5 Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server

Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, also known as Oracle Restart, provides system support for a single-instance Oracle Database. This support includes volume management, file system, and automatic restart capabilities. If you plan to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM), then you must install Oracle Restart before installing your database. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management. Oracle combined the two infrastructure products into a single set of binaries that is installed into an Oracle Restart home. Oracle Restart should be installed before installing Oracle Database.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management is a volume manager and a file system for Oracle database files that supports single-instance Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) configurations. Oracle Automatic Storage Management also supports a general purpose file system for your application needs, including Oracle Database binaries. Oracle Automatic Storage Management is Oracle's recommended storage management solution that provides an alternative to conventional volume managers, file systems, and raw devices.

Note:

  • You can neither install Oracle Restart on an Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster member node, nor add an Oracle Restart server to an Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster member node. Oracle Restart supports single-instance databases on one server, while Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster supports single-instance or Oracle RAC databases on a cluster.

  • If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle Restart.

  • Oracle Restart is used in single-instance (nonclustered) environments only.

Oracle Restart improves the availability of your Oracle database because of the following:

  • When there is a hardware or a software failure, Oracle Restart automatically starts all Oracle components, including the Oracle database instance, Oracle Net Listener, database services, and Oracle ASM.

  • Oracle Restart starts components in the proper order when the database host is restarted.

  • Oracle Restart runs periodic checks to monitor the status of Oracle components. If a check operation fails for a component, then the component is shut down and restarted.

This chapter contains the following sections:

5.1 Requirements for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Installation

Before you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, ensure that your system meets the following requirements:

5.1.1 System Requirements

Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server has similar system requirements as Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster, such as requiring 64-bit Windows server operating system.

Components included with Oracle Grid Infrastructure, such as Oracle ASM, have the same system requirements as Oracle Grid Infrastructure.

Note that specific system requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server are noted below.

5.1.2 Memory Requirements

At least 4 GB of RAM (for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server installations, including installations where you plan to install Oracle Database).

5.1.3 Disk Space Requirements

The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:

At least 4.5 GB of disk space

The amount of disk space available in the %TEMP% directory is equivalent to the total amount of free disk space, minus what is required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server to be installed.

If less than 1 GB free disk space is available in the %TEMP% directory, then complete the following steps:

  • Delete unnecessary files from the %TEMP% directory to meet the disk space requirement.

  • Set TEMP environment variable. Go to System Properties, then Environment Variables, "TEMP=C:\Temp\"

If you plan to install Oracle Database, then you must meet additional preinstallation requirements. See Chapter 3, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks."

5.2 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM

This section contains information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM). It contains the following topics:

5.2.1 About Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM

Oracle ACFS extends Oracle ASM technology to support all of your application data in both single instance and cluster configurations. Oracle ADVM provides volume management services and a standard disk device driver interface to clients. Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System communicates with Oracle ASM through the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager interface.

5.2.2 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Windows

Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on Windows Server 2008 x64, Windows Server 2008 R2 x64, Windows Server 2012 x64, and Windows Server 2012 R2 x64.

See Also:

5.2.3 Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS

Oracle Restart does not support root-based Oracle Clusterware resources. For this reason, the following restrictions apply if you run Oracle ACFS on an Oracle Restart configuration:

  • Oracle Restart does not support Oracle ACFS resources on all platforms.

  • Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Restart configurations do not support the Oracle ACFS registry.

  • You must manually load Oracle ACFS drivers after a system restart.

  • You must manually mount an Oracle ACFS file system, and unmount it after the Oracle ASM instance has finished running.

  • Creating Oracle datafiles on an Oracle ACFS file system is not supported in Oracle Restart configurations.

To enable Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart see "Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations."

Note the following general restrictions and guidelines also about Oracle ACFS:

  • Oracle ACFS can be used as an option only when Oracle ASM is configured.

  • You can place Oracle database binaries and administrative files (for example, trace files) on Oracle ACFS.

    Oracle Database homes can be stored on Oracle ACFS only if the database version is Oracle Database 11g Release 2 or higher. Earlier releases of Oracle Database cannot be installed on Oracle ACFS.

  • Oracle ACFS does not support replication or encryption with Oracle Database data files, tablespace files, control files, and redo logs.

  • Starting with Oracle Database release 12.1.0.2, you can also place Oracle database files on Oracle ACFS (except in Oracle Restart configurations as mentioned earlier).

  • Oracle ACFS provides a general purpose file system for other files.

5.3 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration

Review the following sections for information on Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) storage configuration:

5.3.1 Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions

Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to create and modify disk groups when you install earlier version of Oracle databases on Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.

Releases before Oracle Database 11g Release 2 used Database Configuration Assistant to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM. Starting with 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed with Oracle Restart. You can no longer use Oracle DBCA to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM.

5.3.2 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations

In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle Automatic Storage Management is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.

If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management installation, then you must upgrade Oracle Automatic Storage Management by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade (upgrades of existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management installations). If you do not have Oracle Automatic Storage Management installed and you want to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.

You must run Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant for installing and configuring Oracle ASM instances, disk groups, volumes, and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS). In addition, you can use the ASMCA command-line interface.

Apply the following guidelines when you install Oracle Automatic Storage Management:

  • You must complete the steps listed under the "Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management" section to prepare a disk partition to use for the Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups.

  • Ensure that at least one disk is configured appropriately in an Oracle ASM disk group before beginning the installation.

  • When you install Oracle Automatic Storage Management, Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant creates a separate server parameter file (SPFILE) and password file for the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance. As soon as Oracle Automatic Storage Management is installed, ASMSNMP schema and user are created. See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information.

  • The Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance that manages the existing disk group runs in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory.

5.3.3 Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

If you plan to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management to manage database files for your databases, then use the procedures in this section to configure storage for use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management.

This section covers the following topics:

Note:

Oracle does not recommend using identifiers for database object names that must be quoted. While these quoted identifiers may be valid as names in the SQL CREATE statement, such as CREATE DISKGROUP "1data" ..., the names may not be valid when using other tools that manage the database object.

See Also:

"Configuring Disks Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management" for more information about stamping the disks

5.3.3.1 Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle Automatic Storage Management, you must determine how many devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this task, follow these steps:

  1. Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files, recovery files, or both. Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file.

    During the database installation, you have the option to select either a file system or Oracle ASM as the storage mechanism for Oracle Database files. Similarly, you also have the option to select either a file system or Oracle ASM as the storage mechanism for your recovery files.

    Note:

    You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for both Oracle Database files and recovery files. You can use a file system for one file type and Oracle ASM for the other.

    If you select Oracle ASM as your storage option for Oracle Database files, then depending on your choice in the Specify Recovery Options screen, you have the following options:

    • If you select the Oracle ASM option for your recovery files, then Oracle Universal Installer provides you with only the option to use the same disk group for both Oracle Database files and recovery files.

    • If you decide not to enable recovery during the database installation, then, after the database installation, you can set the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter to enable the fast recovery area.

    See Also:

  2. Choose the Oracle Automatic Storage Management redundancy level for each Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group you create.

    The redundancy level that you choose for the Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group determines how Oracle Automatic Storage Management mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of disks and amount of disk space that you require. The redundancy levels are as follows:

    • External redundancy

      An external redundancy disk group requires a minimum of one disk device. The effective disk space in an external redundancy disk group is the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.

      Because Oracle Automatic Storage Management does not mirror data in an external redundancy disk group, Oracle recommends that you use only RAID or similar devices that provide their own data protection mechanisms as disk devices in this type of disk group.

    • Normal redundancy

      To optimize performance and reliability in a normal redundancy disk group, Oracle Automatic Storage Management uses two-way mirroring for data files and three-way mirroring for control files, by default. In addition, you can choose the mirroring characteristics for individual files in a disk group. Alternatively, you can use two-way mirroring or no mirroring.

      A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two failure groups (or two disk devices) if you are using two-way mirroring. The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.

      For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy disk groups.

    • High redundancy

      In a high redundancy disk group, Oracle Automatic Storage Management uses three-way mirroring to increase performance and provide the highest level of reliability. A high redundancy disk group requires a minimum of three disk devices (or three failure groups). The effective disk space in a high redundancy disk group is one-third the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.

      While high redundancy disk groups do provide a high level of data protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices before deciding to use this redundancy level.

  3. Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the data files and recovery files.

    Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum disk space requirements for the installation:

    Redundancy Level Minimum Number of Disks Data Files Recovery Files Both File Types
    External 1 1.6 GB 2.95 GB 4.55 GB
    Normal 2 3.2 GB 5.90 GB 9.10 GB
    High 3 4.8 GB 8.85 GB 13.65 GB

    If an Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance is on the system, you can use an existing disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the database installation.

  4. Optionally identify failure groups for the Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group devices.

    Note:

    You must complete this step only if you intend to use an installation method that runs Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, for example, if you intend to choose the Advanced database configuration option. Other installation types do not allow you to specify failure groups.

    If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, you can further protect your database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its own failure group. However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to the same SCSI controller, the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.

    For instance, to avoid failures of this type, you could use two SCSI controllers, each with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller.

    Note:

    If you define custom failure groups, you must specify a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
  5. If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, install or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Use the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:

    • All of the devices in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group should be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.

    • Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group device. Oracle Automatic Storage Management expects each disk group device to be on a separate physical disk.

    • Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group, Oracle does not recommend their use. Logical volume managers can hide the physical disk architecture, preventing Oracle Automatic Storage Management from optimizing I/O across the physical devices.

    See Also:

    "Configuring Disks Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management" for information about completing this task

5.3.3.2 Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance

In order to use a DAS or SAN disk in Oracle Automatic Storage Management, the disk must have a partition table. Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk containing the entire disk.

Note:

You can use any physical disk for Oracle Automatic Storage Management, if it is partitioned. However, you cannot use NAS or Microsoft dynamic disks.

This section covers the following topics.

Step 1: Enabling Disk Automounting

Before you can configure partitions or logical drives on Windows, you must enable disk automounting. Enable disk automounting when using:

  • Disk partitions on both single-instance and Oracle RAC installations

  • Cluster file system for Oracle RAC

  • Oracle Clusterware

  • Raw partitions for a single-node database installation

  • Primary or logical partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

To enable automounting:

  1. Enter the following commands at a command prompt:

    DRIVE_LETTER:\> diskpart
    DISKPART> automount enable
    DISKPART> exit
    
  2. Restart your computer.

Step 2: Creating the Disk Partitions

To create disk partitions, use the disk administration tools provided by the operating system or third party vendors. The following administration tools are provided by the operating system:

  • The graphical user interface Disk Management snap-in to manage disks.

    To access this tool, type diskmgmt.msc at the command prompt. Alternatively, from the Start menu, select All Programs, then Administrative Tools, then Computer Management. Then select the Disk Management node in the Storage tree.

    Create primary partitions and logical drives in extended partitions by selecting the New Simple Volume option. To create a raw device, assign a drive letter and remove the letter after the partition is created. You must select Do not format this partition to specify raw partition. Do not use spanned volumes or striped volumes. These options convert the volume to a dynamic disk. Oracle Automatic Storage Management does not support dynamic disks.

    For other Windows, create primary partitions by selecting the New Partition option. Create the logical drives by selecting the New Logical Drive option.

  • The command-line tool diskpart.exe, which lets you create primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives.

    To access this tool, enter diskpart.exe at the command prompt. The syntax for using diskpart.exe for the procedures in this section is as follows:

    DRIVE_LETTER:\> diskpart
    DISKPART> select disk diskn
    DISKPART> create partition primary | extended | logical size=sizen
    DISKPART> 
    

    where:

    • diskpart.exe is the command-line tool for managing disks.

    • diskn is the disk number where the partitions are created.

    • sizen is the size of the partition, for example 500 represents 500 MB.

See Also:

The online help or documentation for the administration tool you are using

You can enter the diskpart.exe commands directly at the command line; alternatively, you can enter the commands in a text file, and then run diskpart /s using this file as a script.

You cannot create more than four primary disk partitions per disk. If you need more, you can get around this limitation by creating three primary partitions and then creating the fourth partition as an extended partition with as many logical partitions within as you need.

For example, to create the disk partitions on Disk 5 and assign them each a size:

DISKPART> select disk 5
DISKPART> create partition primary size=500
DISKPART> ...
DISKPART> create partition extended
DISKPART> create partition logical size=800
DISKPART> ...
DISKPART> create partition logical size=500

5.3.3.3 Configuring Disks Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management with direct attached storage (DAS) or storage area network (SAN), the disks must be stamped with a header. If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server in interactive mode, Oracle Universal Installer configures the disks' headers during the installation process. However, if you plan to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server in response file mode, you must manually configure the disks before installation by using either asmtoolg (GUI version) or asmtool (command-line version). You can also use these tools to reconfigure the disks later on after installation. The asmtoolg and asmtool utilities only work on partitioned disks—you cannot use Oracle Automatic Storage Management on unpartitioned disks.

The asmtoolg and asmtool tools associate meaningful, persistent names with disks to facilitate using those disks with Oracle Automatic Storage Management. Oracle Automatic Storage Management uses disk strings to more easily operate on groups of disks at once, so the names that asmtoolg or asmtool creates make this easier than using Windows drive letters.

All disk names created by asmtoolg or asmtool begin with the prefix ORCLDISK followed by a user-defined prefix (the default is DATA) and a disk number for identification purposes.

Using the asmtoolg Tool (Graphical User Interface)

The asmtoolg tool is a graphical interface for creating device names. Use asmtoolg to add, change, delete, and examine the devices available for use in Oracle Automatic Storage Management.

To add or change disk stamps:

  1. In the installation media labeled Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 1 (12.1), from the media root, go to asmtool directory and double-click asmtoolg.exe.

    If Oracle Database is installed, go to ORACLE_HOME\bin and double-click asmtoolg.exe.

    If User Account Control is enabled, then create a shortcut for the command prompt window on your desktop. An icon for that shortcut appears on the desktop. Right click the icon for the newly created shortcut, and specify "Run as administrator." When the command window opens, go to ORACLE_HOME\bin, and then type asmtoolg.

  2. Select the Add or change label option, then click Next.

    The asmtoolg tool shows the devices available on the system. Unrecognized disks are labeled as "Candidate device", stamped Oracle Automatic Storage Management disks as "Stamped ASM disk", and unstamped Oracle Automatic Storage Management disks as "Unstamped ASM disks." The tool also shows disks that are recognized by Windows as a file system (such as NTFS). These are not available for use as disks and cannot be selected. In addition, Microsoft Dynamic disks are not available for use as Oracle Automatic Storage Management disks.

    If necessary, follow the steps under "Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance" to create a disk partition for the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance.

  3. In the Stamp Disks window, select the disks to stamp.

    Oracle Automatic Storage Management can generate unique stamps for all of the devices selected for a given prefix. The stamps are generated by concatenating a number with the prefix specified. For example, if the prefix is DATA, then the first Oracle Automatic Storage Management link name is ORCLDISKDATA0.

    You can also specify the stamps of individual devices.

  4. Optionally, select a disk to edit the individual stamp (Oracle Automatic Storage Management link name).

  5. Click Next.

  6. Click Finish.

To delete disk stamps:

  1. Select the Delete labels option, then click Next.

    The delete option is only available if disks exist with stamps. The delete window shows all stamped Oracle Automatic Storage Management disks.

  2. In the Delete Stamps window, select the disks to unstamp.

  3. Click Next.

  4. Click Finish.

Using the asmtool Utility (Command Line)

The asmtool utility is a command-line interface for stamping disks. If User Account Control is enabled, then you can create a shortcut for the command prompt window on your desktop. An icon for that shortcut appears on the desktop. Right-click the icon for the newly created shortcut, and specify "Run as administrator." Then start asmtool.

It has the following options:

Option Description
-add Adds or changes stamps. You must specify the hard disk, partition, and new stamp name. If the disk is a raw device or has an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management stamp, then you must specify the -force option. Also sets Oracle Automatic Storage Management instances to rescan the available disks.

If you must partition a disk, then follow the procedures under "Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance".

Example:

asmtool -add [-force]
\Device\Harddisk1\Partition1 ORCLDISKASM0
\Device\Harddisk2\Partition1 ORCLDISKASM2...
-addprefix Adds or changes stamps using a common prefix to generate stamps automatically. The stamps are generated by concatenating a number with the prefix specified. If the disk is a raw device or has an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management stamp, then you must specify the -force option. Also sets Oracle Automatic Storage Management instances to rescan the available disks.

Example:

asmtool -addprefix ORCLDISKASM [-force]
\Device\Harddisk1\Partition1
\Device\Harddisk2\Partition1...
-list List available disks. The stamp, windows device name, and disk size in megabytes are shown. Some disks may be file systems, and cannot be stamped. If the disk is a raw device or has an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management stamp, then you must specify the -force option.

Example:

asmtool -list [-force]
-delete Removes existing stamps from disks. Also sets Oracle Automatic Storage Management instances to rescan the available disks.

Example:

asmtool -delete ORCLDISKASM0 ORCLDISKASM1...

5.4 Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups Manually Using Oracle ASMCA

The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant utility creates a new Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance if there is no Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance currently configured on this computer.

After installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, you can also use Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant to create and configure disk groups, Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).

If you want to create additional disk groups or manually configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management disks, then you can run the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant as follows:

DRIVE_LETTER:\> cd ORACLE_HOME\bin
DRIVE_LETTER:\> asmca.bat

See Also:

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for further information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant

5.5 Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation

To test the Oracle Automatic Storage Management installation:

  1. Use SQL*Plus to connect to the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance as the SYS user with SYSASM privilege and start the instance if necessary:

    DRIVE_LETTER:\>sqlplus /nolog
    SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSASM
    Enter password: SYS_password 
    SQL> STARTUP
    
  2. Enter the following command to view the existing disk groups, their redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:

    SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
    

5.6 Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances

If you have an Oracle Automatic Storage Management installation from a previous release installed on your server, or in an existing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation, you can use Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant to upgrade the existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance to 12c Release 1 (12.1), and subsequently configure disk groups, Oracle Automatic Storage Management volumes and Oracle Automatic Storage Management file systems.

Note:

You must first shut down all databases and applications using an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance before upgrading it.

During installation, if you chose to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant detects that there is an earlier Oracle Automatic Storage Management version installed in another Oracle Automatic Storage Management home, then after installing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management 12c Release 1 (12.1) binaries, you can start Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant to upgrade the existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance.

5.7 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only Installation

A software-only installation only copies the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server binaries to the specified location. Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and Oracle ASM must be done manually after the installation has finished.

When you perform a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, you must complete a few manual configuration steps to enable Oracle Restart after you install the software.

Note:

Oracle recommends that only advanced users perform the software-only installation, because this installation method provides no validation of the installation and this installation option requires manual postinstallation steps to enable the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server software.

Performing a software-only installation involves the following steps:

  1. Installing the Software Binaries

  2. Configuring the Software Binaries

5.7.1 Installing the Software Binaries

  1. Log in to Windows as an Administrator user.

  2. Navigate to the location of the installation media for Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), open a command prompt with administrator privileges, and run the setup.exe command.

  3. Complete a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server.

  4. Verify that the server meets the installation requirements using the command runcluvfy.bat stage -pre hacfg. Ensure that you have completed all storage and server preinstallation requirements.

  5. Configure the software binaries. See "Configuring the Software Binaries" for information about configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server after performing a software-only installation.

5.7.2 Configuring the Software Binaries

To configure and activate a software-only Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation for Oracle Restart, complete the following tasks:

  1. Log in as a member of the Administrators group and run the roothas.pl script from the Grid_home, using the following syntax:

    Grid_home\perl\bin\perl -IGrid_home\perl\lib -IGrid_home\crs\install 
    Grid_home\crs\install\roothas.pl
    

    For example, if your Grid home is C:\app\oracle\product\12.1.0\grid, then run the following script:

    C:\app\oracle\product\12.1.0\grid\perl\bin\perl -I C:\app\oracle\product\12.1.0\grid\perl\lib -I
    C:\app\oracle\product\12.1.0\grid\crs\install
    C:\app\oracle\product\12.1.0\grid\crs\install\roothas.pl
    
  2. Change directory to Grid_home\oui\bin, where Grid_home is the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.

  3. Enter the following command:

    setup.exe -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
    CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
    

    For example:

    C:\app\oracle\product\12.1.0\grid> setup.exe -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=C:\app\oracle\product\12.1.0\grid
    CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
    
  4. Use the SRVCTL utility along with Network Configuration Assistant and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant to add the listener, the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance, and all Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups to the Oracle Restart configuration.

5.8 Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server

If you install Oracle Restart and then create your database, the database is automatically added to the Oracle Restart configuration, and is then automatically restarted when required. However, if you install Oracle Restart on a host computer on which a database exists, you must manually add the database, the listener, the Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) instance, and other components to the Oracle Restart configuration.

Note:

Oracle Restart can accommodate multiple single-instance databases on a single host computer.

This section covers the following topics:

5.8.1 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New Database Installation

Perform the following steps to install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and then create a database that is managed by Oracle Restart. First install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, which installs Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management, then configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management with at least one disk group, and then install Oracle database that stores database files in Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups. Click the help button on the Oracle Universal Installer page for page level assistance.

To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server with a new database installation:

  1. Double-click setup.exe to start Oracle Universal Installer.

    Note:

    You must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media.
  2. The Select Installation Option screen appears. Select the Install and Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server option, to install and configure Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management. Click Next.

  3. On the Select Product Languages screen, select one or more languages. Move the languages from the Available Languages list to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.

  4. Create ASM Disk Group screen lists all the stamped disks matching the default pattern, \\.\ORCLDISK. After you have created the disk partitions, the disks must be stamped with a header before they can be used by Oracle ASM. Click Stamp Disk.

    Click Change Discovery Path to select any devices for use by Oracle Automatic Storage Management but are not listed. In the Change Discovery Path window, enter a string to use to search for devices that Oracle Automatic Storage Management uses, such as \\.\ORCLDISK*, and then click OK.

    Note:

    During installation, disk paths mounted on Oracle ASM and registered on Oracle ASMFD with the string ORCL:* are listed as default database storage candidate disks.

    Consider the following information about disk devices while performing this step:

    • The default Disk Group Name is DATA. You can enter a new name for the disk group, or use the default name.

    • The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.

    • Check with your system administrator to determine if the disks used by Oracle ASM are mirrored at the storage level. If so, select External for the redundancy. If the disks are not mirrored at the storage level, then select Normal for the redundancy.

      Note:

      For normal redundancy, you require twice as much disk space to hold the same amount of data. For example, if your database is 100 GB, then you require approximately 200 GB of storage.
    • Every Oracle ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). An allocation unit is the fundamental unit of allocation within a disk group. You can select the AU Size value from 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 MB, depending on the specific disk group compatibility level. The default value is set to 1 MB.

  5. In the Specify ASM Password screen, enter the password required to connect to the Oracle ASM instance. The Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance is managed by a privileged role called SYSASM, which grants full access to Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups. Oracle recommends that you create a less privileged user, ASMSNMP, with SYSDBA privileges to monitor the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance.

    Enter password for the SYS and ASMSNMP user accounts. The passwords should be at least eight characters in length and include at least one alphabetic, one numeric, and one of the following special characters: #, _, - (number sign, underscore, or dash). Only these three special characters are allowed. You can use no other special characters in passwords.

    Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a different password for each account. You must remember the passwords that you specify.

  6. On the Specify Installation Location screen, enter the following details and click Next:

    • Oracle base: Enter the directory location for Oracle base. Do not include spaces in the path name.

    • Software location: This field is populated by default in concurrence with Oracle base location. Do not include spaces in the path name.

  7. Perform Prerequisite Checks screen, checks if the minimum system requirements are met to perform the database installation. If all the system requirements are met, then you are directed to the Summary screen. However, in a failed installation, you can review the error.

    To get a failed requirements list, click Show Failed. Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and check the system requirements once more. If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if the minimum requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.

    To get a list of failed requirements, select Show Failed from the list. To get a list of all the prerequirement checks run by the Oracle Universal Installer, select Show All. To get a list of the prerequirement checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.

    Note:

    • The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that sets some system parameters to Oracle-recommended values. Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of this script.

    • Oracle recommends that you use caution in checking the Ignore All option. If you check this option, then Oracle Universal Installer may not confirm that your system can install Oracle Database successfully.

  8. Review contents of the Summary screen, click Install.

    Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can save all the installation steps into a response file by clicking Save Response File. This file can be used for a silent installation.

  9. The Install Product screen displays the progress of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation.

  10. The Finish screen displays the installation status. Click Close to end the installation, then Yes to confirm you want to exit Oracle Universal Installer.

    If you encounter any problems, refer to the configuration log for information. The path to the configuration log is displayed on the Configuration Assistants window.

  11. Oracle ASMCA is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation. To create additional disk groups, run the Oracle ASMCA utility. For example, you can create another disk group named RECOVERY to store the fast recovery area.

    Note:

    To check if the Oracle High Availability Service is installed properly, run crsctl check has command from Grid_home\bin directory. has is a service that is installed with Oracle Restart, which is responsible for starting software services like Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
  12. Install Oracle Database. Refer to "Installing the Oracle Database Software" for information about installing Oracle Database.

    Note:

    • If a new database is installed after a grid infrastructure installation, then the listener runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home. Because Oracle Automatic Storage Management is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, the default listener is created and runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home. If you perform a database installation, then the database uses the same listener created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation.

    • If you are using Oracle Restart, then the default listener and any additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.

5.8.2 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server for an Existing Database

Follow the high-level instructions in this section to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and configure it for an existing Oracle database. Oracle Restart can only manage existing 12.1 resources and hence you can install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server only for an existing 12.1 database. However, Oracle database releases before 12.1 can coexist on the same server without being managed by Oracle Restart.

To install Oracle Restart for an Existing database:

  • On the same host computer as the database, use Oracle Universal Installer to install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, and select Install and Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server as the installation option.

    The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server components are installed in a separate Oracle home.

    Refer to "Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only Installation" for detailed instructions.

  • Go to the Grid home's bin directory.

    Use the srvctl add database command with the -c SINGLE flag to add the database in an Oracle Restart configuration. Also use the srvctl add command to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, all Oracle ASM disk groups, and any database services to the Oracle Restart configuration.

5.9 Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After Installation

After installation, you must first stop the Oracle Restart stack to modify the software installed in your Grid home. For example, to apply a one-off patch or modify any of the DLLs used by Oracle Restart or Oracle ASM, you must follow these steps to stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack.

Caution:

Before relinking executables, you must shut down all executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you are relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle shared libraries.

Prepare the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home for modification using the following procedure:

  1. Log in using a member of the Administrators group and go to the directory Grid_home\bin, where Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.

  2. Shut down the Oracle Restart stack using the following command:

       DRIVE_LETTER:\Grid_home\bin> crsctl stop has -f
    

    Alternatively, you can use the roothas.bat script to stop Oracle Restart, as shown in the following example:

       DRIVE_LETTER:\Grid_home\crs\install> roothas.bat -unlock 
    

    Note:

    Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the roothas.bat script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.

    The roothas.bat script stops Oracle Restart and then verifies that it is stopped.

  3. After the Oracle Restart stack is completely shut down, perform the changes to the software installed in the Grid home.

  4. Use the following command to restart the Oracle Restart stack:

       DRIVE_LETTER:\Grid_home\bin> crsctl start has
    

Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations

To use Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart configurations, you must first enable Administrator access for Oracle ACFS using the following command:

DRIVE_LETTER:\cd Grid_home\crs\install
DRIVE_LETTER:\Grid_home\crs\install>roothas.bat -lockacfs