8 Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes tasks that you must perform after you install the database software. It includes information about the following topics:

You must perform the tasks listed in "Required Postinstallation Tasks". Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks listed in "Recommended Postinstallation Tasks" after all installations.

If you install and intend to use any of the products listed in "Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks", then you must perform the tasks listed in the product-specific sections.

Note:

This chapter describes basic configuration only. See Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems, Oracle Database Administrator's Guide, and product-specific administration and tuning guides for more detailed configuration and tuning information.

See Also:

"Post-installation Database Configuration" section in Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration Guide

8.1 Creating a Database

If you did not create a database during the database installation, then use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) to create a database after the database installation.

See Also:

Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about creating a database using Oracle DBCA

8.2 Required Postinstallation Tasks

Perform the following task after completing Oracle Database installation.

8.2.1 Downloading and Installing Patches

Check the My Oracle Support website for required patch updates for your installation.

To download required patches:

  1. Use a web browser to view the My Oracle Support website:

    https://support.oracle.com/
    
  2. Log in to My Oracle Support.

    Note:

    If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, click Register here and follow the registration instructions.
  3. On the main My Oracle Support page, click the Patches & Updates tab.

  4. In the Patch Search group, select Product or Family (Advanced).

  5. In the Product field, select Oracle Database.

  6. In the Release field select one or more release numbers. For example, Oracle 12.1.0.1.0.

  7. Click Search.

  8. Any available patch updates are displayed in the Patch Search page.

  9. Select the patch number and click ReadMe. The README page is displayed and contains information about the patch set and how to apply the patches to your installation.

  10. Return to the Patch Search page, click Download, and save the file on your system.

  11. Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 12c to uncompress the Oracle patch updates that you downloaded from My Oracle Support. The unzip utility is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.

8.3 Recommended Postinstallation Tasks

Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks described in the following section after completing an installation:

8.3.1 Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script

Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing root.sh script during the installation. If you require information contained in the original root.sh script, then you can recover it from the backed up root.sh file.

8.3.2 Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts

If required, create additional operating system accounts. Users must be members of the OSDBA or OSOPER groups to connect to the database with administrator privileges.

8.3.2.1 Configuring the Accounts of Oracle Users

Update the startup files of the oracle user and the operating system accounts of Oracle users, specifying the appropriate environment variables in the environment file.

For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the environment variables to the profile file for the Bash shell on Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

For the C shell, add the environment variables to the .login file.

Note:

You can use the oraenv or coraenv script to ensure that Oracle user accounts are updated.

8.3.3 Setting Language Preferences for Client Connections

Set the language preferences for clients connecting to the database by setting the NLS_LANG environment variable.

The NLS_LANG environment variable declares the language and territory character sets that client applications use to connect to the database. Oracle Database uses that character set for data entered or displayed by Oracle client programs, such as SQL*PLus.

See Also:

Appendix H, "Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support" for more information about the NLS_LANG environment variable

8.3.4 Guidelines for Setting Semaphore Parameters

Use the following guidelines only if the default semaphore parameter values are too low to accommodate all Oracle processes:

Note:

Oracle recommends that you see the operating system documentation for more information about setting semaphore parameters.
  1. Calculate the minimum total semaphore requirements using the following formula:

    sum (process parameters of all database instances on the system) + overhead for oracle background processes + system and other application requirements
    
  2. Set semmns (total semaphores systemwide) to this total.

  3. Set semmsl (semaphores per set) to 250.

  4. Set semmni (total semaphores sets) to semmns/semmsl rounded up to the nearest multiple of 1024.

See Also:

My Oracle Support note 226209.1, "Linux: How to Check Current Shared Memory, Semaphore Values," at the following URL:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=226209.1

8.3.5 Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group

During installation, by default you can create one disk group. If you plan to add an Oracle Database for a standalone server, then you should create the fast recovery area for database files.

8.3.5.1 About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group

The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related to recovery. Database administrators can define the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter to the path for the fast recovery area to enable on disk backups and rapid recovery of data. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.

When you enable fast recovery in the init.ora file, Oracle Database writes all RMAN backups, archive logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies to the fast recovery area. RMAN automatically manages files in the fast recovery area by deleting obsolete backups and archiving files no longer required for recovery.

Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group. Oracle Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and you can also place fast recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle recommends that you create a separate fast recovery disk group to reduce storage device contention.

The fast recovery area is enabled by setting the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter. The size of the fast recovery area is set with DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. As a general rule, the larger the fast recovery area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of use, Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group on storage devices that can contain at least three days of recovery information. Ideally, the fast recovery area is large enough to hold a copy of all of your data files and control files, the online redo logs, and the archived redo log files needed to recover your database using the data file backups kept under your retention policy.

Multiple databases can use the same fast recovery area. For example, assume you have created a fast recovery area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared by 3 different databases. You can set the size of the fast recovery for each database depending on the importance of each database. For example, if database1 is your least important database, database2 is of greater importance and database3 is of greatest importance, then you can set different DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE settings for each database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for database1, 50 GB for database2, and 70 GB for database3.

8.3.5.2 Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group

To create a fast recovery file disk group:

  1. Go to the Grid home bin directory, and start ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA), for example:

    $ cd /u01/grid/bin
    $ ./asmca
    
  2. ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab. Click Create to create a new disk group.

  3. The Create Disk Groups window opens.

    In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the fast recovery area group. For example: FRA.

    In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use.

    In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks to be added to the fast recovery area, and click OK.

  4. The Diskgroup Creation window opens to inform you when disk group creation is complete. Click OK.

  5. Click Exit.

See Also:

8.3.6 Enabling and Disabling Database Options

When you install Oracle Database, some options are enabled and others are disabled. To enable or disable a particular database feature for an Oracle home, shut down the database and use the chopt tool. See Example 8-1.

The chopt tool is a command-line utility that is located in the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory. The syntax for chopt is:

chopt [ enable | disable] db_option

The possible values for db_option are described in the following table:

Value Description
dm Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files
olap Oracle OLAP
partitioning Oracle Partitioning
rat Oracle Real Application Testing

Example 8-1 Complete Example of Running the Chopt Tool

To enable the Oracle Data Mining option in your Oracle binary files, use the following command:

cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
srvctl stop database -d myDb
chopt enable dm
srvctl start database -d myDb

8.3.7 Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool

Download and install the ORAchk utility to perform proactive heath checks for the Oracle software stack.

ORAchk replaces the RACCheck utility. ORAchk extends health check coverage to the entire Oracle software stack, and identifies and addresses top issues reported by Oracle users. ORAchk proactively scans for known problems with Oracle products and deployments, including the following:

  • Standalone Oracle Database

  • Oracle Grid Infrastructure

  • Oracle Real Application Clusters

  • Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) Validation

  • Upgrade Readiness Validations

  • Oracle Golden Gate

Oracle is continuing to expand checks, based on customer requests.

Oracle recommends that you download and run the latest version of ORAchk from My Oracle Support. For information about downloading, configuring and running ORAchk utility, refer to My Oracle Support note 1268927.1:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=1268927.1

Note:

ORAchk is not supported on IBM: Linux on System z.

8.4 Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks

The following sections describe product-specific postinstallation tasks that you must perform if you install and intend to use the products mentioned:

Many Oracle products and options must be configured before you use them for the first time. Before using individual Oracle products or options, see the appropriate guide in the product documentation library.

Note:

Perform postinstallation tasks only for products that you intend to use.

8.4.1 Configuring Oracle Net Services

If you have an earlier release of Oracle software installed on this system, then you can copy information from the Oracle Net tnsnames.ora and listener.ora configuration files from the earlier release to the corresponding files for the new release.

The following sections describe about how to configure the Oracle Net Services:

Note:

The default location for the tnsnames.ora and listener.ora files is the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/ directory. However you can relocate these files and set the TNS_ADMIN environment variable to the directory containing them.

8.4.1.1 Modifying the listener.ora File

If you are upgrading from a previous release of Oracle Database, Oracle recommends that you use the current release of Oracle Net listener instead of the listener from the previous release.

If you have referenced the previous Oracle home directory names in the static listener information, then these directory names must be modified before the listener.ora file can be used in the 12.1 environment.

To use the listener from the current release, copy the static service information from the listener.ora file from the previous release to the version of that file used by the new release.

For any database instances earlier than release 8.0.3, add static service information to the listener.ora file. Oracle Database releases later than release 8.0.3 do not require static service information.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information about static service registration

8.4.1.2 Modifying the tnsnames.ora File

Unless you are using a central tnsnames.ora file, copy Oracle Net Services names and connect descriptors from the earlier release tnsnames.ora file to the version of that file used by the new release.

If necessary, you can also add connection information for additional database instances to the new file.

8.4.2 Configuring Oracle Label Security

You must configure Oracle Label Security in a database to use it. See "Oracle Label Security Using Oracle Internet Directory" in Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for more information.

8.4.3 Configuring Oracle Database Vault

Oracle Database includes Database Vault by default, but you must register it before you can use it. Ensure that you create the Database Vault Owner and, optionally, the Database Vault Account Manager administrative accounts before you can use them.

Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers the access control configuration information stored in Oracle Database Vault database tables, information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so on), the use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you install Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters are initialized with default values.

For information on Oracle Database Vault policy audit events, see Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.

To register Oracle Database Vault, see Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.

If you plan to use Oracle Data Guard with Oracle Database Vault, then see Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.

8.4.4 Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway

Oracle Messaging Gateway, an Oracle Database Advanced Queuing feature, requires additional configuration after you install Oracle Database if you plan to use Oracle Database Advanced Queuing.

See Also:

Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide to configure Oracle Messaging Gateway and for additional instructions about configuring the listener.ora, tnsnames.ora, and mgw.ora files

8.4.5 Configuring Oracle Precompilers

This section describes postinstallation tasks for Oracle precompilers:

Note:

All precompiler configuration files are located in the $ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin directory.

8.4.5.1 Configuring Pro*C/C++

Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains the C compiler executable.

The following table shows the default directories and the appropriate command to verify the path setting of the compiler.

Table 8-1 C/C++ Compiler Directory

Path Command

/usr/bin

$ which gcc

/opt/intel_cce_80/bin/icc

$ which icc


8.4.5.2 Configuring Pro*FORTRAN

Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains the FORTRAN compiler executable.

The following table shows the default directories and the appropriate command to verify the path setting of the compiler.

Table 8-2 FORTRAN Compiler Directory

Path Command

/usr/bin

$ which xlf


8.4.6 Configuring Secure Sockets Layer

Oracle recommends that you configure and use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to ensure that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in HTTP requests.

See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide for information about Secure Socket Layer

8.4.7 Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases

An Oracle Text knowledge base is a hierarchical tree of concepts used for theme indexing, ABOUT queries, and deriving themes for document services. If you plan to use any of these Oracle Text features, then you can install two supplied knowledge bases (English and French).

See Also:

8.4.8 Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB

Oracle XML DB is a component of the Oracle Database installation. However, you must manually configure the FTP and HTTP ports for Oracle XML DB.

Also, see Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about the following tasks:

  • Reinstalling Oracle XML DB

  • Configuring or customizing the Oracle XML DB tablespace

  • Configuring FTP, HTTP/WebDAV port numbers

8.4.9 Configuring New or Upgraded Databases

You must run the utlrp.sql script after creating or upgrading a database. This script recompiles all PL/SQL modules that are in an invalid state, including packages, procedures, and types. You must run the utlrp.sql script immediately following the installation and not at a later date.

  1. Switch the user to oracle.

  2. Use the oraenv or coraenv script to set the environment for the database where you want to run the utlrp.sql script:

    • Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:

      $ . /usr/local/bin/oraenv
      
    • C shell:

      % source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
      

    When prompted, provide the SID for the database.

  3. Start SQL*Plus, as follows:

    $ sqlplus / AS SYSDBA
    
  4. Start the database in restricted mode and run the utlrp.sql script:

    SQL> STARTUP RESTRICT
    SQL> @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
    

8.4.10 Configuring Direct NFS Client

Direct NFS Client is an alternative to using kernel-managed NFS. Refer to the following sections to configure Direct NFS Client:

8.4.10.1 About Direct NFS Client Configuration

With Oracle Database, instead of using the operating system kernel NFS client, you can configure Oracle Database to access NFS servers directly using an Oracle internal Direct NFS Client. The Direct NFS Client supports NFSv3, NFSv4 and NFSv4.1 protocols (excluding the Parallel NFS extension) to access the NFS server.

Direct NFS Client supports up to four network paths to the NFS server. The Direct NFS Client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified path fails, then Direct NFS Client reissues I/O commands over any remaining paths.

Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS Client to operate. To disable reserved port checking, see your NFS file server documentation.

For NFS servers that restrict port range, you can use the insecure option to enable clients other than root to connect to the NFS server. Alternatively, you can disable Direct NFS Client as described in "Disabling Direct NFS Client."

See Also:

Use NFS servers supported for Oracle Database. See the My Oracle Support website for support information:

https://support.oracle.com

8.4.10.2 About the oranfstab File and Direct NFS Client

Direct NFS Client uses either the configuration file $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab or the operating system mount tab file /etc/mtab to find out what mount points are available. If oranfstab is not present, then by default Direct NFS Client servers mount entries found in /etc/mtab. No other configuration is required. You can use oranfstab to specify additional Oracle Database specific options to Direct NFS Client. For example, you can use oranfstab to specify additional paths for a mount point.

You can add a new oranfstab file specifically for Oracle Database, either in the path /etc or $ORACLE_HOME/dbs. When oranfstab is placed in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs, its entries are specific to a single database. However, when oranfstab is placed in /etc, then it is global to all Oracle databases, and can contain mount points for all Oracle databases.

Caution:

Direct NFS Client cannot serve an NFS server with write size values (wtmax) less than 32768.

8.4.10.3 Mounting NFS Storage Devices with Direct NFS Client

Direct NFS Client determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on the configurations in /etc/mtab. Direct NFS Client searches for the mount entries in the following order:

  1. $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab

  2. /etc/oranfstab

  3. /etc/mtab

Direct NFS Client uses the first matched entry as the mount point.

Oracle Database requires that mount points be mounted by the kernel NFS system even when served through Direct NFS Client.

If Oracle Database cannot open an NFS server using Direct NFS Client, then Oracle Database uses the platform operating system kernel NFS client. In this case, the kernel NFS mount options must be set up as defined in "Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters". Additionally, an informational message is logged in the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS Client could not be established.

The Oracle database files available on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client are also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client. The usual considerations for maintaining integrity of Oracle database files apply in this situation.

See Also:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for guidelines to follow regarding managing Oracle database data files created with Direct NFS Client or kernel NFS

8.4.10.4 Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters

If you use NFS, then you must set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize and wsize to at least 16384. Oracle recommends that you use the value 32768.

Direct NFS Client issues writes at wtmax granularity to the NFS server.

For example, to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value 32768, update the /etc/fstab file on each node with an entry similar to the following:

nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /home/oracle/netapp nfs\
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600

See Also:

My Oracle Support Note 359515.1 for updated NAS mount option information:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=359515.1

8.4.10.5 Setting TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client

By default, the network buffer size is set to 1 MB for TCP, and 2 MB for UDP. The TCP buffer size can set a limit on file transfers, which can negatively affect performance for Direct NFS Client users.

To check the current TCP buffer size, enter the following command:

# sysctl -a |grep -e net.ipv4.tcp_[rw]mem

The output of this command is similar to the following:

net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096        87380   1048576
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096        16384   1048576

Oracle recommends that you set the value based on the link speed of your servers. For example, perform the following steps:

  1. As root, use a text editor to open /etc/sysctl.conf, and add or change to the following:

    # net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096        87380   4194304
    # net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096        16384   4194304
    
  2. Restart the network:

    # /etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart
    

8.4.10.6 Specifying Network Paths with the oranfstab File

Direct NFS Client can use up to four network paths defined in the oranfstab file for an NFS server. The Direct NFS Client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified path fails, then Direct NFS Client reissues I/O commands over any remaining paths.

Use the following SQL*Plus views for managing Direct NFS Client in a single instance environment:

  • v$dnfs_servers: Shows a table of servers accessed using Direct NFS Client.

  • v$dnfs_files: Shows a table of files currently open using Direct NFS Client.

  • v$dnfs_channels: Shows a table of open network paths (or channels) to servers for which Direct NFS Client is providing files.

  • v$dnfs_stats: Shows a table of performance statistics for Direct NFS Client.

8.4.10.7 Enabling Direct NFS Client

Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS Client:

  1. Create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server to be accessed using Direct NFS Client:

    • Server: The NFS server name.

    • Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP address, or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command on the filer.

    • Local: Up to four local paths on the database host, specified by IP address or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command run on the database host.

    • Export: The exported path from the NFS server.

    • Mount: The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume.

    • Dontroute: Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the operating system, but sent using the IP address to which they are bound. Note that this POSIX option sometimes does not work on Linux systems with multiple paths in the same subnet.

    • mnt_timeout: Specifies (in seconds) the time the Direct NFS Client should wait for a successful mount before timing out. This parameter is optional and the default timeout is 10 minutes (600).

    • nfs_version: Specifies the NFS protocol version that the Direct NFS Client uses. Possible values are NFSv3, NFSv4 and NFSv4.1. The default version is NFSv3. If you want to specify NFSv4.x, then you must set the nfs_version parameter accordingly in the oranfstab file.

    • management: Enables Direct NFS Client to use the management interface for SNMP queries. You can use this parameter if SNMP is running on separate management interfaces on the NFS server. The default value is the server parameter value.

    • community: Specifies the community string for use in SNMP queries. Default value is public.

    See Also:

    "Limiting Asynchronous I/O in NFS Server Environments" in Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide

    Example 8-2 oranfstab file with two NFS server entries

    server: MyDataServer1
    local: 192.0.2.0
    path: 192.0.2.1
    local: 192.0.100.0
    path: 192.0.100.1
    nfs_version: nfsv3
    dontroute
    export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
    
    server: MyDataServer2
    local: LocalPath1
    path: NfsPath1
    local: LocalPath2
    path: NfsPath2
    local: LocalPath3
    path: NfsPath3
    local: LocalPath4
    path: NfsPath4
    nfs_version: nfsv4
    dontroute
    export: /vol/oradata2 mount: /mnt/oradata2
    export: /vol/oradata3 mount: /mnt/oradata3
    export: /vol/oradata4 mount: /mnt/oradata4
    export: /vol/oradata5 mount: /mnt/oradata5
    management: MgmtPath1
    community: private
    
  2. By default, Direct NFS Client is installed in a disabled state with single instance Oracle Database installations. To enable Direct NFS Client, complete the following steps:

    1. Change the directory to $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib.

    2. Enter the following command:

      make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_on
      

8.4.10.8 Disabling Direct NFS Client

Complete the following steps to disable Direct NFS Client:

  1. Log in as the Oracle software installation owner, and disable Direct NFS Client using the following commands:

    cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib
    make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_off
    
  2. Remove the oranfstab file.

Note:

If you remove an NFS path that an Oracle Database is using, then you must restart the database for the change to take effect.

8.4.10.9 Enabling HCC on Direct NFS Client

To enable Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC) on Direct NFS Client, perform the following steps:

  1. Ensure that SNMP is enabled on the ZFS storage server. For example:

    $ snmpget -v1 -c public server_name .1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.225.1.4.2.0
    SNMPv2-SMI::enterprises.42.2.225.1.4.2.0 = STRING: "Sun Storage 7410"
    
  2. If SNMP is enabled on an interface other than the NFS server, then configure oranfstab using the management parameter.

  3. If SNMP is configured using a community string other than public, then configure oranfstab file using the community parameter.

  4. Ensure that libnetsnmp.so is installed by checking if snmpget is available.

8.5 Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer

See the following sections in Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide for recommended postinstallation tasks for SQL Developer: