners.

Note:

Group and user IDs must be identical on all nodes in the cluster. Check to make sure that the group and user IDs you want to use are available on each cluster member node, and confirm that the primary group for each Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation owner has the same name and group ID.

6.1.3 Creating the Oracle Grid Infrastructure User

You must create a software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle software on the system.

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, with different group membership, to separate Oracle Grid Infrastructure administrative privileges from Oracle Database administrative privileges.

    In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle Grid Infrastructure software installations is called the grid user. A user created to own either all Oracle installations, or only Oracle database installations, is called the oracle user.

6.1.3.1 Understanding Restrictions for Oracle Software Installation Owners

Review the following restrictions for users created to own Oracle software:

  • If you intend to use multiple Oracle software owners for different Oracle Database homes, then Oracle recommends that you create a separate software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure software (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM), and use that owner to run the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

  • During installation, SSH must be set up between cluster member nodes. SSH can be set up automatically by Oracle Universal Installer (the installer). To enable SSH to be set up automatically, create Oracle installation owners without any stty commands in their profiles, and remove other security measures that are triggered during a login that generate messages to the terminal. These messages, mail checks, and other displays prevent Oracle software installation owner accounts from using the SSH configuration script that is built into the installer. If they are not disabled, then SSH must be configured manually before an installation can be run.

  • If you plan to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, then Oracle recommends that you create separate users for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure and the Oracle Database installations. If you use one installation owner, then when you want to perform administration tasks, you must change the value for $ORACLE_HOME to the instance you want to administer (Oracle ASM, in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, or the database in the Oracle home), using command syntax such as the following example, where /u01/app/12.1.0/grid is the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home:

    $ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/12.1.0/grid; export ORACLE_HOME

  • If you try to administer an Oracle home or Grid home instance using sqlplus, lsnrctl, or asmcmd commands while the environment variable $ORACLE_HOME is set to a different Oracle home or Grid home path, then you encounter errors. For example, when you start SRVCTL from a database home, $ORACLE_HOME should be set to that database home, or SRVCTL fails. The exception is when you are using SRVCTL in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. In that case, $ORACLE_HOME is ignored, and the Oracle home environment variable does not affect SRVCTL commands. In all other cases, you must change $ORACLE_HOME to the instance that you want to administer.

  • To create separate Oracle software owners and separate operating system privileges groups for different Oracle software installations, note that each of these users must have the Oracle central inventory group (oraInventory group) as their primary group. Members of this group are granted the OINSTALL system privileges to write to the Oracle central inventory (oraInventory) directory, and are also granted permissions for various Oracle Clusterware resources, OCR keys, directories in the Oracle Clusterware home to which DBAs need write access, and other necessary privileges. Members of this group are also granted execute permissions to start and stop Clusterware infrastructure resources and databases. In Oracle documentation, this group is represented as oinstall in code examples.

  • Each Oracle software owner must be a member of the same central inventory oraInventory group, and they must have this group as their primary group, so that all Oracle software installation owners share the same OINSTALL system privileges. Oracle recommends that you do not have more than one central inventory for Oracle installations. If an Oracle software owner has a different central inventory group, then you may corrupt the central inventory.

6.1.3.2 Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle or grid exists, enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):

# id oracle

If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=54321(oracle) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54322(dba),54323(oper)

Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user. The user and group ID numbers must be the same on each node you intend to make a cluster member node.

If you are using the Oracle Preinstallation RPM to provision your Linux operating system for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database installation, then it has configured for you the Oracle database installation owner (oracle), an Oracle Inventory group (oinstall). and an Oracle administrative privileges group (dba).

To use an existing user as an installation owner for this installation, ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall).

6.1.3.3 Creating or Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User for Oracle Grid Infrastructure

If the Oracle software owner (oracle, grid) user does not exist, or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it. If you want to use an existing user account, then modify it to ensure that the user IDs (UID) and group IDs (GID) are the same on each cluster member node.

Oracle recommends that you do not use the defaults on each node, because UIDs and GIDs assigned by default are likely to be different on each node. Instead, determine specifically named and numbered UIDs and GIDs, and confirm that they are unused on any node before you create or modify groups and users. Oracle strongly recommends that you confirm that you have identical user configuration on each node you intend to make a cluster member node before you start installation, and that the UID and GIDs do not need to be changed. If you need to change UIDs and GIDs for Oracle software users and groups, then you must reinstall the software.

Oracle does not support changing the UID or GID or group memberships for a user account that you have previously used to install and configure Oracle RAC or Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle does not support changing the ownership of an existing Oracle Database home from one Oracle user to a different user.

If you must modify an existing Grid installation owner after previously installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure (for example, if you want to modify an existing Oracle Database user account before you install Oracle RAC, to distinguish between the Oracle Grid Infrastructure owner and the Oracle RAC Oracle Database owner user accounts), then you must stop and start Oracle Clusterware on each node (in a rolling fashion) to pick up the changes made to the user account that owns Oracle Grid Infrastructure.

The following procedures use grid as the name of the Oracle software owner, and asmadmin as the OSASM group. To create separate system privileges groups to separate administration privileges, complete group creation before you create the user, as described in Section 6.1.7, "About Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups and Users,".

  1. To create a grid installation owner account where you have an existing system privileges group (in this example, dba), whose members you want to have granted the SYSASM privilege to administer the Oracle ASM instance, enter a command similar to the following:

    # /usr/sbin/useradd -u 54322 -g oinstall -G dba grid
    

    In the preceding command:

    • The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user ID number. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a number. You must make note of the user ID number of the user you create for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, as you require it later during preinstallation. You must use the same user ID number for this user on all nodes of the cluster.

    • The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group. For example: oinstall.

    • The -G option specified the secondary group, which in this example is dba.

      The secondary groups must include the OSASM group, whose members are granted the SYSASM privilege to administer the Oracle ASM instance. You can designate a unique group for the SYSASM system privilege, separate from database administrator groups, or you can designate one group as the OSASM and OSDBA group, so that members of that group are granted the SYSASM and SYSDBA privilege to grant system privileges to administer both the Oracle ASM instances and Oracle Database instances. In code examples, this group is asmadmin.

      If you are creating this user to own both Oracle Grid Infrastructure and an Oracle Database installation, then this user must have the OSDBA for ASM group as a secondary group. In code examples, this group name is asmdba. Members of the OSDBA for ASM group are granted access to Oracle ASM storage. You must create an OSDBA for ASM group if you plan to have multiple databases accessing Oracle ASM storage, or you must use the same group as the OSDBA for all databases, and for the OSDBA for ASM group. You are also prompted during installation to assign operating system groups for several other Oracle Database system administrative privileges.

    Use the usermod command to change existing user ID numbers and groups.

    For example:

    # id oracle
    uid=1101(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1200(dba)
    # /usr/sbin/usermod -u 54421 -g 54331 -G 54321,54322,54327 oracle
    # id oracle
    uid=54321(oracle) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54321(oinstall),54322(dba),54327 (asmdba)
    
  2. Set the password of the user that will own Oracle Grid Infrastructure. For example:

    # passwd grid
    
  3. Repeat this procedure on all of the other nodes in the cluster.

Note:

If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.

6.1.4 About the Oracle Base Directory for the Grid User

The Oracle base directory for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation is the location where diagnostic and administrative logs, and other logs associated with Oracle ASM and Oracle Clusterware are stored. For Oracle installations other than Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster, it is also the location under which an Oracle home is placed.

However, in the case of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you must create a different path, so that the path for Oracle bases remains available for other Oracle installations.

For OUI to recognize the Oracle base path, it must be in the form u[00-99][00-99]/app, and it must be writable by any member of the oraInventory (oinstall) group. The OFA path for the Oracle base is u[00-99][00-99]/app/user, where user is the name of the software installation owner. For example:

/u01/app/grid

6.1.5 About the Oracle Home Directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software

The Oracle home for Oracle Grid Infrastructure software (Grid home) should be located in a path that is different from the Oracle home directory paths for any other Oracle software. The Optimal Flexible Architecture guideline for a Grid home is to create a path in the form /pm/v/u, where /p is a string constant, /m is a unique fixed-length key (typically a two-digit number), /v is the version of the software, and /u is the installation owner of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software (Grid user). During Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation, the path of the Grid home is changed to the root user, so any other users are unable to read, write, or execute commands in that path.

For example, to create a Grid home in the standard mount point path format u[00-99][00-99]/app/release/grid, where release is the release number of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, create the following path:

/u01/app/12.1.0/grid

During installation, ownership of the entire path to the Grid home is changed to root. (/u01, /u01/app, /u01/app/12.1.0, /u01/app/12.1.0/grid). If you do not create a unique path to the Grid home, then after the Grid install, you can encounter permission errors for other installations, including any existing installations under the same path.

To avoid placing the application directory in the mount point under root ownership, you can create and select paths such as the following for the Grid home:

/u01/12.1.0/grid

Caution:

For Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installations, note the following restrictions for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure binary home (Grid home directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure):
  • It must not be placed under one of the Oracle base directories, including the Oracle base directory of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner.

  • It must not be placed in the home directory of an installation owner.

These requirements are specific to Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installations. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server (Oracle Restart) can be installed under the Oracle base for the Oracle Database installation.

See Also:

Oracle Database Installation Guide for details about Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines

6.1.6 Creating the Oracle Home and Oracle Base Directory

Oracle recommends that you create Oracle Grid Infrastructure Grid home and Oracle base homes manually, particularly if you have separate Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster and Oracle Database software owners, so that you can separate log files for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner in a separate Oracle base, and prevent accidental placement of the Grid home under an Oracle base path.

For example:

# mkdir -p /u01/app/12.1.0/grid
# mkdir -p /u01/app/grid
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
# chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/

Note:

Placing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster binaries on a cluster file system is not supported.

If you plan to install an Oracle RAC home on a shared OCFS2 location, then you must upgrade OCFS2 to at least version 1.4.1, which supports shared writable mmaps.

Oracle recommends that you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure locally, on each cluster member node. Using a shared Grid home prevents rolling upgrades, and creates a single point of failure for the cluster.

See Also:

Appendix E, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Installation Concepts" for more details about Oracle base and Oracle home directories

6.1.7 About Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups and Users

A job role separation configuration of Oracle Database and Oracle ASM is a configuration with groups and users to provide separate groups for operating system authentication.

With Oracle Database job role separation, each Oracle Database installation has separate operating system groups to provide authentication for system privileges on that Oracle Database, so multiple databases can be installed on the cluster without sharing operating system authentication for system privileges. In addition, each Oracle software installation is owned by a separate installation owner, to provide operating system user authentication for modifications to Oracle Database binaries. Note that any Oracle software owner can start and stop all databases and shared Oracle Grid Infrastructure resources such as Oracle ASM or Virtual IP (VIP). Job role separation configuration enables database security, and does not restrict user roles in starting and stopping various Clusterware resources.

With Oracle Grid Infrastructure job role separation, Oracle ASM has separate operating system groups that provides operating system authentication for Oracle ASM system privileges for storage tier administration. This operating system authentication is separated from Oracle Database operating system authentication. In addition, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner provides operating system user authentication for modifications to Oracle Grid Infrastructure binaries.

During the Oracle Database installation, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) prompts you to specify the name of the OSDBA, OSOPER, OSBACKUPDBA, OSDGDBA and OSKMDBA groups. Members of these groups are granted operating system authentication for the set of database system privileges each group authorizes. Oracle recommends that you create different operating system groups for each set of system privileges.

Note:

This configuration is optional, to restrict user access to Oracle software by responsibility areas for different administrator users.

You can choose to create one administrative user and one group for operating system authentication for all system privileges on the storage and database tiers.

For example, you can designate the oracle user to be the installation owner for all Oracle software, and designate oinstall to be the group whose members are granted all system privileges for Oracle Clusterware; all system privileges for Oracle ASM; all system privileges for all Oracle Databases on the servers; and all OINSTALL system privileges for installation owners. This group must also be the Oracle Inventory group.

If you do not want to use role allocation groups, then Oracle strongly recommends that you use at least two groups:

  • A system privileges group whose members are granted administrative system privileges, including OSDBA, OSASM, and other system privileges groups.

  • An installation owner group (the oraInventory group) whose members are granted Oracle installation owner system privileges (the OINSTALL system privilege).

To simplify using the defaults for Oracle tools such as Cluster Verification Utility, if you do choose to use a single operating system group to grant all system privileges and the right to write to the oraInventory, then that group name should be oinstall.

Note:

To configure users for installation that are on a network directory service such as Network Information Services (NIS), refer to your directory service documentation.

See Also:

6.1.8 Descriptions of Job Role Separation Groups and Users

This section contains the following topics:

6.1.8.1 Oracle Software Owner For Each Oracle Software Product

Oracle recommends that you create one software owner to own each Oracle software product (typically, oracle, for the database software owner user, and grid for Oracle Grid Infrastructure).

You must create at least one software owner the first time you install Oracle software on the system. This user owns the Oracle binaries of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, and you can also make this user the owner of the Oracle Database or Oracle RAC binaries.

Oracle software owners must have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group, so that each Oracle software installation owner can write to the central inventory (oraInventory), and so that OCR and Oracle Clusterware resource permissions are set correctly. The database software owner must also have the OSDBA group and (if you create them) the OSOPER, OSBACKUPDBA, OSDGDBA, and OSKMDBA groups as secondary groups. In Oracle documentation, when Oracle software owner users are referred to, they are called oracle users.

Oracle recommends that you create separate software owner users to own each Oracle software installation. Oracle particularly recommends that you do this if you intend to install multiple databases on the system.

In Oracle documentation, a user created to own the Oracle Grid Infrastructure binaries is called the grid user. This user owns both the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management binaries.

See Also:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about operating system groups and system privileges authentication

6.1.8.2 Standard Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation

The following is a list of standard Oracle Database groups. These groups provide operating system authentication for database administration system privileges:

  • OSDBA group (typically, dba)

    You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege). If you do not create separate OSDBA, OSOPER and OSASM groups for the Oracle ASM instance, then operating system user accounts that have the SYSOPER and SYSASM privileges must be members of this group. The name used for this group in Oracle code examples is dba. If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group, then the OSDBA group you define is also by default the OSASM group.

    To specify a group name other than the default dba group, you must either choose the Advanced installation type to install the software, or you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) as a user that is not a member of this group. If you start OUI with a user that is not a member of a group called dba, then OUI prompts you to specify the name of the OSDBA group.

    Members of the OSDBA group formerly were granted SYSASM privilege on Oracle ASM instances, including mounting and dismounting disk groups. This privileges grant is removed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2), if different operating system groups are designated as the OSDBA and OSASM groups. If the same group is used for both OSDBA and OSASM, then the privileges are retained.

  • OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)

    You can choose to create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges for starting up and shutting down the database (the SYSOPER privilege).

6.1.8.3 Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation

Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), in addition to the OSOPER privileges to start up and shut down the database, you can create new administrative privileges that are more task-specific and less privileged than the OSDBA/SYSDBA system privileges to support specific administrative privileges tasks required for everyday database operation Users granted these system privileges are also authenticated through operating system group membership.

You do not have to create these specific group names, but during installation you are prompted to provide operating system groups whose members are granted access to these system privileges. You can assign the same group to provide authentication for these privileges, but Oracle recommends that you provide a unique group to designate each privilege.

The OSDBA subset job role separation privileges and groups consist of the following:

  • OSBACKUPDBA group for Oracle Database (typically, backupdba)

    Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of database backup and recovery related administrative privileges (the SYSBACKUP privilege).

  • OSDGDBA group for Oracle Data Guard (typically, dgdba)

    Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of privileges to administer and monitor Oracle Data Guard (the SYSDG privilege).

  • OSKMDBA group for encryption key management (typically, kmdba)

    Create this group if you want a separate group of operating sytem users to have a limited set of privileges for encryption key management such as Oracle Wallet Manager management (the SYSKM privilege).

6.1.8.4 Oracle ASM Groups for Job Role Separation

The SYSASM, SYSOPER for ASM, and SYSDBA for ASM system privileges enables the separation of the Oracle ASM storage administration privileges from SYSDBA. Members of operating systems you designate are granted the system privileges for these roles. Select separate operating system groups as the operating system authentication groups for privileges on Oracle ASM.

Before you start OUI, create the following OS groups and users for Oracle ASM, whose members are granted the corresponding SYS privileges:

  • OSASM Group for Oracle ASM Administration (typically asmadmin)

    Create this group as a separate group if you want to have separate administration privileges groups for Oracle ASM and Oracle Database administrators. Members of this group are granted the SYSASM system privileges to administer Oracle ASM. In Oracle documentation, the operating system group whose members are granted privileges is called the OSASM group, and in code examples, where there is a group specifically created to grant this privilege, it is referred to as asmadmin.

    Oracle ASM can support multiple databases. If you have multiple databases on your system, and use multiple OSDBA groups so that you can provide separate SYSDBA privileges for each database, then you should create a group whose members are granted the OSASM/SYSASM administrative privileges, and create a grid infrastructure user (grid) that does not own a database installation, so that you separate Oracle Grid Infrastructure SYSASM administrative privileges from a database administrative privileges group.

    Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM instance as SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM privileges permit mounting and dismounting disk groups, and other storage administration tasks. SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an RDBMS instance.

  • OSDBA for ASM Database Administrator group for ASM, typically asmdba)

    Members of the ASM Database Administrator group (OSDBA for ASM) are granted read and write access to files managed by Oracle ASM. The Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner and all Oracle Database software owners must be a member of this group, and all users with OSDBA membership on databases that have access to the files managed by Oracle ASM must be members of the OSDBA group for ASM.

  • OSOPER for ASM Group for ASM Operators (OSOPER for ASM, typically asmoper)

    This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle ASM instance administrative privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege), including starting up and stopping the Oracle ASM instance. By default, members of the OSASM group also have all privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege.

    To use the Oracle ASM Operator group to create an Oracle ASM administrator group with fewer privileges than the default asmadmin group, then you must choose the Advanced installation type to install the software, In this case, OUI prompts you to specify the name of this group. In code examples, this group is asmoper.

6.1.9 Creating Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups and User

The following sections describe how to create the required operating system user and group for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database:

6.1.9.1 Creating the OSDBA Group to Prepare for Database Installations

If you intend to install Oracle Database to use with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, then you must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:

  • An OSDBA group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database installation

If the OSDBA group does not exist, or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create it. Use the group name dba unless a group with that name already exists. For example:

# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54322 dba

6.1.9.2 Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations

Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. To use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:

  • If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system

  • If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation

If the OSOPER group does not exist, or if you require a new OSOPER group, then create it. Use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists. For example:

# groupadd -g 54323 oper

6.1.9.3 Creating the OSASM Group

If the OSASM group does not exist, or if you require a new OSASM group, then create it. Use the group name asmadmin unless a group with that name already exists. For example:

# groupadd -g 54329 asmadmin

6.1.9.4 Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group

Create an OSOPER for ASM group if you want to identify a group of operating system users, such as database administrators, whom you want to grant a limited set of Oracle ASM storage tier administrative privileges, including the ability to start up and shut down the Oracle ASM storage. For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSASM group, and provide that group as the OSOPER for ASM group during the installation interview.

If the OSOPER for ASM group does not exist, or if you require a new OSOPER for ASM group, then create it. Use the group name asmoper unless a group with that name already exists. For example:

# groupadd -g 54328 asmoper

6.1.9.5 Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group for Database Access to Oracle ASM

You must create an OSDBA for ASM group to provide access to the Oracle ASM instance. This is necessary if OSASM and OSDBA are different groups.

If the OSDBA for ASM group does not exist, or if you require a new OSDBA for ASM group, then create it. Use the group name asmdba unless a group with that name already exists. For example:

# groupadd -g 54327 asmdba

6.1.9.6 Oracle Software Owner User Installation Tasks

This section contains information about the Oracle software owner user, which is typically the user that owns Oracle Database or other Oracle application software. This section contains the following topics:

6.1.9.6.1 About the Oracle Software Owner User

You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:

  • If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation.

  • If you have created an Oracle software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, such as grid, and you want to create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle Database software, such as oracle.

6.1.9.6.2 Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists

To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle or grid exists, enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):

# id oracle

If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:

uid=54321(oracle) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54322(dba),54323(oper)

Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user. To use the existing user, ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups. See one of the following sections for more information:

Note:

If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or modifying an existing user.

Oracle recommends that you do not use the UID and GID defaults on each node, as group and user IDs likely will be different on each node. Instead, provide common assigned group and user IDs, and confirm that they are unused on any node before you create or modify groups and users.

6.1.9.6.3 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User

If the Oracle software owner user does not exist, or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it. Use the user name oracle unless a user with that name already exists.

To create an oracle user:

  1. Enter a command similar to the following:

    # useradd -u 54322 -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba oracle
    

    In the preceding command:

    • The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user ID number. However, you must make note of the oracle user ID number, as you require it later during preinstallation.

    • The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group. For example: oinstall.

    • The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA group, the OSDBA for ASM group, and, if required, the OSOPER for ASM group. For example: dba, asmdba, or dba, asmdba, asmoper.

  2. Set the password of the oracle user:

    # passwd oracle
    
6.1.9.6.4 Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User

If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall, or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSDBA for ASM groups, then create a new oracle user. Oracle does not support modifying an existing installation owner. See Section 6.1.3.3, "Creating or Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User for Oracle Grid Infrastructure" for a complete list of restrictions.

6.1.9.7 Creating Identical Database Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes

Oracle software owner users and the Oracle Inventory, OSDBA, and OSOPER groups must exist and be identical on all cluster nodes. To create these identical users and groups, you must identify the user ID and group IDs assigned them on the node where you created them, and then create the user and groups with the same name and ID on the other cluster nodes.

Note:

You must complete the following procedures only if you are using local users and groups. If you are using users and groups defined in a directory service such as NIS, then they are already identical on each cluster node.

Identifying Existing User and Group IDs

To determine the user ID (uid) of the grid or oracle users, and the group IDs (gid) of the existing Oracle groups, follow these steps:

  1. Enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine a user ID for the oracle user):

    # id oracle
    

    The output from this command is similar to the following:

    uid=54321(oracle) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54322(dba),54323(oper),54327(asmdba)
    
  2. From the output, identify the user ID (uid) for the user and the group identities (gids) for the groups to which it belongs. Ensure that these ID numbers are identical on each node of the cluster. The user's primary group is listed after gid. Secondary groups are listed after groups.

Creating Users and Groups on the Other Cluster Nodes

To create users and groups on the other cluster nodes, repeat the following procedure on each node:

  1. Log in to the node as root.

  2. Enter commands similar to the following to create the asmadmin, asmdba, backupdba, dgdba, kmdba, asmoper and oper groups, and if not configured by the Oracle Preinstallation RPM or prior installations, the oinstall and dba groups.

    Use the -g option to specify the correct group ID for each group.

    # groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
    # groupadd -g 54322 dba
    # groupadd -g 54323 oper
    # groupadd -g 54324 backupdba
    # groupadd -g 54325 dgdba
    # groupadd -g 54326 kmdba
    # groupadd -g 54327 asmdba
    # groupadd -g 54328 asmoper
    # groupadd -g 54329 asmadmin
    

    Note:

    You are not required to use the UIDs and GIDs in this example. If a group already exists, then use the groupmod command to modify it if necessary. If you cannot use the same group ID for a particular group on a node, then view the /etc/group file on all nodes to identify a group ID that is available on every node. You must then change the group ID on all nodes to the same group ID.
  3. To create the oracle or Oracle Grid Infrastructure (grid) user, enter a command similar to the following:

    # useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G asmadmin,asmdba grid
    

    In the preceding command:

    • The -u option specifies the user ID, which must be the user ID that you identified in the previous subsection.

    • The -g option specifies the primary group for the Grid user, which must be the Oracle Inventory group (OINSTALL), which grants the OINSTALL system privileges. In this example, the OINSTALL group is oinstall.

    • The -G option specifies the secondary groups. The Grid user must be a member of the OSASM group (asmadmin) and the OSDBA for ASM group (asmdba).

      Note:

      If the user already exists, then use the usermod command to modify it if necessary. If you cannot use the same user ID for the user on every node, then view the /etc/passwd file on all nodes to identify a user ID that is available on every node. You must then specify that ID for the user on all of the nodes.
  4. Set the password of the user. For example:

    # passwd oracle
    
  5. Complete user environment configuration tasks for each user as described in the section Section 6.2, "Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments".

6.1.10 Example of Creating Minimal Groups, Users, and Paths

This configuration example shows the following:

  • Creation of the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall)

  • Creation of a single group (dba) as the only system privileges group to assign for all Oracle Grid Infrastructure, Oracle ASM, and Oracle Database system privileges

  • Creation of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner (grid), and one Oracle Database owner (oracle) with correct group memberships

  • Creation and configuration of an Oracle base path compliant with OFA structure with correct permissions

Enter the following commands to create a minimal operating system authentication configuration:

# groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
# groupadd -g 54322 dba
# useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G dba oracle
# useradd -u 54322 -g oinstall -G dba grid
# mkdir -p  /u01/app/12.1.0/grid
# mkdir -p /u01/app/grid
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
# chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/

After running these commands, you have the following groups and users:

  • An Oracle central inventory group, or oraInventory group (oinstall). Members who have the central inventory group as their primary group, are granted the OINSTALL permission to write to the oraInventory directory.

  • One system privileges group, dba, for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, Oracle ASM and Oracle Database system privileges. Members who have the dba group as their primary or secondary group are granted operating system authentication for OSASM/SYSASM, OSDBA/SYSDBA, OSOPER/SYSOPER, OSBACKUPDBA/SYSBACKUP, OSDGDBA/SYSDG, OSKMDBA/SYSKM, OSDBA for ASM/SYSDBA for ASM, and OSOPER for ASM/SYSOPER for ASM to administer Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, and Oracle Database, and are granted SYSASM and OSOPER for ASM access to the Oracle ASM storage.

  • An Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster owner, or Grid user (grid), with the oraInventory group (oinstall) as its primary group, and with the OSASM group (dba) as the secondary group, with its Oracle base directory /u01/app/grid.

  • An Oracle Database owner (oracle) with the oraInventory group (oinstall) as its primary group, and the OSDBA group (dba) as its secondary group, with its Oracle base directory /u01/app/oracle.

  • /u01/app owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions before installation, and by root after the root.sh script is run during installation. This ownership and permissions enables OUI to create the Oracle Inventory directory, in the path /u01/app/oraInventory.

  • /u01 owned by grid:oinstall before installation, and by root after the root.sh script is run during installation.

  • /u01/app/12.1.0/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions. These permissions are required for installation, and are changed during the installation process.

  • /u01/app/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions before installation, and 755 permissions after installation.

  • /u01/app/oracle owned by oracle:oinstall with 775 permissions.

Note:

You can use one installation owner for both Oracle Grid Infrastructure and any other Oracle installations. However, Oracle recommends that you use separate installation owner accounts for each Oracle software installation.

6.1.11 Example of Creating Role-allocated Groups, Users, and Paths

This section contains an example of how to create role-allocated groups and users that is compliant with an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) deployment.

This example illustrates the following scenario:

  • An Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation

  • Two separate Oracle Database installations planned for the cluster, DB1 and DB2

  • Separate installation owners for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and for each Oracle Database

  • Full role allocation of system privileges for Oracle ASM, and for each Oracle Database

  • Oracle Database owner oracle1 granted the right to start up and shut down the Oracle ASM instance

Create groups and users for a role-allocated configuration for this scenario using the following commands:

# groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
# groupadd -g 54322 dba1
# groupadd -g 54332 dba2
# groupadd -g 54323 oper1
# groupadd -g 54333 oper2
# groupadd -g 54324 backupdba1
# groupadd -g 54334 backupdba2
# groupadd -g 54327 asmdba
# groupadd -g 54325 dgdba1
# groupadd -g 54335 dgdba2
# groupadd -g 54326 kmdba1
# groupadd -g 54336 kmdba2
# groupadd -g 54329 asmadmin
# groupadd -g 54328 asmoper
# useradd -u 54422 -g oinstall -G asmadmin,asmdba grid
# useradd -u 54421 -g oinstall -G dba1,backupdba1,dgdba1,kmdba1,asmdba,asmoper oracle1
# useradd -u 54431 -g oinstall -G dba2,backupdba2,dgdba2,kmdba2,asmdba oracle2
# mkdir -p  /u01/app/12.1.0/grid
# mkdir -p /u01/app/grid
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle1
# mkdir -p u01/app/oracle2
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
# chmod -R 775 /u01/
# chown oracle1:oinstall /u01/app/oracle1
# chown oracle2:oinstall /u01/app/oracle2

After running these commands, you have a set of administrative privileges groups and users for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and for two separate Oracle databases (DB1 and DB2):

6.1.11.1 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Groups and Users Example

  • An Oracle central inventory group, or oraInventory group (oinstall), whose members that have this group as their primary group. Members of this group are granted the OINSTALL system privileges, which grants permissions to write to the oraInventory directory, and other associated install binary privileges.

  • An OSASM group (asmadmin), associated with Oracle Grid Infrastructure during installation, whose members are granted the SYSASM privileges to administer Oracle ASM.

  • An OSDBA for ASM group (asmdba), associated with Oracle Grid Infrastructure storage during installation. Its members include grid and any database installation owners, such as oracle1 and oracle2, who are granted access to Oracle ASM. Any additional installation owners that use Oracle ASM for storage must also be made members of this group.

  • An OSOPER for ASM group for Oracle ASM (asmoper), associated with Oracle Grid Infrastructure during installation. Members of asmoper group are granted limited Oracle ASM administrator privileges, including the permissions to start and stop the Oracle ASM instance.

  • An Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner (grid), with the oraInventory group (oinstall) as its primary group, and with the OSASM (asmadmin) group and the OSDBA for ASM (asmdba) group as secondary groups.

  • /u01/app/oraInventory. The central inventory of Oracle installations on the cluster. This path remains owned by grid:oinstall, to enable other Oracle software owners to write to the central inventory.

  • An OFA-compliant mount point /u01 owned by grid:oinstall before installation, so that Oracle Universal Installer can write to that path.

  • An Oracle base for the grid installation owner /u01/app/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions, and changed during the installation process to 755 permissions.

  • A Grid home /u01/app/12.1.0/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 (drwxdrwxr-x) permissions. These permissions are required for installation, and are changed during the installation process to root:oinstall with 755 permissions (drwxr-xr-x).

6.1.11.2 Oracle Database DB1 Groups and Users Example

  • An Oracle Database software owner (oracle1), which owns the Oracle Database binaries for DB1. The oracle1 user has the oraInventory group as its primary group, and the OSDBA group for its database (dba1) and the OSDBA for ASM group for Oracle Grid Infrastructure (asmdba) as secondary groups. In addition the oracle1 user is a member of asmoper, granting that user privileges to start up and shut down Oracle ASM.

  • An OSDBA group (dba1). During installation, you identify the group dba1 as the OSDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle1. Members of dba1 are granted the SYSDBA privileges for the Oracle Database DB1. Users who connect as SYSDBA are identified as user SYS on DB1.

  • An OSBACKUPDBA group (backupdba1). During installation, you identify the group backupdba1 as the OSDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle1. Members of backupdba1 are granted the SYSBACKUP privileges for the database installed by the user oracle1 to back up the database.

  • An OSDGDBA group (dgdba1). During installation, you identify the group dgdba1 as the OSDGDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle1. Members of dgdba1 are granted the SYSDG privileges to administer Oracle Data Guard for the database installed by the user oracle1.

  • An OSKMDBA group (kmdba1). During installation, you identify the group kmdba1 as the OSKMDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle1. Members of kmdba1 are granted the SYSKM privileges to administer encryption keys for the database installed by the user oracle1.

  • An OSOPER group (oper1). During installation, you identify the group oper1 as the OSOPER group for the database installed by the user oracle1. Members of oper1 are granted the SYSOPER privileges (a limited set of the SYSDBA privileges), including the right to start up and shut down the DB1 database. Users who connect as OSOPER privileges are identified as user PUBLIC on DB1.

  • An Oracle base /u01/app/oracle1 owned by oracle1:oinstall with 775 permissions. The user oracle1 has permissions to install software in this directory, but in no other directory in the /u01/app path.

6.1.11.3 Oracle Database DB2 Groups and Users Example

  • An Oracle Database software owner (oracle2), which owns the Oracle Database binaries for DB2. The oracle2 user has the oraInventory group as its primary group, and the OSDBA group for its database (dba2) and the OSDBA for ASM group for Oracle Grid Infrastructure (asmdba) as secondary groups. However, the oracle2 user is not a member of the asmoper group, so oracle2 cannot shut down or start up Oracle ASM.

  • An OSDBA group (dba2). During installation, you identify the group dba2 as the OSDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle2. Members of dba2 are granted the SYSDBA privileges for the Oracle Database DB2. Users who connect as SYSDBA are identified as user SYS on DB2.

  • An OSBACKUPDBA group (backupdba2). During installation, you identify the group backupdba2 as the OSDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle2. Members of backupdba2 are granted the SYSBACKUP privileges for the database installed by the user oracle2 to back up the database.

  • An OSDGDBA group (dgdba2). During installation, you identify the group dgdba2 as the OSDGDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle2. Members of dgdba2 are granted the SYSDG privileges to administer Oracle Data Guard for the database installed by the user oracle2.

  • An OSKMDBA group (kmdba2). During installation, you identify the group kmdba2 as the OSKMDBA group for the database installed by the user oracle2. Members of kmdba2 are granted the SYSKM privileges to administer encryption keys for the database installed by the user oracle2.

  • An OSOPER group (oper2). During installation, you identify the group oper2 as the OSOPER group for the database installed by the user oracle2. Members of oper2 are granted the SYSOPER privileges (a limited set of the SYSDBA privileges), including the right to start up and shut down the DB2 database. Users who connect as OSOPER privileges are identified as user PUBLIC on DB2.

  • An Oracle base /u01/app/oracle2 owned by oracle1:oinstall with 775 permissions. The user oracle2 has permissions to install software in this directory, but in no other directory in the /u01/app path.

6.2 Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments

You run the installer software with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation owner user account (oracle or grid). However, before you start the installer, you must configure the environment of the installation owner user account. If needed, you must also create other required Oracle software owners.

This section contains the following topics:

6.2.1 Environment Requirements for Oracle Software Owners

You must make the following changes to configure Oracle software owner environments:

  • Set the installation software owner user (grid, oracle) default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.

  • Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the installation software owner (grid, oracle).

  • Set the software owner's environment variable DISPLAY environment variables in preparation for running an Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) installation.

Caution:

If you have existing Oracle installations that you installed with the user ID that is your Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner, then unset all Oracle environment variable settings for that user. See Section B.5.2, "Unset Oracle Environment Variables" for more information.

6.2.2 Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments

To set the Oracle software owners' environments, follow these steps, for each software owner (grid, oracle):

  1. Start an X terminal session (xterm) on the server where you are running the installation.

  2. Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display on this system, where hostname is the fully qualified name of the local host from which you are accessing the server.

    $ xhost + hostname
    
  3. If you are not logged in as the software owner user, then switch to the software owner user you are configuring. For example, with the grid user:

    $ su - grid
    
  4. To determine the default shell for the user, enter the following command:

    $ echo $SHELL
    
  5. Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:

    • Bash shell (bash):

      $ vi .bash_profile
      
    • Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):

      $ vi .profile
      
    • C shell (csh or tcsh):

      % vi .login
      
  6. Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode creation mask:

    umask 022
    
  7. If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variables are set in the file, then remove these lines from the file.

  8. Save the file, and exit from the text editor.

  9. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:

    • Bash shell:

      $ . ./.bash_profile
      
    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ . ./.profile
      
    • C shell:

      % source ./.login
      
  10. Use the following command to check the PATH environment variable:

    $ echo $PATH
    

    Remove any Oracle environment variables.

  11. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter a command similar to the following to direct X applications to display on the local system:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
      

    In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system (your workstation, or another client) on which you want to display the installer.

  12. If the /tmp directory has less than 1 GB of free space, then identify a file system with at least 1 GB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:

    Note:

    You cannot use a shared file system as the location of the temporary file directory (typically /tmp) for Oracle RAC installation. If you place /tmp on a shared file system, then the installation fails.
    1. Use the df -h command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free space.

    2. If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate permissions on the directory:

      $ sudo - s
      # mkdir /mount_point/tmp
      # chmod 775 /mount_point/tmp
      # exit
      
    3. Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables:

      • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

        $ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
        $ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
        $ export TMP TMPDIR
        
      • C shell:

        % setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
        % setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
        
  13. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following commands:

    $ umask
    $ env | more
    

    Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and that the environment variables you set in this section have the correct values.

6.2.3 Checking Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users

For each installation software owner, check the resource limits for installation, using the following recommended ranges:

Table 6-1 Installation Owner Resource Limit Recommended Ranges

Resource Shell Limit Resource Soft Limit Hard Limit

Open file descriptors

nofile

at least 1024

at least 65536

Number of processes available to a single user

nproc

at least 2047

at least 16384

Size of the stack segment of the process

stack

at least 10240 KB

at least 10240 KB, and at most 32768 KB

Maximum Locked Memory Limit

memlock

at least 90 percent of the current RAM when HugePages memory is enabled and at least 3145728 KB (3 GB) when HugePages memory is disabled

at least 90 percent of the current RAM when HugePages memory is enabled and at least 3145728 KB (3 GB) when HugePages memory is disabled


To check resource limits:

  1. Log in as an installation owner.

  2. Check the soft and hard limits for the file descriptor setting. Ensure that the result is in the recommended range. For example:

    $ ulimit -Sn
    1024
    $ ulimit -Hn
    65536
    
  3. Check the soft and hard limits for the number of processes available to a user. Ensure that the result is in the recommended range. For example:

    $ ulimit -Su
    2047
    $ ulimit -Hu
    16384
    
    
  4. Check the soft limit for the stack setting. Ensure that the result is in the recommended range. For example:

    $ ulimit -Ss
    10240
    $ ulimit -Hs
    32768
    
  5. Repeat this procedure for each Oracle software installation owner.

6.2.4 Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration

If you are on a remote terminal, and the local node has only one visual (which is typical), then use the following syntax to set your user account DISPLAY environment variable:

Bourne, Korn, and Bash shells

$ export DISPLAY=hostname:0

C shell:

$ setenv DISPLAY hostname:0

For example, if you are using the Bash shell, and if your host name is node1, then enter the following command:

$ export DISPLAY=node1:0

To ensure that X11 forwarding does not cause the installation to fail, create a user-level SSH client configuration file for the Oracle software owner user, as follows:

  1. Using any text editor, edit or create the software installation owner's ~/.ssh/config file.

  2. Ensure that the ForwardX11 attribute in the ~/.ssh/config file is set to no. For example:

    Host * 
        ForwardX11 no
    
  3. Ensure that the permissions on the ~/.ssh are secured to the Grid user. For example:

    $ ls -al .ssh
    total 28
    drwx------  2 grid oinstall 4096 Jun 21 2014
    drwx------ 19 grid oinstall 4096 Jun 21 2014
    -rw-r--r--  1 grid oinstall 1202 Jun 21 2014 authorized_keys
    -rwx------  1 grid oinstall  668 Jun 21 2014 id_dsa
    -rwx------  1 grid oinstall  601 Jun 21 2014 id_dsa.pub
    -rwx------  1 grid oinstall 1610 Jun 21 2014 known_hosts
    

6.2.5 Preventing Installation Errors Caused by Terminal Output Commands

During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, OUI uses SSH to run commands and copy files to the other nodes. During the installation, hidden files on the system (for example, .bashrc or .cshrc) will cause makefile and other installation errors if they contain terminal output commands.

To avoid this problem, you must modify these files in each Oracle installation owner user home directory to suppress all output on STDOUT or STDERR (for example, stty, xtitle, and other such commands) as in the following examples:

  • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

    if [ -t 0 ]; then
       stty intr ^C
    fi
    
  • C shell:

    test -t 0
    if ($status == 0) then
       stty intr ^C
    endif
    

    Note:

    When SSH is not available, the Installer uses the rsh and rcp commands instead of ssh and scp.

    If there are hidden files that contain stty commands that are loaded by the remote shell, then OUI indicates an error and stops the installation.

6.3 Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)

Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) provides a set of common interfaces to computer hardware and firmware that system administrators can use to monitor system health and manage the system. Oracle Clusterware can integrate IPMI to provide failure isolation support and to ensure cluster integrity.

You can configure node-termination with IPMI during installation by selecting IPMI from the Failure Isolation Support screen. You can also configure IPMI after installation with crsctl commands.

See Also:

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about how to configure IPMI after installation

6.3.1 Requirements for Enabling IPMI

You must have the following hardware and software configured to enable cluster nodes to be managed with IPMI:

  • Each cluster member node requires a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) running firmware compatible with IPMI version 1.5 or greater, which supports IPMI over LANs, and configured for remote control using LAN.

  • Each cluster member node requires an IPMI driver installed on each node.

  • The cluster requires a management network for IPMI. This can be a shared network, but Oracle recommends that you configure a dedicated network.

  • Each cluster member node's Ethernet port used by BMC must be connected to the IPMI management network.

  • Each cluster member must be connected to the management network.

  • Some server platforms put their network interfaces into a power saving mode when they are powered off. In this case, they may operate only at a lower link speed (for example, 100 MB, instead of 1 GB). For these platforms, the network switch port to which the BMC is connected must be able to auto-negotiate down to the lower speed, or IPMI cannot function properly.

Note:

IPMI operates on the physical hardware platform through the network interface of the baseboard management controller (BMC). Depending on your system configuration, an IPMI-initiated restart of a server can affect all virtual environments hosted on the server. Contact your hardware and operating system vendor for more information.

6.3.2 Configuring the IPMI Management Network

You can configure the BMC for DHCP, or for static IP addresses. Oracle recommends that you configure the BMC for dynamic IP address assignment using DHCP. To use this option, you must have a DHCP server configured to assign the BMC IP addresses.

Note:

If you configure IPMI, and you use Grid Naming Service (GNS), then you still must configure separate addresses for the IPMI interfaces. Because the IPMI adapter is not seen directly by the host, the IPMI adapter is not visible to GNS as an address on the host.

6.3.3 Configuring the IPMI Driver

For Oracle Clusterware to communicate with the BMC, the IPMI driver must be installed permanently on each node, so that it is available on system restarts. The IPMI driver is available on the Asianux Linux, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server distributions supported with this release.

6.3.3.1 Configuring the Open IPMI Driver

On Linux systems, the OpenIPMI driver is the supported driver for Oracle Clusterware deployments with IPMI.

You can install and configure the driver dynamically by manually loading the required modules. Contact your Linux distribution vendor for information about how to configure IPMI for your distribution.

The following example shows how to configure the Open IPMI driver manually on Oracle Linux:

  1. Log in as root.

  2. Run the following commands:

    # /sbin/modprobe ipmi_msghandler
    # /sbin/modprobe ipmi_si
    # /sbin/modprobe ipmi_devintf
    
  3. (Optional) Run the command /sbin/lsmod |grep ipmi to confirm that the IPMI modules are loaded. For example:

    # /sbin/lsmod | grep ipmi
    ipmi_devintf           12617  0
    ipmi_si                33377  0
    ipmi_msghandler        33701  2 ipmi_devintf,ipmi_si
    

    Note:

    You can install the modules whether or not a BMC is present.
  4. Open the /etc/rc.local file using a text editor, navigate to the end of the file, and enter lines similar to the following so that the modprobe commands in step 2 will be run automatically on system restart:

    # START IPMI ON SYSTEM RESTART
    /sbin/modprobe ipmi_msghandler
    /sbin/modprobe ipmi_si
    /sbin/modprobe ipmi_devintf
    

    Note:

    On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems, add the modprobe commands above to /etc/init.d/boot.local.
  5. Check to ensure that the Linux system is recognizing the IPMI device, using the following command:

    ls -l /dev/ipmi0
    

    If the IPMI device has been dynamically loaded, then the output should be similar to the following:

    # ls -l /dev/ipmi0
    crw-------  1 root root 253, 0 Sep 23 06:29 /dev/ipmi0
    

    If you do see the device file output, then the IPMI driver is configured, and you can ignore the following step.

    If you do not see the device file output, then the udevd daemon is not set up to create device files automatically. Proceed to the next step.

  6. Determine the device major number for the IPMI device using the command grep ipmi /proc/devices. For example:

    # grep ipmi /proc/devices
    253 ipmidev
    

    In the preceding example, the device major number is 253.

  7. Run the mknod command to create a directory entry and i-node for the IPMI device, using the device major number. For example:

    # mknod /dev/ipmi0 c 253 0x0
    

    The permissions on /dev/ipmi0 in the preceding example allow the device to be accessible only by root. The device should only be accessed by root, to prevent a system vulnerability.

6.3.3.2 Configuring the BMC

Configure BMC on each node for remote control using LAN for IPMI-based node fencing to function properly. You can configure BMC from the BIOS prompt, using a distribution-specific management utility, or you can configure BMC using publicly available utilities, such as the following:

IPMItool, which is available for Linux:

http://ipmitool.sourceforge.net

IPMIutil, which is available for Linux and Windows:

http://ipmiutil.sourceforge.net

Refer to the documentation for the configuration tool you select for details about using the tool to configure the BMC.

When you configure the BMC on each node, you must complete the following:

  • Enable IPMI over LAN, so that the BMC can be controlled over the management network.

  • Enable dynamic IP addressing using DHCP or GNS, or configure a static IP address for the BMC.

  • Establish an administrator user account and password for the BMC.

  • Configure the BMC for VLAN tags, if you will use the BMC on a tagged VLAN.

The configuration tool you use does not matter, but these conditions must be met for the BMC to function properly.

6.3.3.2.1 Example of BMC Configuration Using IPMItool

The following is an example of configuring BMC using ipmitool (version 1.8.6).

  1. Log in as root.

  2. Verify that ipmitool can communicate with the BMC using the IPMI driver by using the command bmc info, and looking for a device ID in the output. For example:

    # ipmitool bmc info
    Device ID                 : 32
    .
    .
    .
    

    If ipmitool is not communicating with the BMC, then review the section "Configuring the Open IPMI Driver" and ensure that the IPMI driver is running.

  3. Enable IPMI over LAN using the following procedure:

    1. Determine the channel number for the channel used for IPMI over LAN. Beginning with channel 1, run the following command until you find the channel that displays LAN attributes (for example, the IP address):

      # ipmitool lan print 1
       
      . . . 
      IP Address Source       : 0x01
      IP Address              : 192.0.2.10
      . . .
      
    2. Turn on LAN access for the channel found. For example, where the channel is 1:

      # ipmitool lan set 1 access on
      
  4. Configure IP address settings for IPMI using one of the following procedure:

    • Using dynamic IP addressing (DHCP)

      Dynamic IP addressing is the default assumed by Oracle Universal Installer. Oracle recommends that you select this option so that nodes can be added or removed from the cluster more easily, as address settings can be assigned automatically.

      Note:

      Use of DHCP requires a DHCP server on the subnet.

      Set the channel. For example, if the channel is 1, then enter the following command to enable DHCP:

      # ipmitool lan set 1 ipsrc dhcp
      
    • Using static IP Addressing

      If the BMC shares a network connection with the operating system, then the IP address must be on the same subnet. You must set not only the IP address, but also the proper values for netmask, and the default gateway. For example, assuming the channel is 1:

      # ipmitool lan set 1 ipaddr 192.168.0.55
      # ipmitool lan set 1 netmask 255.255.255.0
      # ipmitool lan set 1 defgw ipaddr 192.168.0.1
      

      Note that the specified address (192.168.0.55) is associated only with the BMC, and cannot respond to normal pings.

  5. Establish an administration account with a username and password, using the following procedure (assuming the channel is 1):

    1. Set BMC to require password authentication for ADMIN access over LAN. For example:

      # ipmitool lan set 1 auth ADMIN MD5,PASSWORD
      
    2. List the account slots on the BMC and identify an unused slot. An unused slot that you can use is a slot less than the maximum ID, and not listed. For example, for more recent versions of the IPMI tool, you can use the command ipmitool user summary

      # ipmitool user summary 1
      Maximum IDs         : 20
      Enabled User Count  : 3
      Fixed Name Count    : 2
      # ipmitool user list 1
      ID  Name     Enabled Callin  Link Auth  IPMI Msg   Channel Priv Li
      1            true    false   false      true       USER
      2   root     true    false   false      true       ADMINISTRATOR
      3   sysoper  true    true    false      true       OPERATOR
      12  default  true    true    false      true       NO ACCESS
      13           true    false   true       false      CALLBACK
      

      There are 20 possible slots, and the first unused slot is number 4.

    3. Assign the desired administrator user name and password and enable messaging for the identified slot. (Note that for IPMI v1.5 the user name and password can be at most 16 characters.) Also, set the privileges level for that slot when accessed over LAN (channel 1) to ADMIN (level 4). For example, where username is the administrative user name, and password is the password:

      # ipmitool user set name 4 username
      # ipmitool user set password 4 password
      # ipmitool user enable 4
      # ipmitool channel setaccess 1 4 privilege=4
      # ipmitool channel setaccess 1 4 link=on
      # ipmitool channel setaccess 1 4 ipmi=on
      
    4. Verify the setup using the command lan print 1. The output should appear similar to the following. Note that the items in bold text are the settings made in the preceding configuration steps, and comments or alternative options are indicated within brackets []:

      # ipmitool lan print 1
      Set in Progress         : Set Complete
      Auth Type Support       : NONE MD2 MD5 PASSWORD
      Auth Type Enable        : Callback : MD2 MD5
                              : User     : MD2 MD5
                              : Operator : MD2 MD5
                              : Admin    : MD5 PASSWORD
                              : OEM      : MD2 MD5
      IP Address Source       : DHCP Address [or Static Address]
      IP Address              : 192.0.2.10
      Subnet Mask             : 255.255.255.0
      MAC Address             : 00:14:22:23:fa:f9
      SNMP Community String   : public
      IP Header               : TTL=0x40 Flags=0x40 Precedence=… 
      Default Gateway IP      : 192.0.2.1
      Default Gateway MAC     : 00:00:00:00:00:00
      .
      .
      .
      # ipmitool channel getaccess 1 4
      Maximum User IDs     : 10
      Enabled User IDs     : 2
       
      User ID              : 4
      User Name            : username [This is the administration user]
      Fixed Name           : No
      Access Available     : call-in / callback
      Link Authentication  : enabled
      IPMI Messaging       : enabled
      Privilege Level      : ADMINISTRATOR
      
  6. Verify that the BMC is accessible and controllable from a remote node in your cluster using the bmc info command. For example, if node2-ipmi is the network host name assigned the IP address of node2's BMC, then to verify the BMC on node node2 from node1, with the administrator account username and the password mypassword, enter the following command on node1:

    $ ipmitool -H node2-ipmi -U username -P mypassword bmc info
    

    If the BMC is correctly configured, then you should see information about the BMC on the remote node. If you see an error message, such as Error: Unable to establish LAN session, then you must check the BMC configuration on the remote node.

6.4 Determining Root Script Execution Plan

During Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, the installer requires you to run scripts with superuser (or root) privileges to complete a number of system configuration tasks.

You can continue to run scripts manually as root, or you can delegate to the installer the privilege to run configuration steps as root, using one of the following options:

  • Use the root password: Provide the password to the installer as you are providing other configuration information. The password is used during installation, and not stored. The root user password must be identical on each cluster member node.

    To enable root command delegation, provide the root password to the installer when prompted.

  • Use Sudo: Sudo is a UNIX and Linux utility that allows members of the sudoers list privileges to run individual commands as root.

    To enable Sudo, have a system administrator with the appropriate privileges configure a user that is a member of the sudoers list, and provide the username and password when prompted during installation.