Refer to Changes in This Release for Oracle Database Installation Guide for information about the new features and products installed with this release.
The Oracle Database installation process consists of the following steps:
Read the release notes: Read Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux before you begin the installation. The release notes are available with the platform-specific documentation.
The latest version of the release notes is available on Oracle Technology Network at:
Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in the media pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those components for which you have purchased licenses.
Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which licenses have not been purchased.
See Also:Oracle Database Licensing Information
Plan the installation: This chapter describes the Oracle products that you can install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.
You can also refer to Appendix J, which covers frequently asked questions about installing Oracle Database components, such as how to install Oracle Database if the site uses Oracle applications or if you need multiple Oracle Database connections.
Configure Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPMs: Chapter 3 describes how to use Oracle Preinstallation RPMs to configure your operating system for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
Complete preinstallation tasks: Chapter 4 describes preinstallation tasks that you must complete before installing the product. Additionally, see Chapter 5 for information on configuring users, groups and environments, Chapter 6 for Oracle Restart preinstallation tasks, and Appendix E for checking the network setup.
Install the software: Use the following sections to install Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:
Chapter 6 describes how to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server.
Chapter 7 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Database and how to clone an Oracle home.
Appendix A provides information about performing silent, or response file installations, which you may want to use if you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database.
Appendix B provides information about cloning an Oracle home.
Appendix D provides information about completing installation related configuration tasks manually.
Appendix H describes globalization support information.
Appendix I provides troubleshooting advice in case you encounter problems with the installation.
Complete postinstallation tasks: Chapter 8 describes recommended and required postinstallation tasks.
Get started using Oracle Database: Use the following sections to get started with Oracle Database:
Chapter 9 describes how to verify the contents of the installed Oracle Database, how to start various tools, and how to locate various files.
Appendix C describes the network-attached storage (NAS) devices, which you can use to store Oracle database files and Oracle software.
Appendix F describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture, which is a set of guidelines that ensures reliable Oracle installations that require little maintenance.
Appendix G explains the method to manage Oracle Database port numbers.
Remove Oracle database software: Chapter 10 describes how to remove Oracle Database software.
This section contains information that you must consider before deciding how to install this product. It contains the following sections:
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide were current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published, review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support website for the most up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. The My Oracle Support website is available at:
You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After logging in, from the menu options, select the Certifications tab. On the Certifications page, use the Certification Search options to search by Product, Release, and Platform. You can also search using the Certification Quick Link options such as Product Delivery, and Lifetime Support.
You can use Oracle SQL Developer to view metadata and data of several non-Oracle databases. Refer to "Database Certification for SQL Developer (Oracle and Third-Party)" in Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide for more information.
This product supports multiple Oracle homes. So, you can install this release or earlier releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different Oracle home directories.
You must install Oracle Database into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 12c software into an existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory.
You can install this release more than once on the same system if each installation is installed in a separate Oracle home directory.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server provides the infrastructure to include your single-instance database in an enterprise grid architecture. Oracle Database 12c combines these infrastructure products into one software installation called the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. On a single-instance database, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) software.
To use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.
See Also:Chapter 6, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" for more information about installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
When you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, Oracle Universal Installer configures the single-node version of Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS). Specifically, CSS is a daemon process that is configured by the
The CSS service is required to enable synchronization between an Oracle ASM instance and the database instances that rely on it for database file storage. Because the service must be running before an Oracle ASM instance or database instance starts, it is configured to start automatically by Oracle Restart before the Oracle ASM instance is started. It must be running if an Oracle database is using Oracle ASM for database file storage.
For single-instance installations, the CSS daemon is installed in and runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home which is the same home that runs Oracle ASM.
Note:On cluster systems with Oracle RAC installations, the CSS daemon is configured during the Oracle Clusterware installation. If the system is running Oracle Clusterware, then see Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX for information about removing Oracle RAC or Oracle Clusterware.
During a Typical installation, you create your database with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), and automatic memory management is enabled. If you choose Advanced installation, then you can either specify memory allocation manually, or enable automatic memory management.
With automatic memory management, the Oracle Database instances automatically manage and tune memory for you. With automatic memory management, you choose a memory target, and the instance automatically distributes memory between the system global area (SGA) and the instance program global area (instance PGA). As memory requirements change, the instance dynamically redistributes memory between the SGA and instance PGA.
You can enable automatic memory management either during, or after the database installation. Enabling automatic memory management after installation involves a shutdown and restart of the database.
See Also:"Managing Memory" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
HugePages is a feature integrated into the Linux kernel with release 2.6 and can provide enhanced performance. You can choose to configure HugePages. However, this feature is an advanced configuration option and is not a requirement. Refer to your distribution documentation and to Oracle Technology Network and My Oracle Support for more information.
The HugePages feature allocates non-swappable memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
See Also:Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems for a complete list of HugePages restrictions
You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, as follows:
When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database by selecting the Create and configure a database option, Oracle Universal Installer displays a series of screens that enable you to specify all the required information to install the Oracle Database software and create a database.
Oracle Universal Installer provides you the following options:
Desktop Class: Select this option if you are installing on a laptop or desktop class system. This option includes a starter database and allows minimal configuration. This option is designed for those who want to quickly set up a database.
Server Class: Select this option if you are installing on a server class system, such as what you would use when deploying Oracle Database in a production data center. This option allows for more advanced configuration options. Advanced configuration options available with this option include Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM, backup and recovery configuration, integration with Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, and more fine-grained memory tuning, among others.
Furthermore, the Server Class option provides you with the following installation types:
Typical: Select this installation method to quickly install Oracle Database. This installation type requires minimal user input. Oracle Universal Installer installs the software and optionally creates a general-purpose database using the information that you specify on the screen. It is the default installation type.
Advanced: Select this installation type to complete any of the following tasks:
Select a database character set or different product languages.
Create the EXAMPLE tablespace during the installation.
Create a database on a different file system from the software.
Specify different passwords for administrative schemas.
Configure recovery options.
Configure Oracle Configuration Manager.
In the Select Database Edition screen, if you select Enterprise Edition, then Oracle Universal Installer automatically selects the components most customers need for their Oracle Database installation.
See Also:"Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines" for additional information about Oracle database installation
By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start Oracle Universal Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These automated installation methods are useful if you must perform multiple installations on similarly configured systems or if the system where you want to install the software does not have X Window System software installed.
When you use a response file, you can run Oracle Universal Installer in the following modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information:
Silent Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response file that specifies all required information, and specify the
-silent option when starting Oracle Universal Installer. None of the Oracle Universal Installer screens are displayed.
Response File Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file mode if you do not specify all required information in the response file.
For more information about these modes and about how to complete an installation using response files, see Appendix A.
You can choose one of the following database editions when installing Oracle Database 12c:
Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options and database configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing. This option also allows you to enable or disable individual components from a components list.
Standard Edition: This installation type is designed for department-level or workgroup-level applications and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It is engineered to provide core relational database management services and options. It installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution, replication, web features, and it helps build business-critical applications.
Standard Edition One: This installation type is designed for department-level, workgroup-level, or web applications. From single-instance environments for small business to highly distributed branch environments, Oracle Database Standard Edition One includes all the features necessary to build business-critical applications.
Standard Edition 2: This installation type is designed for department-level or workgroup-level applications and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It is engineered to provide core relational database management services and options. It installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution, replication, web features, and it helps build business-critical applications.
You must install Oracle Database Client separately. You cannot install it during an Oracle Database installation. See Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for Linux for installation instructions.
The installation process is the same for all the database editions.
Ensure that you install only those products for which you have a valid license.
See Also:Oracle Database Licensing Information for more information about the features available with each Oracle Database edition and for information about licensing
Oracle issues security alerts as needed for vulnerability fixes that are determined to be too critical to wait for distribution in the next Critical Patch Update.
During the database installation, in the Configure Security Updates screen Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to provide a security contact. Select one of the following options:
Provide an email address to receive security information for your installation.
Provide a My Oracle Support email address or account name to receive security information for your installation, and to enroll your system for Security Updates. You can receive information about alerts through My Oracle Support.
You can choose not to provide this information, but Oracle strongly recommends that you configure a security notification contact.
The information collected by Security Updates is limited to configuration information. The data collected does not include personally identifiable information (except for a local contact name in case of transmission problems). You may still use all licensed Oracle functionality if you decline to enable Security Updates.
To choose not to receive security notifications, leave all fields in the Configure Security Updates screen blank, and click Next to continue.
If you provide your My Oracle Support credentials, then Security Updates automatically gathers configuration information regarding your installed Oracle products and uploads it to Oracle's support systems. You can access the information it collects through your My Oracle Support account, and review health check recommendations, patch recommendations and other recommendations for your system in addition to security alerts.
See Also:The Oracle Security Policies page, which is available from the following URL:
During the Oracle Database installation, you can choose to create an Oracle database as part of the installation. If you choose to create an Oracle database, then Oracle Universal Installer uses Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create it. You can create the database with one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed for a variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types, or create a customized database to meet your requirements.
This section describes the following database configuration options:
Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or customize during the installation:
General Purpose/Transaction Processing
See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.
Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in one of two modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:
During an Oracle Database installation, if you choose to create a preconfigured database type, then Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the minimum amount of information required to create a database of the type you choose. It then runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in silent or response file mode to create the database after it installs the software.
Note:Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a database if you have not previously created one.
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from the Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using the screens in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can either modify one of the preconfigured database types or customize the database.
Note:If you use this method to create a database, then click Help on any of the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant screens for a description of the information that you must specify on that screen.
If you create a database during the installation, you can specify one of the following storage options for database files:
Note:Installing files on raw devices is no longer an option during installation. You must use a file system or Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
If you use the file system option, then Oracle Database Configuration Assistant creates the database files in a directory on a file system mounted on the computer. Oracle recommends that the file system be separate from the file systems used by the operating system or the Oracle software. The file system can be any of the following:
A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system
If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID devices, then Oracle recommends that you follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) recommendations and distribute the database files over many disks.
A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a RAID device
If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle recommends that you use the stripe and mirror everything (SAME) methodology to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you do not have to specify multiple file system mount points for the database storage.
A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network-attached storage (NAS) device. You also have the option to use Direct NFS Client, which simplifies the administration of NFS configurations and also improves performance.
If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on them.
"General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices" for NAS certification information
If you use the Advanced database creation option, then you can also use the Oracle Managed Files feature with the new database. If you use this feature, then you must specify only the database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting database files.
See Also:"Specifying Oracle Managed Files at Database Creation" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) is a high-performance storage management solution. For Oracle Database files, it simplifies the management of a dynamic database environment, for example, creating and laying out databases and managing disk space.
Oracle ASM can be used with single database installations, multiple database installations, and in Oracle RAC environments. It can be used with databases created in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3 or later). However, Oracle Database 12c databases must use Oracle ASM from Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c or later. Oracle ASM is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If you plan to use Oracle ASM, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install and create the database. If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade.
See Also:Chapter 6, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" for more information about installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
Oracle ASM manages the storage of all database files, such as redo logs, control files, and data pump export files.
Oracle ASM can manage the Oracle Database executable binary files and any other database files by creating a file system with Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System. Although Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System is cluster-aware, it also works as a file system on a single-instance database. Oracle Automatic Storage Management provides storage management for both cluster environments and single instance database environments.
See Also:"Introducing Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
At a high level, implementing Oracle ASM involves allocating partitioned disks for Oracle Database with preferences for striping and mirroring. Oracle ASM manages the disk space for you. This helps avoid the need for traditional disk management tools, such as Logical Volume Managers (LVM), file systems, and the numerous commands necessary to manage both. The synchronization between Oracle ASM and the database instance is handled by CSS.
The following are components of an Oracle ASM installation:
A disk group is a set of disk devices that Oracle ASM manages as a single unit. Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk device, such as a RAID storage array or logical volume, or a partition on a physical disk. In most cases, disk groups consist of one or more individual physical disks. To enable Oracle ASM to balance I/O operations and storage efficiently within the disk group, you must ensure that all devices in the disk group have similar, if not identical, storage capacity and performance.
You can set the redundancy and striping attributes of individual file types within a disk group by using Oracle ASM disk group templates. When you create a disk group, Oracle ASM creates a set of default templates for that disk group. Default template settings depend on the disk group type. For example, the default template for control files for both normal and high redundancy disk groups is set to three-way mirroring. All other files are configured with two-way mirroring for normal redundancy, or three-way mirroring when configured for high redundancy. For a high redundancy disk group, the default mirroring cannot be changed, which implies that all files are always three-way mirrored in a high redundancy disk group. You can modify the default templates to suit your site's needs. See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information.
Oracle ASM spreads data evenly across all the devices in the disk group to optimize performance and utilization. You can add or remove disk devices from a disk group without shutting down the database. When you add or remove disks, Oracle ASM rebalances the files across the disk group. You can create multiple disk groups to do specific tasks, such as backup and recovery operations, in addition to regular file storage activities.
When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device. Failure groups identify disk devices that have common failure characteristics, for example, devices that are attached to the same controller. If the controller fails, then all devices attached to it become unavailable. By default, each device also belongs to its own failure group. By using the failure groups you specify, Oracle ASM can distribute data among the devices in the disk group to minimize the risk of data loss caused by component failures.
The Oracle ASM instance is a special Oracle instance that manages Oracle ASM disk groups. The Oracle ASM instance and the
ASMSNMP account are created and started, if necessary, when you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle Enterprise Manager uses this account to monitor Oracle ASM instances to retrieve data from Oracle ASM-related data dictionary views. The
ASMSNMP account status is set to
OPEN upon creation, and it is granted the SYSDBA privilege.
Oracle recommends that you have the Oracle ASM instance in its own Oracle home. Oracle also recommends that you run this instance before you start a database instance that uses Oracle ASM.
For an Oracle Database installation, you only need one Oracle ASM instance, regardless of the number of database instances on the computer.
See Also:"Managing Oracle ASM Users with Oracle Enterprise Manager" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information about the
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally in the environment
To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle Management Repository and at least one Oracle Management Service within the environment, then install an Oracle Enterprise Management Agent on every computer to manage. You can then use a single HTML interface to manage and monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems. Targets can include Oracle databases, application servers, net listeners, and third-party software. This single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control is available separately on the Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control installation media, and on the Oracle Technology Network website:
For the latest Oracle Enterprise Manager certification information see the My Oracle Support certification page at:
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express locally on the database system
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c is a web-based management tool built into Oracle Database without any need for special installation or management.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express can manage only a single database. If you want to administer multiple databases on a system, then you must either configure a separate Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express for each database, or you must install Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
This section contains the following topics:
When you create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must select the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to manage the database. The following options are available:
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control for central database management
This option is available only if an Oracle Management Agent is installed on the system. When Oracle Universal Installer detects an Oracle Management Agent on the system, you can choose this option and specify the Oracle Management Service to use to manage the database.
If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, then you must use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to manage the database. However, if Oracle Management Agent is installed after Oracle Database, then you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to manage this database.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express for local database management
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express is built into Oracle Database without any need for special installation or management. Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express is available and configured by default during the database installation, and is not displayed as an option in Oracle Universal Installer during the database installation.
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from the Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using a screen in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to use to manage the database. You can also choose not to configure the database with Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Oracle Enterprise Manager during the database installation. However, if you do not do this, then see Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for configuring EM Express, or see Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Administrator's Guide for information about how to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to discover targets.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express provides a web-based user interface that enables you to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database.
You can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to perform basic database administration tasks, such as:
Configuration and Administration
Database Feature Usage
Redo Log Groups
You can also use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to complete Performance Monitoring and Tuning tasks, such as:
Real Time SQL Monitoring
ASH (Active Session History) Analytics
ADDM (Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor)
AWR (Automatic Workload Repository) Browser
Historical performance monitoring and tuning
SQL Tuning Advisor
To simplify the management of backup and recovery files, you can create a fast recovery area for your database. During the database installation, Oracle Universal Installer provides you with options to configure the fast recovery area location. However, to configure backups, and to implement a backup and recovery strategy, you must use either Recovery Manager (RMAN) or Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
You can provide the location of the fast recovery area during the database installation.
You can use either a file system directory or an Oracle ASM disk group for the fast recovery area. To set the default values for fast recovery area and data file location, use Oracle base as the starting point. See "Oracle Base Directory" for more information on Oracle base.
Default fast recovery area:
Default data file location:
The default disk quota configured for the fast recovery area is 2 GB. For Oracle ASM disk groups, the required disk space depends on the redundancy level of the disk group that you choose.
For information about upgrading an earlier release of Oracle Database to Oracle Database 12c, see Oracle Database Upgrade Guide. The following sections provide additional platform-specific upgrade information that you must review before upgrading an existing database:
When you upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database, the operating system requirements may have changed. If required, upgrade your operating system before upgrading Oracle Database. See Chapter 4, " Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks" for a list of supported operating systems.
To upgrade the operating system and then perform a database upgrade, perform one of the following procedures:
Upgrade the operating system. Then, upgrade the database either manually or by using Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant.
Migrate to a new computer using one of the following methods:
To upgrade the database on the new computer:
Copy the database files from the computer running the previous operating system to the one running the supported operating system.
Re-create the control files on the computer running the supported operating system.
Manually upgrade the database using the method described in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
Note:You cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant if you use this method. However, this method lets you easily revert to the earlier database.
You can also upgrade the database using the Export/Import utilities method described in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
See Also:The table on "Supported Upgrade Paths for Upgrading Oracle Database" in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about upgrading your current database release
In releases prior to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. In Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and later releases, Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster or for a standalone server.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.