1 Introduction to Tools and Products that Support Migration

This chapter contains the following sections:

Migration Overview

Before migrating your application to Oracle Database, you must be aware of several key points that are described in Oracle Database Concepts.

When discussing the migration of a database-centered enterprise, it is useful to keep in mind that the actual migration of database schema and data is only a part of the process. The migration of a core business solution often involves several databases and applications that work together to deliver the product and services that drive the revenue of an organization. For more information about preparing a migration plan, see Oracle SQL Developer User's Guide.

Oracle Database 12c Release 1 Features for Migration Support

The following features introduced in Oracle Database 12c Release 1, collectively enhance the migration process of non-Oracle database applications to Oracle Database:

SQL Translation Framework

A key part of migrating non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database involves the conversion of non-Oracle SQL statements to SQL statements that are acceptable to Oracle Database. The conversion of the non-Oracle SQL statements of the applications is a manual and tedious process. To minimize the effort, or to eliminate the necessity for converting these statements, Oracle Database Release 12c introduces a new feature called SQL Translation Framework using which these SQL statements can be accepted from client applications and then can be translated at run-time before execution.

Inside the Database, the SQL statements are translated by the SQL Translator, registered with the SQL Translation Profile, to handle the translation for the non-Oracle client application. If an error occurs while a SQL statement is executed, then the SQL Translator can also translate the Oracle error code and the ANSI SQLSTATE to the vendor-specific values expected by the application. The translated statements are then saved in the SQL Translation Profile, so that you can examine and edit at your discretion.

The advantages of SQL Translation Framework are the following:

  • The translation of SQL statements, Oracle error codes, and ANSI SQLSTATE is automatic.

  • The translations are centralized and examinable.

  • You can extract the translations and insert them back to the applications at a later point.

Support for MySQL Applications

Oracle Database driver for MySQL eases migration of applications initially developed to work with MySQL database. This feature has two key benefits:

  • It enables the enterprise to reuse the same application to use data stored in both MySQL Database and Oracle Database

  • It reduces the cost and complexity of migrating MySQL applications to Oracle Database

Oracle Database supports all MySQL functions in the client interface with the same semantics. SQL statements are translated with the following restrictions:

  • The following SQL constructs are ignored:

    • ENGINE specification for a table as there is only one storage engine, namely Oracle

    • The ENUM and SET types are used as VARCHAR2. Therefore, these values are not converted to their index value if retrieved in a numeric context.

  • The following SQL constructs give an error, so that the application is forced to recode:


    • MySQL-specific NLS commands

  • The following SQL commands give Oracle-specific output or have Oracle-specific effect:

    • SHOW DATABASES shows only one database, namely oracle

    • SHOW ENGINES shows the Oracle engine only

    • CREATE PROCEDURE must follow Oracle PL/SQL specification in Oracle Database 12c Release 1.

  • The following data types have different behavior:

    • Columns of ENUM data types are created as VARCHAR2(4000). No validation is performed for insertion.

    • Columns of SET data types are created as VARCHAR2(64). No validation is performed for insertion.

For further details, see Chapter 6, "MySQL Client Library Driver for Oracle" and Chapter 7, "API Reference for Oracle MySQL Client Library Driver".

Identity Columns

Oracle Database 12c Release 1 implements ANSI-compliant IDENTITY columns. Migration from database systems that use identity columns is simplified and can take advantage of this new functionality.

This feature implements auto increment by enhancing DEFAULT or DEFAULT ON NULL semantics for use by SEQUENCE.NEXTVAL and SYS_GUID, supports built-in functions and implicit return of default values.

Example 1-1 creates a table with an identity column, which generated by default. When explicit nulls are inserted into the identity column, the default behavior is to use the sequence generator. For further details, see Oracle Database SQL Language Reference.

Example 1-1 How to create an identity column

                   c2 VARCHAR2(10));
INSERT INTO t1(c2) VALUES (’abc');
INSERT INTO t1 (c1, c2) VALUES (null, ’xyz');
SELECT c1, c2 FROM t1;

Implicit Statement Results

Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1, Oracle supports results of SQL statements executed in a stored procedure to be returned implicitly to the client applications without the necessity to explicitly use a REF CURSOR. This feature eliminates the overhead of re-writing the client-side code.

Implicit statement results enable you to write a stored procedure, where each intended query (the statement after the FOR keyword) is part of the OPEN cursor variable. The PL/SQL layer adds the equivalent capability and enables SELECT statements to pass the results to the client, when code is migrated to Oracle Database from other vendors environments. The stored procedures can return the results directly to the client with the DBMS_SQL.RETURN_RESULT procedure. The SQL*Plus FORMAT command and its variations may be invoked to customize the output.

For information about the DBMS_SQL package, see Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference. For information about how to use format output, SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference.

JDBC Support for Implicit Results

Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1, JDBC applications provide support for implicit results through the following new functions:

  • getMoreResults

  • getMoreResults(int)

  • getResultSet

You can use these methods to retrieve and process the implicit results returned by PL/SQL procedures or blocks, as demonstrated in Example 1-2.

Example 1-2 Retrieving and Processing Implicit Results from PL/SQL Blocks

Suppose you have a procedure called foo:

 create procedure foo as
  c1 sys_refcursor;
  c2 sys_refcursor;
  open c1 for select * from hr.employees;
  dbms_sql.return_result(c1); --return to client
  -- open 1 more cursor
  open c2 for select * from hr.departments;
  dbms_sql.return_result (c2); --return to client

The following code demonstrates how to retrieve the implicit results returned by PL/SQL procedures using the JDBC getMoreResults methods:

String sql = "begin foo; end;";
Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(jdbcURL, user, password);
 try {
        Statement stmt = conn.createStatement (); 
        stmt.executeQuery (sql);
        while (stmt.getMoreResults())
              ResultSet rs = stmt.getResultSet();
              while (rs.next())
                   /* get results */

For more information, see Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide

OCI Support for Implicit Results

Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1, Oracle Call Interface (OCI) provides support for implicit results through a new function, OCIStmtGetNextResult(). It is called iteratively by C applications to retrieve each implicit result from stored procedures and anonymous blocks. Implicit results consume rows directly from a stored procedure without going through a RefCursor.

Example 1-3 shows how to use the OCIStmtGetNextResult() function to retrieve and process the implicit results returned by either a PL/SQL stored procedure or an anonymous block:

Example 1-3 Using OCIStmtGetNextResult() to Process Implicit Results

OCIStmt *stmthp;
  ub4      rsetcnt;
  void    *result;
  ub4      rtype;
  char    *sql = "begin foo; end;";
  OCIHandleAlloc((void *)envhp, (void **)&stmthp,
                  OCI_HTYPE_STMT, 0, (void **)0);
  /* Prepare and execute the PL/SQL procedure. */
  OCIStmtPrepare(stmthp, errhp, (oratext *)sql, strlen(sql),
                 OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, OCI_DEFAULT);
  OCIStmtExecute(svchp, stmthp, errhp, 1, 0,
                 (const OCISnapshot *)0,
                 (OCISnapshot *)0, OCI_DEFAULT);
  /* Now check if any implicit results are available. */
  OCIAttrGet((void *)stmthp, OCI_HTYPE_STMT, &rsetcnt, 0,
             OCI_ATTR_IMPLICIT_RESULT_COUNT, errhp);
  /* Loop and retrieve the implicit result-sets.
   * ResultSets are returned in the same order as in the PL/SQL
   * procedure/block.
  while (OCIStmtGetNextResult(stmthp, errhp, &result, &rtype,
                              OCI_DEFAULT) == OCI_SUCCESS)
{    /* Check the type of implicit ResultSet, currently
     * only supported type is OCI_RESULT_TYPE_SELECT
*/    if (rtype == OCI_RESULT_TYPE_SELECT)
{      OCIStmt *rsethp = (OCIStmt *)result;
       /* Perform normal OCI actions to define and fetch rows. */
    }    else
      printf("unknown result type %d\n", rtype);
     /* The result set handle should not be freed by the user. */
  }   OCIHandleFree(stmthp, OCI_HTYPE_STMT); /* All implicit result-sets are also freed. */

ODBC Support for Implicit Results

Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1, ODBC applications provide support for implicit results through a new function, SQLMoreResults(). ODBC driver is enhanced to make use of the following new OCI APIs that enhance the migration process:

  • OCIStmtGetNextResult() function



ODBC support for implicit results enables the migration of Sybase and SQL Server applications that use multiple result sets bundled in the stored procedures. Oracle achieves this by sending the statements or procedures to the server, where the non-Oracle SQL is translated to Oracle syntax. Example 1-4 and Example 1-5 demonstrate how to retrieve implicit results in ODBC. See Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for more information on this topic.

Example 1-4 Using ODBC to retrun implicit results with DBMS_SQL.RETURN_RESULT

create or replace procedure foo
c1 sys_refcursor;
c2 sys_refcursor;
  open c1 for select employee_id, first_name from employees where employee_id=7369;
  open c2 for select department_id, department_name from departments where rownum <=2;

Example 1-5 Using ODBC to return implicit results with SQLMoreResults

SQLLEN enind,jind;
SQLCHAR empname[STR_LEN] = "";
//Allocate HENV, HDBC, HSTMT handles
rc = SQLPrepare(hstmt, "begin foo(); end;", SQL_NTS);
rc = SQLExecute(hstmt);
//Bind columns for the first SELECT query in the procedure foo( )
rc = SQLBindCol (hstmt, 1, SQL_C_ULONG, &eno, 0, &jind);
rc = SQLBindCol (hstmt, 2, SQL_C_CHAR, empname, sizeof (empname),
//so on for all the columns that needs to be fetched as per the SELECT
//query in the procedure.
//Fetch all results for first SELECT query
while ((rc = SQLFetch (hstmt)) != SQL_NO_DATA)
//do something
//Again check if there are any results available by calling
//SQLMoreResults. SQLMoreResults will return SQL_SUCCESS if any
//results are available else returns errors appropriately as explained
//in MSDN ODBC spec.
rc = SQLMoreResults ( hstmt );
if( rc == SQL_SUCCESS)
//If the columns for the second SELECT query are different the rebind
//the columns for the second SELECT SQL statement.
rc = SQLBindCol (hstmt, 1,…);
rc = SQLBindCol (hstmt, 2,…);
//Fetch the second result set
while ((rc = SQLFetch (hstmt)) != SQL_NO_DATA)
//do something
SQLDisconnect (hdbc);

SQLFreeConnect (hdbc);
SQLFreeEnv (henv);

Enhanced SQL to PL/SQL Bind Handling

In earlier releases of Oracle Database, a SQL expression could not invoke a PL/SQL function that had a formal parameter or return type that was not a SQL data type.

Starting with Oracle Database Release 12c, a PL/SQL anonymous block, a SQL CALL statement, or a SQL query can invoke a PL/SQL function that has parameters of the following types:

  • Boolean

  • Record declared in a package specification

  • Collection declared in a package specification

Also, the SQL TABLE operator is enhanced, so that you can query on PL/SQL collections of locally scoped types as an argument to TABLE operator. Here, the collections can be of nested table types, VARRAY, or PL/SQL index table that are indexed by PLS_INTEGER.

This feature, in particular, the extended flexibility of the TABLE operator enables non-Oracle stored procedure code to be easily migrated to PL/SQL.

Example 1-6 shows how to dynamically call a subprogram with a nested table formal parameter. See Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference for more information on this topic.

Example 1-6 Invoking a subprogram with a nested table formal parameter

  PROCEDURE print_names (x names);
END pkg;
  PROCEDURE print_names (x names) IS
END pkg;
  fruits   pkg.names;
  dyn_stmt VARCHAR2(3000);
  fruits := pkg.names('apple', 'banana', 'cherry');
  dyn_stmt := 'BEGIN print_names(:x); END;';
  EXECUTE IMMEDIATE dyn_stmt USING fruits;

Native SQL Support for Query Row Limits and Row Offsets

Starting with this release, Oracle Database provides a row limiting clause that enables native SQL support for query row limits and row offsets. If your application has queries that limit the number of rows returned or offset the starting row of the results, this feature significantly reduces SQL complexity for such queries.

Example 1-7 shows how to limit bulk selection with the FETCH FIRST clause. See Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for more information on this topic.

Example 1-7 How to limit bulk selection

  TYPE SalList IS TABLE OF employees.salary%TYPE;
  sals SalList;
  SELECT salary BULK COLLECT INTO sals FROM employees
    WHERE ROWNUM <= 50;
  SELECT salary BULK COLLECT INTO sals FROM employees
    SAMPLE (10);
  SELECT salary BULK COLLECT INTO sals FROM employees

JDBC Driver Support for Application Migration

Many applications that you want to migrate to Oracle Database from other databases have Java applications that use JDBC to connect to the database. To facilitate SQL translation, Oracle Database 12c Release 1 introduces a new set of JDBC APIs that are specific to SQL translation.

ODBC Driver Support for Application Migration

ODBC driver supports the migration of third-party applications to Oracle Databases by using the SQL Translation Framework. This enables non-Oracle database SQL statements to run against Oracle Database. See "How to Use SQL Translation Framework" before migratng third-party ODBC application to Oracle Database.

To use this feature with an ODBC application, you must specify the service name, which was created as part of SQL Translation Framework setup, as the ServerName= entry in the .odbc.ini file.

If you require support for translation of Oracle errors (ORA errors) to your the native database, once your application starts running against Oracle Database, then you must enable the SQLTranslateErrors=T entry in the .odbc.ini file. See "SQL Translation of ODBC Applications" for more information on this topic.

Other Oracle Products that Enable Migration

Oracle recommends the use of the following products as part of an overall migration strategy:

OEM Tuning and Performance Packs

For every type of migration, a few of the SQL statements used in the application must change, and some indexes must be re-built. Oracle SQL Tuning and Performance Packs provide guidance for the optimization step of the application migration.

Oracle GoldenGate

Oracle GoldenGate is a comprehensive software package for enabling the replication of data in heterogeneous data environments. The product set enables high availability solutions, real-time data integration, transactional change data capture, data replication, transformations, and verification between operational and analytical enterprise systems.

Oracle GoldenGate enables the exchange and manipulation of data at the transaction level among multiple, heterogeneous platforms across the enterprise. Its modular architecture provides the flexibility to extract and replicate selected data records, transactional changes, and changes to DDL (data definition language) across a variety of topologies.

When you migrate very large databases, the actual process of copying data from one database to another is time-consuming. During this time, the enterprise must continue delivering services using the old solution, which changes some of the data. These run-time changes must be captured and propagated to Oracle Database. Oracle GoldenGate captures these changes and enables side-by-side testing to ensure that the new solution performs as planned.

Oracle Database Gateways

Oracle Database Gateways address the needs of disparate data access. In a heterogeneously distributed environment, Gateways make it possible to integrate with any number of non-Oracle systems from an Oracle application. They enable integration with data stores such as IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server and Excel, transaction managers like IBM CICS and message queuing systems like IBM WebSphere MQ.

For more information about Oracle Database Gateways, see http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/gateways/index.html

Oracle SQL Developer

Oracle SQL Developer, as described in Oracle SQL Developer User's Guide, has a large suite of features that enable migration, including the following features:

  • Support for database migration, such as schema, data, and server-side objects, from non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database (Migration Wizard)

  • Support for application migration, including SQL statement pre-processing and data type translation support (Application Migration Assistant)

Migration Support for Other Database Vendors

Oracle provides migration support for applications running on various databases. Table 1-1 lists the supported database versions for migration using Oracle SQL Developer; this is not a comprehensive list. SQL translation may not work properly for every database.

Table 1-1 Supported Database Versions for Migration Using Oracle SQL Developer

RDBMS Supported Versions

SQL Server

7.0, 2000, 2005,2008

Sybase Adaptive Server (ASE)

12, 15


97, 2000, 2002 and 2003




AS400 V4R3, V4R5


8, 9




7.3, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4

Table 1-2 provides information about the applications supported in several third-party databases. Note that while translation framework is available for DB2 LUW, a translator for DB2 is not available.

Table 1-2 Supported Applications in Databases

Application SQL Server DB2 LUW DB2 AS400 Sybase ASE Teradata Informix

Oracle SQL Developer







Oracle Migration Workbench







SQL Translation Framework (SQL Translation Profile)







SQL Translation Framework (SQL Translator)