4 Oracle Database Client Postinstallation Tasks

This chapter describes the following postinstallation tasks:

Note:

This chapter describes basic configuration only. See Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows and product-specific administration and tuning guides for more sophisticated configuration and tuning information.

4.1 Required Postinstallation Tasks

This section covers the following topics:

4.1.1 Downloading and Installing Patches

To download required patches, check the My Oracle Support website for required patches for your installation. Doing so ensures that you have the latest update of Oracle Database Client.

Note:

You cannot update Instant Client by downloading a patch. Use the procedure under "Updating Instant Client" to update Instant Client.

To find and download patches:

  1. Use a web browser to view the My Oracle Support website:

    https://support.oracle.com/

  2. Log in to My Oracle Support.

    Note:

    If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, then click Register here and follow the registration instructions.
  3. On the main page of My Oracle Support, click Patches and Updates tab.

  4. In the Patch Search group, select Product or Family (Advanced).

  5. In the Product field, select Oracle Database.

  6. In the Release field select the release number. For example, Oracle 12.1.0.1.0.

  7. Click Search.

  8. Any available patch updates are displayed in the Patch Search page.

  9. Select the patch number and click ReadMe. The README page is displayed and contains information about the patch set and how to apply the patches to your installation.

  10. Return to the Patch Search page, click Download, and save the file on your system.

  11. Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 12c to uncompress the Oracle patch updates that you downloaded from My Oracle Support. The unzip utility is located in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\bin directory.

4.1.2 Updating Instant Client

To update Instant Client:

  1. Download Instant Client from Oracle Technology Network http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/features/instant-client/index-097480.html.

  2. Place the new files directly on top of the previous files.

    If you place the files into a different directory (and remove the previous files), be sure to update your PATH environment variable setting to reflect the new location.

4.2 Recommended Postinstallation Tasks

Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks in the following sections after completing an installation:

4.2.1 Configuring Instant Client Light

To configure Instant Client Light, you must make it the default instead of Instant Client.

To configure Instant Client Light:

  1. In the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_CLIENT_HOME directory, either rename or delete the oraociei12.dll file.

    The oraociei12.dll file is the main binary for Instant Client.

  2. From the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_CLIENT_HOME\install\instantclient\light directory, copy the oraociicus12.dll file to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_CLIENT_HOME directory.

    The oraociicus12.dll file is the binary for Instant Client Light.

  3. Ensure that the PATH environment variable points to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_CLIENT_HOME directory.

Note:

If the Instant Client PATH is not set, applications will try to load the regular Instant Client libraries first. If the applications cannot find these, they will attempt to load the Instant Client Light library next.

4.2.2 Connecting Oracle Database Client to an Oracle Database

After you run Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Database Client, you must use Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA) to configure Oracle Database Client to connect to an Oracle database. At the end of the installation, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to configure the database connection. If you bypassed that option, or if you need to change the database connection later on, use the following procedure if you installed the Administrator, Runtime, or Custom installation types.

See Also:

"Connecting Instant Client or Instant Client Light to an Oracle Database" if you had installed the Instant Client installation type

To connect Oracle Database Client to an Oracle Database:

  1. From the Start menu, choose Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Configuration and Migration Tools, then Net Configuration Assistant.

  2. In the Welcome window, select Local Net Service Name configuration and click Next.

  3. In the Net Service Name Configuration window, select Add and click Next.

  4. In the Service Name window, enter the name of the Oracle database to which you want to connect and click Next.

  5. In the Select Protocols window, select the protocol you want and click Next.

  6. In the Protocol window, depending on the protocol you selected, enter the appropriate information and click Next.

  7. In the Net Test window, select whether you want to test the connection, and click Next.

  8. In the Net Service Name window, enter a name for the net service and click Next.

  9. Answer the remaining prompts, which allow you to configure another net service name, and then click Finish to complete the configuration.

    Net Configuration Assistant creates the tnsnames.ora file in the following location:

    ORACLE_HOME\network\admin\tnsnames.ora
    

4.2.3 Connecting Instant Client or Instant Client Light to an Oracle Database

Before you can connect Instant Client or Instant Client Light to an Oracle database, ensure that the PATH environment variable specifies the directory that contains the Instant Client libraries. (By default, Oracle Universal Installer updates the PATH variable for you during the installation process, but another user may have inadvertently reset it since then.) This directory is the Oracle home directory that you specified during installation.

For example, for regular Instant Client, it is in:

C:\app\username\product\12.1.0\client_1

For Instant Client Light, it is in:

C:\app\username\product\12.1.0\client_1\light

After you have checked the PATH environment variable, you can use any of the following methods to specify Oracle Database connection information for client applications:

4.2.3.1 Specifying a Connection by Using the Easy Connect Naming Method

You can specify a connection address to an Oracle Database directly from a client application, without having to configure a tnsnames setting for the Instant Client. This method is convenient in that you do not have to create and manage a tnsnames.ora file. However, your application users must specify the host name and port number when they want to log in to your application.

For example, suppose you are running SQL*Plus on the client computer and want to connect to the sales_us database, which is located on a server whose host name is shobeen and port number is 1521. If you launch SQL*Plus from the command line, you could log in as follows:

sqlplus system/admin@//shobeen:1521/sales_us

Similarly, in your application code, you can use Oracle Call Interface net naming methods to create the Instant Client-to-Oracle Database connection. For example, the following formats in the OCIServerAttach() call specify the connection information:

  • Specify a SQL connect URL string using the following format:

    //host[:port][/service_name]
    

    For example:

    //shobeen:1521/sales_us
    
  • Alternatively, you can specify the SQL connect information as an Oracle Net keyword-value pair. For example:

    "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp) (HOST=shobeen) (PORT=1521))(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=sales_us)))"
    

4.2.3.2 Specifying a Connection by Configuring a tnsnames.ora File

By default, when you install Instant Client, Oracle Universal Installer does not include a sample tnsnames.ora file nor the Oracle Net Configuration Assistant utility normally used to create it. However, if you want to shield users from having to specify actual host names and port numbers, you may want to consider using a tnsnames.ora file to set the Instant Client-to-Oracle Database connection.

You can create the tnsnames.ora file manually by copying and modifying a version of this file from another Oracle installation, or you can use Oracle Net Configuration Assistant to create and manage it for you.

To install Oracle Net Configuration Assistant:

  1. Run Oracle Universal Installer.

  2. Select the Custom installation type.

  3. In the Available Product Components list, select Oracle Network Utilities and click Next.

  4. In the Summary window, click Install, then click Exit and Yes to exit Oracle Universal Installer.

After you have installed Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, follow the procedure in "Connecting Oracle Database Client to an Oracle Database" for each client computer.

Then, on each client computer, configure either of the following settings:

  • Set the TNS_ADMIN environment variable to specify the location of the tnsnames.ora file and specify a service name from that file.

  • Place the tnsnames.ora file in the ORACLE_HOME\network\admin directory, and ensure that the ORACLE_HOME environment has been set to this Oracle home.

4.2.3.3 Specifying a Connection by Using an Empty Connect String and the LOCAL Variable

You can set the connect string to an empty connect string (""), and then set the LOCAL environment variable to one of the following values:

  • A direct address, as described under "Specifying a Connection by Using the Easy Connect Naming Method"

  • Oracle Net keyword-value pair

  • A tnsnames.ora entry and TNS_ADMIN is set to the location of tnsnames.ora

  • A tnsnames.ora entry and the following:

    • tnsnames.ora file located in ORACLE_HOME/network/admin

    • The ORACLE_HOME environment variable set to this Oracle home

This method allows your applications to specify internally a connection string if the application code itself uses an empty connection string. The benefit of an empty connect string is that the application itself does not need to specify the tnsnames.ora entry. Instead, when a user invokes the application, the location of the database is determined by a script or the environment, depending on where you have set the LOCAL environment variable. The disadvantage of using empty strings is that you must configure this additional information in order for your application to connect to the database.

4.2.4 Setting Up User Accounts

For information about setting up additional user accounts, see Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows.

4.2.5 Changing the Oracle Home User Password

Oracle Home User Control is a command-line tool that allows an administrator to update the password for Windows services in the Oracle home. The input password must match the password for the Windows User Account used as the Oracle Home User. So, first use Windows operating system tools to change the Windows password and then use this tool to update the Windows services in the Oracle Home to use the same password.

Note:

You must have administrator privileges to run this Oracle Home User Control utility.

Syntax Overview:

The following is the command syntax:

orahomeuserctl list | updpwd [-user username] [-host hostname1, hostname2, . . .] [-log logfilename]

where:

  • orahomeuserctl is used to display the Oracle Home User name associated with the current Oracle Home or to update the Oracle Home User password.

  • list displays the Oracle Home User name associated with the current Oracle Home.

  • updpwd prompts for the new password and updates the password for the named Oracle Service User. The following are the options for updpwd:

    • -user username

      This option determines the Oracle Home User name. If this option is not present, then the user name associated with the current Oracle Home is used. If the named user, be it the username or user of the current Oracle Home, is an MSA or Windows Built-in Account, then an error message is displayed and the command is terminated.

    • -host hostname1, hostname2,. . .

      When this option is present, the utility updates the passwords for all services belonging to the named Oracle Home User on the specified hosts. Otherwise, the Oracle Home User Control utility updates the passwords for all the services belonging to the named Oracle Home User on a specified host with single instance installation, or updates the passwords for all services belonging to the named Oracle Home User on all the specified hosts.

      When the update completes, the utility displays the number of successful updates and any services that failed to update with the new password.

    • -log logfilename

      This option adds the password update operation results to a log file for every service name receiving the new password. By default, the log files are located in the ORACLE_HOME\log directory. If logfilename specifies only a file name, then the log is stored in the named file in the default directory. However, if the logfilename contains a path, then that path is used without modification.

See Also:

Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows

4.2.6 Using Oracle9i Language and Definition Files with Oracle Database 12c

Changes have been made to the content of some of the language and territory definition files in Oracle Database 10g and later releases. These updates are necessary to correct the legacy definitions that no longer meet the local conventions in some of the languages and territories that Oracle Database supports.

Oracle Database 12c customers should review their existing application code to ensure that the correct cultural conventions, which were introduced and defined in Oracle Database 10g, are being used. For customers who may not be able to make the necessary code changes to support their applications, Oracle Database offers Oracle9i locale definition files with this release of Oracle Database. If the Oracle Database server installation has been configured to use the Oracle9i files, then you must enable this functionality in each client installation as well.

To enable this functionality:

  1. Run the cr9idata.pl script, by default located in ORACLE_HOME\nls\data\old.

    If the client installation type you chose does not include this directory, you can find the cr9idata.pl script in the same directory path in a default Oracle Database installation.

  2. Set the ORA_NLS10 environment variable to point to the directory where you installed the new language and territory definition files, which by default are in ORACLE_HOME\nls\data.

  3. Restart Oracle Database.

See Also:

4.3 Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Task – Configuring Oracle Net Services

You can configure Oracle Database Client to communicate with Oracle Net Services by adding appropriate entries to the tnsnames.ora and listener.ora files. If you have a previous release or Oracle software, you can just copy information in the Oracle Net tnsnames.ora and listener.ora configuration files from the previous release to the corresponding files in the new release.

Note:

The default location for the tnsnames.ora and listener.ora files is the ORACLE_HOME\network\admin directory.

To create Oracle Connection Manager (CMAN) services, create a CMAN alias entry in cman.ora under ORACLE_HOME\network\admin. For example:

cman_proxy=
  (CONFIGURATION=
  (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=host_name)(PORT=1521))
    (RULE_LIST=
      (RULE=(SRC=*)(DST=*)(SRV=*)(ACT=accept)))
    (PARAMETER_LIST=
      (MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSSES=1)
      (MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES=2)))

This accepts connection from all the clients as metioned in the rule.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide

CMAN services are created when CMAN is started for the first time using cmctl command-line tool. When creating services, cmctl prompts for a password if Windows User Account is specified as Oracle Home User during installation. If Windows Built-in Account is specified as Oracle Home User during installation, then cmctl does not prompt for password.

Listener can be configured by adding an alias entry in listener.ora. Listener service is created when the listener is started for the first time. The listener control utility, lsnrctl prompts for a password if Windows User Account is specified as Oracle Home User during installation. If Windows Built-in Account is specified as Oracle Home User during installation, then it does not prompt for password.

4.4 Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer

See the following sections in Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide for recommended postinstallation tasks for SQL Developer:

4.5 Creating the OraMTS Service for Microsoft Transaction Server

Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server (OraMTS) permit Oracle database clients to be used as resource managers in Microsoft application coordinated transactions. OraMTS acts as a proxy for the Oracle database client to the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC). As a result, OraMTS provides client-side connection pooling and allows client components that leverage Oracle to participate in promotable and distributed transactions. In addition, OraMTS can operate with Oracle database clients running on any operating system, given that the services themselves are run on Windows.

On releases before Oracle Database 12c, the OraMTS service was created as part of a software-only installation. Starting with Oracle Database Client 12c, you must use a configuration tool to create this service.

To create the OraMTS service after performing a software-only installation for Oracle Database Client, perform the following steps:

  1. Open a command window.

  2. Change directories to ORACLE_HOME\bin.

  3. Run the OraMTSCtl utility to create the OraMTS Service:

    C:\ORACLE_HOME\bin> oramtsctl.exe -new
    

4.6 Creating the Scheduler Agent

The Oracle Scheduler Execution Agent permits Oracle Database clients to run Scheduler jobs on request of an Oracle instance which can be located on a remote host. This allows for a centralized control over several hosts using Oracle Scheduler and can perform jobs at the operating system level and jobs that run on another Oracle Database.

The Oracle Scheduler Execution Agent is installed with the Oracle Database Client software.

To create the Scheduler Agent service after performing a software-only installation for Oracle Database Client, perform the following steps:

  1. Open a command window.

  2. Change directories to ORACLE_HOME\bin.

  3. Run the executable utility, schagent to create the Scheduler Agent service:

    C:\ORACLE_HOME\bin> schagent.exe -new