Parallel DML Tip 3: Parallelizing INSERT, MERGE, UPDATE, and DELETE

When the table or partition has the PARALLEL attribute in the data dictionary, that attribute setting is used to determine parallelism of INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements and queries. An explicit PARALLEL hint for a table in a statement overrides the effect of the PARALLEL attribute in the data dictionary.

You can use the NO_PARALLEL hint to override a PARALLEL attribute for the table in the data dictionary. In general, hints take precedence over attributes.

DML operations are considered for parallelization if the session has been enabled in the PARALLEL DML mode with the ALTER SESSION ENABLE PARALLEL DML statement or a specific SQL statement has been enabled in the PARALLEL DML mode with the ENABLE_PARALLEL_DML hint. The mode does not affect parallelization of queries or of the query portions of a DML statement.

Parallelizing INSERT SELECT

In the INSERT ... SELECT statement, you can specify a PARALLEL hint after the INSERT keyword, in addition to the hint after the SELECT keyword. The PARALLEL hint after the INSERT keyword applies to the INSERT operation only, and the PARALLEL hint after the SELECT keyword applies to the SELECT operation only. Thus, parallelism of the INSERT and SELECT operations are independent of each other. If one operation cannot be performed in parallel, it has no effect on whether the other operation can be performed in parallel.

The ability to parallelize insert operations causes a change in existing behavior if the user has explicitly enabled the session for parallel DML and if the table in question has a PARALLEL attribute set in the data dictionary entry. In that case, existing INSERT SELECT statements that have the select operation parallelized can also have their insert operation parallelized.

If you query multiple tables, you can specify multiple SELECT PARALLEL hints and multiple PARALLEL attributes.

Example 8-8 shows the addition of the new employees who were hired after the acquisition of ACME.

Example 8-8 Parallelizing INSERT SELECT

INSERT /*+ PARALLEL(employees) */ INTO employees

The APPEND keyword is not required in this example because it is implied by the PARALLEL hint.

Parallelizing UPDATE and DELETE

The PARALLEL hint (placed immediately after the UPDATE or DELETE keyword) applies not only to the underlying scan operation, but also to the UPDATE or DELETE operation. Alternatively, you can specify UPDATE or DELETE parallelism in the PARALLEL clause specified in the definition of the table to be modified.

If you have explicitly enabled parallel DML for the session or transaction, UPDATE or DELETE statements that have their query operation parallelized can also have their UPDATE or DELETE operation parallelized. Any subqueries or updatable views in the statement can have their own separate PARALLEL hints or clauses, but these parallel directives do not affect the decision to parallelize the update or delete. If these operations cannot be performed in parallel, it has no effect on whether the UPDATE or DELETE portion can be performed in parallel.

Example 8-9 shows the update operation to give a 10 percent salary raise to all clerks in Dallas.

Example 8-9 Parallelizing UPDATE and DELETE

UPDATE /*+ PARALLEL(employees) */ employees
SET salary=salary * 1.1 WHERE job_id='CLERK' AND department_id IN
  (SELECT department_id FROM DEPARTMENTS WHERE location_id = 'DALLAS');

The PARALLEL hint is applied to the UPDATE operation and to the scan.

Example 8-10 shows the removal of all products of category 39 because that business line was recently spun off into a separate company.

Example 8-10 Parallelizing UPDATE and DELETE

WHERE category_id = 39;

Again, the parallelism is applied to the scan and UPDATE operations on the table employees.