The Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download it from the Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal. In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal Installer to install the software. However, you can also use Oracle Universal Installer to complete silent mode installations, without using the GUI.
See Also:Appendix A for information about silent mode installations
Review the information in Chapter 2, "Overview of Oracle Database Installation" and complete the tasks listed in Chapter 3, " Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks".
If you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database, you may want to use silent mode or response file mode. In response file mode, at each node, you run Oracle Universal Installer from the command line using a response file. The response file is a text file that contains the settings you typically enter in the Oracle Universal Installer GUI dialog boxes.
See Also:Appendix A for information about silent mode installations
Using Oracle Universal Installer from an earlier Oracle release to install components from this release is no longer allowed.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.
To upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.
See Also:Chapter 5, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" for information about Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
If Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC is installed on the system, then Oracle Universal Installer displays the Grid Installation Options screen. You must select Single instance database installation, unless you want to install Oracle RAC. The other options in this screen are Oracle Real Application Clusters database installation and Oracle RAC One Node database installation.
This section covers the following topics:
Oracle Database uses the database character set for:
Data stored in SQL character datatypes (CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, and LONG).
Identifiers such as table names, column names, and PL/SQL variables.
Stored SQL and PL/SQL source code, including text literals embedded in this code.
After a database is created, changing its character set is usually very expensive in terms of time and resources. Such operations may require converting all character data by exporting the whole database and importing it back. Therefore, it is important that you carefully select the database character set at installation time.
Oracle recommends Unicode AL32UTF8 as the database character set. Unicode is the universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken languages of the world. It also supports many historical scripts (alphabets). Unicode is the native encoding of many technologies, including Java, XML, XHTML, ECMAScript, and LDAP. Unicode is ideally suited for databases supporting the Internet and the global economy.
Because AL32UTF8 is a multibyte character set, database operations on character data may be slightly slower when compared to single-byte database character sets, such as WE8MSWIN1252. Storage space requirements for text in most languages that use characters outside of the ASCII repertoire are higher in AL32UTF8 compared to legacy character sets supporting the language. The increase in storage space concerns only character data and only data that is not in English. The universality and flexibility of Unicode usually outweighs these additional costs.
Consider legacy character sets when compatibility, storage requirements, or performance of text processing is critical and the database supports only a single group of languages. The database character set to be selected in this case is the character set of most clients connecting to this database.
The database character set of a multitenant container database (CDB) determines which databases can be plugged in later. Ensure that the character set you choose for the CDB is compatible with the database character sets of the databases to be plugged into this CDB.
See Also:"Choosing a Database Character Set for a CDB" in Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide
The default character set suggested or used by Oracle Universal Installer and Database Configuration Assistant in this release is based on the language configuration of the operating system.
For most languages, the default character set is one of the Microsoft Windows character sets, for example WE8MSWIN1252, even though the database is not installed on Windows. This results from the assumption that most clients connecting to the database run under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Because the database should be able to store all characters coming from the clients and Microsoft Windows character sets have a richer character repertoire than the corresponding ISO 8859 character sets, the Microsoft Windows character sets are usually the better choice. For example, the EE8MSWIN1250 character set supports the Euro currency symbol and various smart quote characters, while the corresponding EE8ISO8859P2 character set does not support them. Oracle Database converts the data between the database character set and the client character sets, which are declared by the NLS_LANG settings.
The list of database character sets that is presented to you for selection by Oracle Universal Installer contains only the recommended character sets. Even though Oracle Database supports many more character sets, they are either deprecated or they are binary subsets of another recommended character set. For example, WE8DEC is a deprecated character set and US7ASCII and WE8ISO8859P1 are both binary subsets of WE8MSWIN1252.
If, for compatibility reasons, you must create a database in one of the character sets that was not recommended, select the Advanced database configuration option. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) in the interactive mode gives you the opportunity to select any of the database character sets supported on SPARC.
See Also:"Choosing a Character Set" in Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide
This section is optional and describes how to identify disk groups and determine the free disk space that they contain. You can store either database or recovery files in an existing Oracle ASM disk group that you created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation.
Note:The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk group runs in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory.
To determine if an existing Oracle ASM disk group exists or to determine if there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control or you can use the following Oracle ASM command line tool (
Connect to the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance and start the instance if necessary:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd ASMCMD> startup
Enter one of the following commands to view the existing disk groups, their redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd -p lsdg
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level, and note the free space that it contains.
If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the storage requirements listed in the previous section.
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download it from the Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal. To install the software from the hard disk, you must either download it and unpack it, or copy it from the installation media, if you have it.
You can access and install Oracle Database by using one of the following methods:
To copy the software to a hard disk, see "Copying the Software to the Hard Disk"
To download the software from Oracle Technology Network, see "Downloading Oracle Software"
You can download the trial version of the installation files from the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal and extract them on your hard disk. Ensure that you review and understand the terms of the license. Most downloads include the development license. This section contains the following topics:
To download the installation archive files from Oracle Technology Network:
Use any browser to access the software download page from Oracle Technology Network:
Go to the download page for the product to install.
On the download page, identify the required disk space by adding the file sizes for each required file.
The file sizes are listed next to the file names.
Select a file system with enough free space to store and expand the archive files.
In most cases, the available disk space must be at least twice the size of all of the archive files.
On the file system that you selected in Step 4, create a parent directory for each product, for example
OraDB12c, to hold the installation directories.
Download all of the installation archive files to the directory that you created in Step 5.
Verify that the files you downloaded are the same size as the corresponding files on Oracle Technology Network. Also verify the checksums are the same as noted on Oracle Technology Network using a command similar to the following:
Extract the files in each directory that you just created.
After you have extracted the required installation files, see "Installing the Oracle Database Software" .
You can download the software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud as Media Packs. A Media Pack is an electronic version of the software that is also available to Oracle customers on CD-ROM or DVD. To download the Media Pack:
Use any browser to access the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal:
Complete the Export Validation process by entering information (name, company, email address, and country) in the online form.
In the Media Pack Search page, specify the Product Pack and Platform to identify the Media Pack you want to download. If you do not know the name of the Product Pack, you can search for it using the License List.
Optionally, select the relevant product to download from the Results list.
In the search results page, click Readme to download and review the Readme file for download instructions and product information.
After you review the Readme, choose the appropriate Media Pack from the search results to download the individual zip files. Follow the Download Notes instructions in this page. After you download and extract the contents of the required zip files, proceed with the installation of the software.
Note:Print the page with the list of downloadable files. It contains a list of part numbers and their corresponding descriptions that you may refer during the installation process.
After you download the files, click View Digest to verify that the MD5 or SHA-1 checksum matches with what is listed in the media download page.
My Oracle Support note 549617.1 for information on how to verify the integrity of a software download at:
Frequently Asked Questions section on the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal for more information about Media Packs
To extract the installation archive files, perform the following steps:
If necessary, change to the directory that contains the downloaded installation archive files.
Oracle RDBMS software is available as two archive files. Ensure that you extract both the archive files to the same directory.
If the downloaded file has the
.zip extension, use the following command to extract the content:
If the downloaded file has the
cpio.gz extension, use the following command:
$ gunzip filename.cpio.gz
This command creates files with names similar to the following:
To extract the installation files, enter a command similar to the following:
$ cpio -idcmv < filename.cpio
Note:See the download page for information about the correct options to use with the
Some browsers uncompress files while downloading them, but they leave the
.gz file extension.
For each file, this command creates a subdirectory named
n is the disk number identified in the file name.
When you have extracted all of the required installation files, see "Installing the Oracle Database Software".
Before installing Oracle Database, Oracle recommends that you copy the software to the hard disk to enable the installation process to run faster. Before copying the installation media content to the hard disk, you must mount the disk. The following sections describe how to mount the disk and copy its content to the hard disk.
On most systems, the disk mounts automatically when you insert it into the disk drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, then follow these steps to mount it:
Switch user to
$ sudo sh password:
If necessary, enter the following command to eject the currently mounted disc, then remove it from the drive:
Insert the appropriate disc into the disc drive.
To verify that the disc mounted automatically, enter the following command:
# ls /dvd/dvd0
If this command fails to display the contents of the disc, enter a command similar to the following to mount it:
# /usr/sbin/mount -r -F hsfs /dev/dsk/cxtydzs2 /dvd
In this example,
/dvd is the disc mount point directory and
s2 is the device name for the disc device, for example
If Oracle Universal Installer is displaying the Disk Location dialog box, enter the disc mount point directory path, for example:
Disc mounted automatically:
Disc mounted manually:
To continue, go to one of the following sections:
To copy software to a hard disk, see "Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk".
To install the software from the installation media, see "Installing the Oracle Database Software".
Note:If the system does not have an installation media, you can copy the software from the disk to a file system on another system, then either mount that file system using NFS or use FTP to copy the files to the system where you want to install the software.
To copy the contents of the installation media to a hard disk:
Create a directory on the hard disk, outside of the Oracle base directory, to hold the Oracle software:
$ mkdir OraDb12c
Change the directory to the directory you created in Step 1:
$ cd OraDb12c
Mount the disk, if it is not mounted.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert it into the drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, see the "Mounting Disks" section for platform-specific information.
Copy the contents of the mounted disk to the corresponding new subdirectory as follows:
$ cp -R /directory_path OraDb12c
If necessary, mount the next disk and repeat Step 4.
In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Database. The instructions in the following sections explain how to download updates before you start the database installation, and how to run the Oracle Universal Installer GUI to perform most database installations.
For any type of installation process, start Oracle Universal Installer and install the software, as follows:
Log on as the Oracle software owner user (typically,
oracle) to the computer on which you want to install Oracle components.
If you are installing the software from installation media, mount the disk if it is not mounted.
If the disk does not mount automatically, see the "Mounting Disks" section for platform-specific information.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert the installation media into the drive.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, complete one of the following steps depending on the location of the installation files:
Note:Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session where you logged in as the
oracleuser and set the user's environment.
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the following, where
directory_path is the path of the
database directory on the installation media:
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the
database directory and enter the following command:
Do not install Oracle Database 12c software into an existing Oracle home.
Follow the instructions displayed on the Oracle Universal Installer screens. If you need additional information, click Help.
See Also:"Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" for information about password guidelines
Do not modify the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) except by using a patch provided by Oracle Support Services. Oracle Universal Installer automatically installs the Oracle-supplied version of the JRE. This version is required to run Oracle Universal Installer and several Oracle assistants.
If errors are displayed while installing the software, see Appendix I for information about troubleshooting.
If you chose an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) in interactive mode, then you must provide detailed information about configuring the database and network.
If you need help when using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, click Help on any screen.
Note:If you chose a default installation, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant does not run interactively.
See Also:"Creating and Managing a Database with DBCA" in Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
When the configuration assistant tasks are complete click finish, click Exit, then click Yes to exit from Oracle Universal Installer.
During the database installation, when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run a script with
root privileges, enter a command similar to the following in a terminal where you are logged in as the
root user, then click OK:
For more information see the description in the Install Product screen in the table that follows.
See Chapter 7 for information about tasks that you must complete after you install Oracle Database.
The following table lists the various screens displayed during an Enterprise Edition installation for Oracle Database 12c:
|Configure Security Updates||Enter your email address, preferably your My Oracle Support email address or user name in the Email field.
Select the I wish to receive security updates via My Oracle Support check box to receive security updates.
Enter your My Oracle Support password in the My Oracle Support Password field.
See Also: "Database Security Notification Options"
|Select Installation Option||Select one of the following installation options, and click Next:
|System Class||Select the type of system for installing the database, and click Next.
|Grid Installation Options||Select the type of database installation you want to perform, and click Next.
|Select Install Type||Select one of the following, and click Next:
|Select Product Languages||This option enables you to select the language in which you want to run the product.
Select the product language from the Available Languages list, and move it to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.
|Select Database Edition||Select Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, or Standard Edition 2. Click Next.
See Also: "Enabling and Disabling Database Options" for information about enabling and disabling components that are installed with Oracle Database.
"Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks" for information about configuring components that are installed with Oracle Database.
|Specify Installation Location||The Oracle base path appears by default. You can change this path based on your requirement. Specify Oracle Base, Software Location, and click Next.
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations owned by an Oracle installation owner account. The default Oracle base path is
In the Software Location field, accept the default value or enter the Oracle home directory path in which you want to install the Oracle software.The directory path must not contain spaces. Click Next.
Note: This screen is available only with Advanced Installation.
Ensure that the Oracle home path for the database home and the Oracle base path use only ASCII characters. At the time of this release, the use of non-ASCII characters for an Oracle database home or Oracle base is not supported.
|Create Inventory||This screen is displayed if this is the first time you are installing Oracle software on your system.
You are prompted by Oracle Universal Installer to specify the Inventory Directory path for the central inventory the first time you install any Oracle software on your computer.
Select the oraInventory Group Name of the operating system group that will own the Oracle Inventory directory (the Oracle Inventory group).
Note: By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under the Oracle Base directory. This is because all Oracle software installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users, whereas there is a separate Oracle Base directory for each user.
|Select Configuration Type||Select one of the following, and click Next:
See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.
|Specify Database Identifiers||Provide the following information, and click Next:
Note: Ensure that the combination of database name (first 8 unique characters of the unique name for the database), delimiter, and the database domain name does not exceed 128 characters.
When you enter the Global Database Name, Oracle Universal Installer automatically populates the SID prefix with the database name. You can change this name in Advanced Installation. Oracle Universal Installer limits the SID to 12 alphanumeric characters and the SID cannot contain an underscore (_), dollar sign ( $), or pound sign (#).
Select the Create as Container database option to create the database as a multitenant container database (CDB) that can support one pluggable database (PDB). If you want Oracle Universal Installer to create a PDB when it creates the CDB, specify the PDB name in the Pluggable Database Name field.
The PDB name must be unique and must follow the database naming conventions. See "Identifying Databases"
To create additional PDBs and to manage PDBs, use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant.
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
|Specify Configuration Options||Provide the following configuration information, and click Next:
Select the Enable Automatic Memory Management option to allow the database to automatically distribute memory between SGA and PGA. If you do not select this option, then the SGA and PGA must be sized manually.
This option enables you to store the character data in the database in one of the following methods:
The Create database with sample schemas option is not selected by default. You can select this option, to create a starter database with sample schemas. If you create the database as a CDB with one PDB, then the sample schema is created as a PDB.
Note: By default, Oracle database is configured to include enhanced security settings.
|Specify Database Storage Options||Select one of the following options, and click Next.
|Specify Management Options||This screen gives you the option to manage your database using Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Select Register with Enterprise Manager (EM) Cloud Control and specify the following for Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control configuration, and click Next:
Note: Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express is always installed and configured by default irrespective of whether you register Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
|Specify Recovery Options||Select Enable Recovery to enable recovery using one of the following options:
|Select ASM Disk Group||This screen is displayed only if you select Oracle Automatic Storage Management as your storage option in the Specify Storage Option screen.
Disk groups are created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Disk groups are configured with the
The table in this screen displays existing disk groups created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Select the disk group to use for database file storage.
|Specify Schema Passwords||Enter and confirm passwords for the privileged database accounts: SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP.
Note: Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a different password for each account. You must remember the passwords that you specify.
|Privileged Operating System Groups||The operating system groups are selected by default. You can also manually select the
|Perform Prerequisite Checks||This option verifies that the minimum system requirements to perform the database installation are met.
If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if the minimum requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.
Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and verify the system requirements again.
Note: The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that you must run as the
See Also: "Using Installation Fixup Scripts" for more information.
To get a list of failed requirements, select ShowFailed from the list. To get a list of all the prerequirement checks run by Oracle Universal Installer, select Show All. To get a list of the prerequirement checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use caution when selecting the Ignore All option. If you select this option, then Oracle Universal Installer may not confirm that your system can install Oracle Database successfully.
|Summary||Review the information displayed on this screen, and click Install.
Note: You can save all the installation steps into a response file by clicking Save Response File. Later, this file can be used for a silent installation.
|Install Product||This screen displays the progress of a database installation. During this process, the Execute Configuration Scripts window appears. Do not click OK until you run the
This screen then displays the status information for the configuration assistants that configure the software and create a database.
A message is displayed at the end of the Database Configuration Assistant process. Review the database information, specially the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express URL, and click OK.
Note: If this is the first time you are installing Oracle software on your system, then Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
|Finish||This screen is shown automatically when all the configuration tools are successful.
Caution:After installation is complete, do not manually remove or run
cronjobs that remove
/var/tmp/.oracledirectories or their files while Oracle software is running. If you remove these files, then the Oracle software can intermittently stop responding. Oracle Restart installations fail with the following error:
CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.
If you plan to use the following products or features, then download and install the products from the Oracle Database Examples media:
Oracle JDBC Development Drivers
Oracle Database Examples
Oracle Text Knowledge Base
Various Oracle product demonstrations
For information about installing software and various Oracle product demonstrations from the Oracle Database Examples media, see Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide.