6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server

Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, also known as Oracle Restart, provides system support for a single-instance Oracle Database. This support includes volume management, file system, and automatic restart capabilities. If you plan to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM), then you must install Oracle Restart before installing your database. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management. Oracle combined the two infrastructure products into a single set of binaries that is installed into an Oracle Restart home.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management is a volume manager and a file system for Oracle database files that supports single-instance Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) configurations. Oracle Automatic Storage Management also supports a general purpose file system for your application needs, including Oracle Database binaries. Oracle Automatic Storage Management is Oracle's recommended storage management solution that provides an alternative to conventional volume managers, file systems, and raw devices.

Note:

  • You can neither install Oracle Restart on an Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster member node, nor add an Oracle Restart server to an Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster member node. Oracle Restart supports single-instance databases on one server, while Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster supports single-instance or Oracle RAC databases on a cluster.

  • If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.

  • Oracle Restart is used in single-instance (nonclustered) environments only.

Oracle Restart improves the availability of your Oracle database by providing the following:

  • When there is a hardware or a software failure, Oracle Restart automatically starts all Oracle components, including the Oracle database instance, Oracle Net Listener, database services, and Oracle ASM.

  • Oracle Restart starts components in the proper order when the database host is restarted.

  • Oracle Restart runs periodic checks to monitor the status of Oracle components. If a check operation fails for a component, then the component is shut down and restarted.

This chapter contains the following information:

6.1 Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server

This section describes the following operating system tasks that you must complete before you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:

6.1.1 Checking Hardware and Memory Configuration

Run the following commands to check your current system information:

  1. To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:

    # grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
    

    If necessary, see your operating system documentation for information about configuring additional swap space.

  2. To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command:

    # free
    
  3. To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter one of the following commands:

    # df -h
    
  4. To determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory, enter one of the following commands:

    # df -h /tmp
    
  5. To determine the physical RAM size, enter the following command:

    # grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
    

    If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required size, then install more memory before you continue.

6.1.2 Server Memory Minimum Requirements

Ensure that your system meets the following memory requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:

At least 4 GB of RAM for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server including installations where you plan to install Oracle Database.

The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the configured swap space recommendation:

Table 6-1 Swap Space Requirement for Oracle Restart

RAM Swap Space

Between 4 GB and 16 GB

Equal to the size of the RAM

More than 16 GB

16 GB


Note:

On Linux, the HugePages feature allocates non-swappable memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.

6.1.3 Server Storage Minimum Requirements

Ensure that your system meets the following minimum disk space requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure on a standalone server:

  • For Linux x86-64: At least 6.9 GB of disk space

  • For IBM: Linux on System z: 3.8 GB of disk space

  • At least 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory.

    If there is less than 1 GB of free space in the /tmp directory, then complete one of the following steps:

    • Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.

    • Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory when setting the oracle user's environment.

      See Also:

      "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
    • Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory.

6.1.4 Environment Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Owner

Complete the following tasks to set the Oracle Restart software owner user's environment:

  • Review the information in "Logging In to the System as root" and "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment".

  • Ensure that you set the path to the Oracle base directory. Oracle recommends that you create the Oracle Restart home and the Oracle Database home under the same Oracle base directory. For example:

    # ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle; 
    # export ORACLE_BASE
    
  • Set the Oracle Restart software owner user default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.

  • Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the Oracle Restart installation software owner.

  • Set the DISPLAY environment variable in preparation for installation.

If you plan to install Oracle Database, then you must meet additional preinstallation requirements. See Chapter 4, " Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks".

6.2 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM

This section contains information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM). It contains the following topics:

6.2.1 About Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM

Oracle ACFS extends Oracle ASM technology to support all of your application data in both single instance and cluster configurations. Oracle ADVM provides volume management services and a standard disk device driver interface to clients. Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System communicates with Oracle ASM through the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager interface.

6.2.2 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux

Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and SUSE Linux. Table 6-2 lists the platforms and kernel versions that support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM.

Table 6-2 Platforms That Support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM

Platform / Operating System Kernel

Oracle Linux 7

  • Oracle Linux 7 with Red Hat Compatible Kernels:

    Update 0, RedHat Compatible Kernel 3.10.0-123

    Update 1 and later, 3.10-0-229 and later RedHat Compatible kernels

  • Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 3:

    All Updates, 3.8.13-35 and later UEK 3.8.13 kernels

  • Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 4:

    All Updates, 4.1.12-32 and later UEK 4.1.12 kernels

Oracle Linux 6

  • Oracle Linux 6 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel

  • Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 1:

    All Updates, 2.6.32-100 and later UEK 2.6.32 kernels

  • Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 2:

    All Updates, 2.6.39-100 and later UEK 2.6.39 kernels

  • Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 3:

    All Updates, 3.8.13 and later UEK 3.8.13 kernels

  • Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 4:

    All Updates, 4.1.12-32 and later UEK 4.1.12 kernels

Oracle Linux 5

  • Oracle Linux 5 Update 3 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel: 2.6.18 or later

  • Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 1:

    Update 3 and later, 2.6.32-100 and later UEK 2.6.32 kernels

  • Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 2:

    Update 3 and later, 2.6.39-100 and later UEK 2.6.39 kernels

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7:

    Update 0, 3.10.0-123 kernel

    Update 1 and later, 3.10.0-229 and later RedHat kernels

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 3: 2.6.18 or later

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 Service Pack 2 (SP2)

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 Service Pack 3 (SP3)


Note:

If you use Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) in enforcing mode with Oracle ACFS, then ensure that you mount the Oracle ACFS file systems with an SELinux default context. Refer to your Linux vendor documentation for information about the context mount option.

See Also:

6.2.3 Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS

Oracle Restart does not support root-based Oracle Clusterware resources. For this reason, the following restrictions apply if you run Oracle ACFS on an Oracle Restart configuration:

  • Oracle Restart does not support Oracle ACFS resources on all platforms.

  • Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Restart configurations do not support the Oracle ACFS registry.

  • You must manually load Oracle ACFS drivers after a system restart.

  • You must manually mount an Oracle ACFS file system, and unmount it after the Oracle ASM instance has finished running.

  • Creating Oracle datafiles on an Oracle ACFS file system is not supported in Oracle Restart configurations.

To enable Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart see "Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations".

Note the following general restrictions and guidelines also about Oracle ACFS:

  • Oracle ACFS can be used as an option only when Oracle ASM is configured.

  • You can place Oracle database binaries, datafiles, and administrative files (for example, trace files) on Oracle ACFS. Oracle Database homes can be stored on Oracle ACFS only if the database version is Oracle Database 11g Release 2 or higher. Earlier releases of Oracle Database cannot be installed on Oracle ACFS.

  • Oracle ACFS provides a general purpose file system for other files.

See Also:

6.2.4 Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations

To use Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart configurations, install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, and then enable root access for Oracle ACFS using the following command:

Log in as root

# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# roothas.sh -lockacfs

Note:

Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the roothas.sh script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.

6.3 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration

Review the following sections for information on Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) storage configuration:

6.3.1 Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions

Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to create and modify disk groups when you install earlier Oracle databases on Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.

Releases prior to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 used Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. You can no longer use Oracle DBCA to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM.

See Also:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for details about configuring disk group compatibility for databases using Oracle Database 11g or earlier software with Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c.

6.3.2 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations

In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.

If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade (upgrades of existing Oracle ASM installations). If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. You must run Oracle ASMCA for installing and configuring Oracle ASM instances, disk groups, volumes, and Oracle ACFS. In addition, you can use the ASMCA command-line interface.

See Also:

6.3.3 Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

This section contains the following topics that describe how to configure storage for use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management:

See Also:

"Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information about creating and managing disk groups

See Also:

"Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices" for information about using Oracle ASMLIB

Note:

Oracle does not recommend using identifiers for database object names that must be quoted. While these quoted identifiers may be valid as names in the SQL CREATE statement, such as CREATE DISKGROUP "1data" ..., the names may not be valid when using other tools that manage the database object.

6.3.3.1 Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must determine the number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this task, follow these steps:

  1. Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files, recovery files, or both. Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file.

    During the database installation, you have the option to select either a file system or Oracle ASM as the storage mechanism for Oracle Database files. Similarly, you also have the option to select either a file system or Oracle ASM as the storage mechanism for your recovery files.

    Note:

    You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for both Oracle Database files and recovery files. You can use a file system for one file type and Oracle ASM for the other.

    If you select Oracle ASM as your storage option for Oracle Database files, then depending on your choice in the Specify Recovery Options screen, you have the following recovery options:

    • If you select the Oracle ASM option for your recovery files, then Oracle Universal Installer provides you with only the option to use the same disk group for both Oracle Database files and recovery files.

    • If you decide not to enable recovery during the database installation, then, after the database installation, you can modify the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter to enable the fast recovery area.

    See Also:

  2. Choose the Oracle ASM redundancy level to use for each Oracle ASM disk group that you create.

    The redundancy level that you choose for the Oracle ASM disk group determines how Oracle ASM mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of disks and amount of disk space that you require, as follows:

    • External redundancy

      This option does not allow Oracle ASM to mirror the contents of the disk group. Oracle recommends that you select this redundancy level either when the disk group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own data protection or when the database does not require uninterrupted access to data.

    • Normal redundancy

      To optimize performance and reliability in a normal redundancy disk group, Oracle ASM uses two-way mirroring for data files and three-way mirroring for control files, by default. In addition, you can choose the mirroring characteristics for individual files in a disk group. You can use two-way mirroring or no mirroring.

      A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two failure groups (or two disk devices) if you are using two-way mirroring. The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space of all of its devices.

      For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy disk groups.

    • High redundancy

      The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure groups (a minimum of three devices).

      Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices before deciding to use this redundancy level.

  3. Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files and recovery files.

    If an Oracle ASM instance is running on the system, then you can use an existing disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the database installation.

    Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum disk space requirements for the installation:

    Redundancy Level Minimum Number of Disks Data Files Recovery Files Both File Types
    External 1 1.8 GB 3.6 GB 5.4 GB
    Normal 2 3.6 GB 7.2 GB 10.8 GB
    High 3 5.4 GB 10.8 GB 16.2 GB

  4. Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.

    If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in a custom failure group. By default, each device is included in its failure group. However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to the same small computer system interface (SCSI) controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.

    For instance, to avoid failures of this type, you can use two SCSI controllers, each with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller.

    Note:

    Define custom failure groups after installation, using the GUI tool ASMCA, the command line tool asmcmd, or SQL commands. If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
  5. If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Use the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:

    • The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.

      See Also:

      "Configuring a Permissions File for Disk Devices for Oracle ASM" for information about creating or modifying permissions
    • All the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group must be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.

    • Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group device. Oracle ASM expects each disk group device to be on a separate physical disk.

    • Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle ASM disk group, Oracle does not recommend their use because it adds a layer of complexity that is unnecessary with Oracle ASM. Oracle recommends that if you choose to use a logical volume manager, then use the logical volume manager to represent a single logical unit number (LUN) without striping or mirroring, so that you can minimize the effect on storage performance of the additional storage layer.

    See Also:

6.3.3.2 Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

In order to use a DAS or SAN disk in Oracle ASM, the disk must have a partition table. Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk.

Note:

You can use any physical disk for Oracle ASM, if it is partitioned.

6.3.4 About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver

Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) is installed with an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) rejects write I/O requests that are not issued by Oracle software. This filter helps to prevent users with administrative privileges from inadvertently overwriting Oracle ASM disks, thus preventing corruption in Oracle ASM disks and files within the disk group. For disk partitions, the area protected is the area on the disk managed by Oracle ASMFD, assuming the partition table is left untouched by the user.

Oracle ASMFD simplifies the configuration and management of disk devices by eliminating the need to rebind disk devices used with Oracle ASM each time the system is restarted.

See Also:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information about configuring and migrating disk devices to use Oracle ASM Filter Driver

6.3.5 Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups Manually using Oracle ASMCA

The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) utility creates a new Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance if there is no Oracle ASM instance currently configured on the computer.

After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, you can also use Oracle ASMCA to create and configure disk groups, Oracle ADVM and Oracle ACFS.

To create additional disk groups or manually configure Oracle ASM disks, you can run the Oracle ASMCA as follows:

$ cd Grid_home/bin
$ ./asmca

Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.

6.3.6 Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation

After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, as described in this chapter, to test the Oracle ASM installation, log in using the asmcmd command-line utility, which lets you manage Oracle ASM disk group files and directories. To do this:

  1. Open a shell window, and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM instance to use.

    For example, if the Oracle ASM SID is named +ASM and the Oracle home is located in the grid subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following commands to create the required settings:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ ORACLE_SID=+ASM
      $ export ORACLE_SID
      $ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
      $ export ORACLE_HOME
      
    • C shell:

      % setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
      % setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
      
  2. Use ASMCMD to list the disk groups for the Oracle ASM instance:

    $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd lsdg
    

    ASMCMD connects by default as the SYS user with SYSASM privileges.

    If the Oracle ASM instance is not running, start the instance with the following command:

    $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd startup
    

See Also:

"Oracle ASM Command-Line Utility" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide

6.3.7 Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances

If you have an Oracle ASM installation from an earlier release installed on your server, or in an existing Oracle Restart installation, you can use Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance to 12c, and subsequently configure disk groups, Oracle ASM volumes and Oracle ASM file systems.

Note:

You must first shut down all databases and applications using an existing Oracle ASM instance before upgrading it.

During the installation, if you use Oracle ASM, and Oracle ASMCA detects that there is a prior Oracle ASM version installed in another Oracle ASM home, then after installing the Oracle ASM 12c binaries, you can start Oracle ASMCA to upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance.

See Also:

6.4 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only Installation

A software-only installation only copies the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server binaries to the specified location. After the installation, manually configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and Oracle ASM.

When you perform a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, you must complete a few manual configuration steps to enable Oracle Restart after you install the software.

Note:

Oracle recommends that only advanced users perform the software-only installation because this installation method provides no validation of the installation, and this installation option requires manual postinstallation steps to enable the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server software.

Performing a software-only installation involves the following steps:

  1. Installing the Software Binaries

  2. Configuring the Software Binaries

6.4.1 Installing the Software Binaries

  1. Run the runInstaller command from the relevant directory on the Oracle Database 12c installation media or download directory.

  2. Complete a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server.

  3. Run the orainstRoot.sh script if prompted.

  4. Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) prompts you to run the root.sh script.

  5. root.sh then prompts you to run roothas.pl. See "Configuring the Software Binaries" for information about running roothas.pl and configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server after performing a software-only installation.

  6. Verify that the server meets the installation requirements using the command runcluvfy.sh stage -pre hacfg. Ensure that you complete all storage and server preinstallation requirements.

6.4.2 Configuring the Software Binaries

To configure and activate a software-only Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation for Oracle Restart, complete the following tasks:

  1. Log in as the root user and run the roothas.pl script from Grid_home using the following syntax:

    Grid_home/perl/bin/perl -I Grid_home/perl/lib -I Grid_home/crs/install 
    Grid_home/crs/install/roothas.pl
    

    For example, if your Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home is u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid, then run the following script:

    # /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/perl/bin/perl -I /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/perl/lib -I /u01/app/oracle/product
    /12.1.0/grid/crs/install /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/crs/install/roothas.pl
    
  2. Change the directory to Grid_home/oui/bin, where Grid_home is the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.

  3. Log in as the Oracle Restart software owner user and enter the following command:

    ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -defaultHomeName CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
    

    For example:

    $ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
    -defaultHomeName CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
    
  4. Use the SRVCTL utility along with Oracle Network Configuration Assistant and Oracle ASMCA to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and all Oracle ASM disk groups to the Oracle Restart configuration.

    See Also:

6.5 Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server

If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and then create your database, the database is automatically added to the Oracle Restart configuration and is automatically restarted when required. However, if you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server on a host computer on which a database exists, you must manually add the database, the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and other components to the Oracle Restart configuration.

Note:

Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server can accommodate multiple single-instance databases on a single host computer.

This section includes the following topics:

6.5.1 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New Database Installation

Perform the following steps to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and then create a database that is managed by Oracle Restart. First install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, which installs Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM, then configure Oracle ASM with at least one disk group, and then install Oracle Database that stores database files in Oracle ASM disk groups. Click the help button on the Oracle Universal Installer page for page level assistance.

You may have to shut down existing Oracle processes before you proceed with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation. See "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" for more information.

To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server with a new database installation:

  1. Start Oracle Universal Installer as the Oracle Restart software owner user. Complete one of the following steps depending on the location of the installation files:

    • If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the following, where directory_path is the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server directory on the installation media:

      $ /directory_path/runInstaller
      

      Note:

      You must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media.
    • If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server (clusterware) directory and enter the following command:

      $ ./runInstaller
      

    Note:

    Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session where you logged in as the Oracle Restart software owner user and set the user's environment.

    If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, see "X Window Display Errors" and "Remote Terminal Installation Error" for information about troubleshooting.

  2. In the Select Installation Option screen, select the Install and Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server option to install and configure Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM. Click Next.

  3. In the Select Product Languages screen, select one or more languages. Move the languages from the Available Languages list to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.

  4. The Create ASM Disk Group screen lists all the Oracle ASM disks.

    Click Change Discovery Path to select any devices to be used by Oracle ASM but are not listed in the screen. In the Change Disk Discovery Path window, enter a string to use to search for devices that Oracle ASM will use. If the disk string is set to ORCL:* or is left empty (""), then the installer discovers these disks. Click OK.

    After you finish selecting the disks to be used by Oracle ASM, click Next.

    Note:

    During installation, disk paths mounted on Oracle ASM and registered on Oracle ASMFD with the string ORCL:* are listed as default database storage candidate disks.

    Consider the following information about disk devices while performing this step:

    • The default Disk Group Name is DATA. You can enter a new name for the disk group, or use the default name.

    • The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.

      See Also:

      "Configuring a Permissions File for Disk Devices for Oracle ASM" for information about creating or modifying permissions
    • Check with your system administrator to determine if the disks used by Oracle ASM are mirrored at the storage level. If so, select External for the redundancy. If the disks are not mirrored at the storage level, then select Normal for the redundancy.

      Note:

      For normal redundancy, you require twice as much disk space to hold the same amount of data. For example, if your database is 100 GB, then you require approximately 200 GB of storage.
    • Every Oracle ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). An allocation unit is the fundamental unit of allocation within a disk group. You can select the AU Size value from 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 MB, depending on the specific disk group compatibility level. The default value is set to 1 MB.

  5. In the Specify ASM Password screen, enter the password required to connect to the Oracle ASM instance. The Oracle ASM instance is managed by a privileged role called SYSASM, which grants full access to Oracle ASM disk groups. Oracle recommends that you create a less privileged user, ASMSNMP, with SYSDBA privileges to monitor the Oracle ASM instance.

    Enter passwords for the SYS and ASMSNMP user accounts. The passwords should be at least eight characters in length and include at least 1 alphabetic, 1 numeric, and 1 of the following three punctuation mark characters: hyphens (-), underscores (_), or number sign (#). No other special characters are allowed in the password field.

    Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a different password for each account. You must remember the passwords that you specify.

  6. The Specify Management Options screen gives you the option to manage Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Automatic Storage Management using Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Select Register with Enterprise Manager (EM) Cloud Control and specify the following configuration information:

    • OMS Host: The system name where the Management repository is running.

    • OMS Port: The Oracle Enterprise Manager port number to receive requests from the Management service.

    • EM Admin User Name: The user name to log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager.

    • EM Admin Password: The password to log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager.

  7. In the Privileged Operating System Groups screen, select the name of the operating system group you created for the OSDBA group, the OSASM group, and the Oracle ASM operator group OSOPER. If you create only the dba group, then you can use that group for all three privileged groups. If you created a separate asmadmin group, then use that value for the OSASM group. Click Next.

  8. In the Specify Installation Location screen, enter the following information, and click Next:

    • Oracle Base: Enter the location for the Oracle base directory. Do not include spaces in the path.

    • Software Location: Accept the default value or enter the directory path in which you want to install the software.The directory path must not contain spaces.

    See Also:

  9. The Root Script Execution Configuration screen allows you to select the configuration method to either automatically or manually run the root scripts during the grid infrastructure installation. To run root scripts automatically, select Automatically run configuration scripts and select one of the following options:

    • Use "root" user credential: Provide the root user password.

    • Use Sudo: Provide the program path, username, and password for the sudo program.

  10. The Create Inventory screen is displayed only if this is the first time you are installing Oracle software on your system.

    Change the path for the Inventory Directory, if required. Select oinstall for the oraInventory Group Name, if required. Click Next.

  11. The Perform Prerequisite Checks screen checks if the minimum system requirements are met to perform the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation. If all the system requirements are met, then you are directed to the Summary screen. If an installation fails, you can review the error.

    If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if the minimum requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.

    Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and check the system requirements again.

    Note:

    The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that you must run as the root user. This generated script sets some system parameter values. Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of this script. See "Using Installation Fixup Scripts" for more information.

    To get a list of failed requirements, select Show Failed from the list. To get a list of all the prerequisite checks run by Oracle Universal Installer, select Show All. To get a list of the prerequisites checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you use caution when selecting the Ignore All option. If you select this option, then Oracle Universal Installer may not confirm that your system can install Oracle Database successfully.
  12. Review the contents of the Summary screen, and click Install.

    You can click Save Response File to save all the installation steps into a response file. This file can be used for a silent installation.

  13. The Install Product screen displays the progress of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation.

    If you selected an option to automatically run the root scripts in the Root Script Execution Configuration screen, then Oracle Universal Installer automatically runs the root scripts. Click Next.

    Else, if you did not select the option to automatically run the configuration scripts, then Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the root.sh script and, if required, the orainstRoot.sh script as the root user to complete the installation. During this process, the Execute Configuration Scripts window appears. Do not click OK until you run the scripts mentioned in this screen.

    Note:

    The orainstRoot.sh script must be run if this is the first time you are installing Oracle software on your system. However, if you selected an option to automatically run the root scripts, then Oracle Universal Installer automatically runs the oraInstRoot.sh script.
  14. The Finish screen displays the installation status. Click Close to end the installation and exit Oracle Universal Installer.

    If you encounter any errors, see the configuration log for information. The path to the configuration log is displayed on the Configuration Assistants window.

  15. Oracle ASMCA is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation. To create additional disk groups, run the Oracle ASMCA utility. For example, you can create another disk group named RECOVERY to store the fast recovery area.

    Note:

    To verify that the Oracle High Availability Service is installed properly, run ./crsctl check has command from Grid_home/bin directory.

    Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home. ohasd is a daemon installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure that starts software services, such as Oracle ASM.

  16. Install Oracle Database. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software".

    Note:

    • If a new database is installed after a grid infrastructure installation, then the listener runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home. Because Oracle ASM is installed as part of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, the default listener is created and runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home. If you perform a database installation, then the database must use the same listener created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation.

    • If you are using Oracle Restart, then the default listener and any additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.

    See "Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart" to deconfigure Oracle Restart without removing installed binaries.

6.5.2 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server for an Existing Database

Follow the high-level instructions in this section to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and configure it for an existing Oracle database. Oracle Restart can only manage existing release 12.1 resources and hence you can install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server only for an existing release 12.1 database. However, Oracle database releases before 12.1 can coexist on the same server without being managed by Oracle Restart.

To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server for an existing database:

  • On the same host computer as the database, use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, and select Install and Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server as the installation option.

    The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server components are installed in a separate Oracle home.

    See "Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New Database Installation" for detailed instructions.

  • Go to the Grid home's bin directory.

    Use the srvctl add database command with the -c SINGLE flag to add the database in an Oracle Restart configuration. Also use the srvctl add command to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, all Oracle ASM disk groups, and any database services to the Oracle Restart configuration.

6.6 Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After Installation

After the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation, you must first stop the Oracle Restart stack to modify the software installed in your Grid home. For example, to apply a one-off patch or modify any of the DLLs used by Oracle Restart or Oracle ASM, you must follow these steps to stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack.

However, if you run the OPatch utility with the auto option, opatchauto, then do not stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack manually as OPatch stops and starts the software stack for you. If you run OPatch with the apply option, opatch apply, then you must follow the steps in this section to stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack manually.

See Also:

Oracle OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for information about using opatchauto

Caution:

Before relinking executables, you must shut down all executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you are relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle shared libraries.

Prepare the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home for modification using the following procedure:

  1. Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server software owner user and change the directory to the path Grid_home/bin, where Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home:

    $ cd Grid_home/bin
    
  2. Shut down the Oracle Restart stack using the following command:

    $ crsctl stop has -f
    
  3. Perform the updates to the software installed in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.

  4. Enter the following command to restart the Oracle Restart stack:

    $ crsctl start has
    

Relink Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server using the following procedure:

  1. Log in as root

    # cd Grid_home/crs/install
    # roothas.sh -unlock
    
  2. Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server owner:

    $ export ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
    $ Grid_home/bin/relink
    
  3. Log in as root again:

    # cd Grid_home/rdbms/install/
    # ./rootadd_rdbms.sh
    # cd Grid_home/crs/install
    # roothas.sh -patch
    

    You must relink the Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM binaries every time you apply an operating system patch or after an operating system upgrade.

Note:

Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the roothas.sh script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.