Viewing Default Metric Charts

This topic describes how to view metric  charts for selected resources  or a single resource and create alarms  based on queries used for charts. Charts are available using the Console.

Prerequisites

  • IAM policies: Viewing metric charts is part of monitoring. To monitor resources, you must be given the required type of access in a policy  written by an administrator, whether you're using the Console or the REST API with an SDK, CLI, or other tool. The policy must give you access to the monitoring services as well as the resources being monitored. If you try to perform an action and get a message that you don’t have permission or are unauthorized, confirm with your administrator the type of access you've been granted and which compartment  you should work in. For more information about user authorizations for monitoring, see IAM Policies (Monitoring).For common policies that give groups access to metrics, see Let users view metric definitions in a compartment and Restrict user access to a specific metric namespace.
  • Metrics exist in Monitoring: The resources that you want to monitor must emit metrics to the Monitoring service.
  • Compute instances: To emit metrics, the Compute Instance Monitoring plugin must be enabled on the instance, and plugins must be running. The instance must also have either a service gateway or a public IP address to send metrics to the Monitoring service. For more information, see Enabling Monitoring for Compute Instances.

Working with Default Metric Charts

For background information on metrics in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, see Metrics Feature Overview. For default metrics by service, see Supported Services.

Default metric charts use predefined service queries . You can select resources  of interest and update the interval , statistic , and time range.

Note

Very small or large values are indicated by International System of Units (SI units), such as M for mega (10 to the sixth power). Units correspond to the selected metric and do not change by statistic.

Using the Console

To view default metric charts for all resources
  1. Open the navigation menu and click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Service Metrics.
  2. Choose a Compartment you have permission to work in.

    The list of metric namespaces is updated for the selected compartment.

  3. Choose the Metric namespace for the resource types of interest in the selected compartment.

    For example, choose oci_lbaas to see metrics for load balancers.

Default charts are displayed for all resources in the selected Metric namespace and Compartment. Very small or large values are indicated by International System of Units (SI units), such as M for mega (10 to the sixth power).

Don't see all expected resources or metrics?
To investigate missing resources or metrics
To filter results

Filter results to limit the data plotted on the metric chart. For example, filter results to a resource  or region  of interest.

Filtering of default metric charts is done through selected dimensions ; available dimensions vary by metric.

  1. Open the navigation menu and click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Service Metrics.
  2. Choose a Compartment and Metric namespace to view the default charts for the resources of interest. 
  3. To the right of Dimensions, click Add.

  4. In the Edit dimensions dialog box, select a Dimension name and Dimension value.

    Dimension fields
    Note

    Additional dimension fields appear for some metric namespaces. See the service-specific documentation for details. For example, a deployment type field appears for the metric namespace oci_autonomous_database; for more information about this field, see To view default metric charts for multiple Autonomous Databases.
    • Dimension name: A qualifier specified in the metric definition. For example, the dimension resourceId is specified in the metric definition for CpuUtilization.

      Note

      Long lists of dimensions are trimmed.

      • To view dimensions by name, type one or more characters in the box. A refreshed (trimmed) list shows matching dimension names.
      • To retrieve all dimensions for a given metric, use the following API operation: ListMetrics
    • Dimension value: The value you want to use for the specified dimension. For example, the resource identifier for your instance of interest.
    • Additional dimension: Adds another name-value pair for a dimension.
  5. Click Done.

    The default charts show the filtered results of your query.

To select different resources
  1. Open the navigation menu and click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Service Metrics.
  2. Choose a Compartment and Metric namespace to view the default charts for the resources of interest. 
  3. To select resources on a different compartment, select the Compartment and then re-select the Metric namespace.

    The default charts update to show results for the selected compartment.

  4. To select a specific resource within the selected compartment, filter results by a resource-specific dimension, such as resourceDisplayName

    1. To the right of Dimensions, click Add.

    2. For Dimension name, select resourceDisplayName or other resource-specific dimension.

      Note

      Long lists of dimensions are trimmed.

      • To view dimensions by name, type one or more characters in the box. A refreshed (trimmed) list shows matching dimension names.
      • To retrieve all dimensions for a given metric, use the following API operation: ListMetrics
    3. For Dimension value, select the value corresponding to the resource you want.

    4. Click Done.

      The default charts update to show filtered results.

To aggregate data from all metric streams

Aggregate all metric streams  to return the combined value of all metric streams for the selected statistic. For example, aggregate all metric streams for CPU Utilization to return the combined value across all resources .

By default, a chart represents each metric stream with a line, which results in multiple lines per chart. When you aggregate metric streams, a chart represents all metric streams with a single line, which results in just one line per chart.

The Aggregate metric streams option is equivalent to the grouping() query component.

  1. Open the navigation menu and click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Service Metrics.
  2. Choose a Compartment and Metric namespace to view the default charts for the resources of interest. 
  3. Select Aggregate metric streams.

To change the time range

Supported values for interval depend on the specified time range in the metric query (not applicable to alarm queries). More interval values are supported for smaller time ranges. For example, if you select one hour for the time range, then all interval values are supported. If you select 90 days for the time range, then only the 1h or 1d interval values are supported.

For metric queries, the interval  you select drives the default resolution  of the request, which determines the maximum time range of data returned.

For more information about the resolution parameter as used in metric queries, see SummarizeMetricsData.

Maximum time range returned for a query

The maximum time range returned for a metric query depends on the resolution. By default, for metric queries, the resolution is the same as the query interval.

The maximum time range is calculated using the current time, regardless of any specified end time. Following are the maximum time ranges returned for each interval selection available in the Console (Basic mode). To specify an interval value that is not available in Basic Mode in the Console, such as 12 hours, switch to Advanced mode.

Interval Default resolution (metric queries) Maximum time range returned

1 minute (Service Metrics page)

1m (Create Alarm and Metrics Explorer pages)

Auto (Service Metrics page)*, when the selected period of time is 6 hours or less

1 minute 7 days

5 minutes (Service Metrics page)

5m (Create Alarm and Metrics Explorer pages)

Auto (Service Metrics page)*, when the selected period of time is more than 6 hours and less than 36 hours

5 minutes 30 days

1 hour (Service Metrics page)

1h (Create Alarm and Metrics Explorer pages)

Auto (Service Metrics page)*, when the selected period of time is more than 36 hours

1 hour 90 days

1 day (Service Metrics page)

1d (Create Alarm and Metrics Explorer pages)

1 day 90 days

* The maximum time range returned when Auto is selected for Interval (Service Metrics page only) is determined by the automatic interval selection. The automatic interval selection is based on the selected period of time.

To specify a non-default resolution that differs from the interval, use the SummarizeMetricsData operation.

See examples of returned data

Example 1: One-minute interval and resolution up to the current time, sent at 10:00 on January 8th. No resolution or end time is specified, so the resolution defaults to the interval value of 1m, and the end time defaults to the current time (2019-01-08T10:00:00.789Z). This request returns a maximum of 7 days of metric data points. The earliest data point possible within this seven-day period would be 10:00 on January 1st (2019-01-01T10:00:00.789Z).

Example 2: Five-minute interval with one-minute resolution up to two days ago, sent at 10:00 on January 8th. Because the resolution drives the maximum time range, a maximum of 7 days of metric data points is returned. While the end time specified was 10:00 on January 6th (2019-01-06T10:00:00.789Z), the earliest data point possible within this seven-day period would be 10:00 on January 1st (2019-01-01T10:00:00.789Z). Therefore, only 5 days of metric data points can be returned in this example.

  1. Open the navigation menu and click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Service Metrics.
  2. Choose a Compartment and Metric namespace to view the default charts for the resources of interest. 
  3. Select a period of time from Quick Selects.

    For example, Last hour.

  4. To specify the start or end of a period time, click in Start time or End time and then type a value.

To change a chart interval or statistic

Supported values for interval depend on the specified time range in the metric query (not applicable to alarm queries). More interval values are supported for smaller time ranges. For example, if you select one hour for the time range, then all interval values are supported. If you select 90 days for the time range, then only the 1h or 1d interval values are supported.

For metric queries, the interval  you select drives the default resolution  of the request, which determines the maximum time range of data returned.

For more information about the resolution parameter as used in metric queries, see SummarizeMetricsData.

Maximum time range returned for a query

The maximum time range returned for a metric query depends on the resolution. By default, for metric queries, the resolution is the same as the query interval.

The maximum time range is calculated using the current time, regardless of any specified end time. Following are the maximum time ranges returned for each interval selection available in the Console (Basic mode). To specify an interval value that is not available in Basic Mode in the Console, such as 12 hours, switch to Advanced mode.

Interval Default resolution (metric queries) Maximum time range returned

1 minute (Service Metrics page)

1m (Create Alarm and Metrics Explorer pages)

Auto (Service Metrics page)*, when the selected period of time is 6 hours or less

1 minute 7 days

5 minutes (Service Metrics page)

5m (Create Alarm and Metrics Explorer pages)

Auto (Service Metrics page)*, when the selected period of time is more than 6 hours and less than 36 hours

5 minutes 30 days

1 hour (Service Metrics page)

1h (Create Alarm and Metrics Explorer pages)

Auto (Service Metrics page)*, when the selected period of time is more than 36 hours

1 hour 90 days

1 day (Service Metrics page)

1d (Create Alarm and Metrics Explorer pages)

1 day 90 days

* The maximum time range returned when Auto is selected for Interval (Service Metrics page only) is determined by the automatic interval selection. The automatic interval selection is based on the selected period of time.

To specify a non-default resolution that differs from the interval, use the SummarizeMetricsData operation.

See examples of returned data

Example 1: One-minute interval and resolution up to the current time, sent at 10:00 on January 8th. No resolution or end time is specified, so the resolution defaults to the interval value of 1m, and the end time defaults to the current time (2019-01-08T10:00:00.789Z). This request returns a maximum of 7 days of metric data points. The earliest data point possible within this seven-day period would be 10:00 on January 1st (2019-01-01T10:00:00.789Z).

Example 2: Five-minute interval with one-minute resolution up to two days ago, sent at 10:00 on January 8th. Because the resolution drives the maximum time range, a maximum of 7 days of metric data points is returned. While the end time specified was 10:00 on January 6th (2019-01-06T10:00:00.789Z), the earliest data point possible within this seven-day period would be 10:00 on January 1st (2019-01-01T10:00:00.789Z). Therefore, only 5 days of metric data points can be returned in this example.

  1. Open the navigation menu and click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Service Metrics.
  2. Choose a Compartment and Metric namespace to view the default charts for the resources of interest. 
  3. At the top of the chart you want, select an Interval or Statistic.

    For supported values, see Monitoring Query Language (MQL) Reference.

To go back to the default charts

On the upper right of the Service Metrics page, click Reset charts.

To view chart details

Chart details include the query  as a Monitoring Query Language (MQL) expression and the names and OCIDs of represented resources .

  1. Open the navigation menu and click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Service Metrics.
  2. Choose a Compartment and Metric namespace to view the default charts for the resources of interest. 
  3. Click the chart you want.

  4. To view a list of resources represented in the chart, click the arrow to the left of the query displayed under the chart.

    You can copy the OCID for a resource by clicking Copy to the right of the resource OCID.

To share a chart
Note

The person you share the chart with must have the required IAM policies for access to metrics.

On the Service Metrics page, on the upper right of the chart you want, go to Options, and then click Copy Chart URL.

To view a query in Metrics Explorer

On the Service Metrics page, on the upper right of the chart you want, go to Options, and then click View Query in Metrics Explorer.

To copy a query (MQL expression)

On the Service Metrics page, on the upper right of the chart you want, go to Options, and then click Copy Query (MQL).

To view default metric charts for a single resource

On the page for the resource of interest, under Resources, click Metrics.

For example, to view metric data for a compute instance: 

  1. Open the navigation menu and click Compute. Under Compute, click Instances.
  2. Click the instance you're interested in.

  3. On the instance details page, under Resources, click Metrics.

    A chart is shown for each metric. For a list of metrics related to Compute instances, see Compute Instance Metrics.

The Console displays the last hour of metric data for the selected resource. A chart is shown for each metric emitted by the selected resource.

For a list of metrics emitted by your resource, see Supported Services.

To create an alarm from a chart query

Follow the instructions for the page on which the query appears: Service Metrics or Metrics Explorer.

Service Metrics page
To create an alarm from a chart query (Service Metrics)
  1. View the Service Metrics page: Open the navigation menu and click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Service Metrics.
  2. Choose a Compartment and Metric namespace to view the default charts for the resources of interest. 
  3. At the top of the chart you're interested in, go to Options, and then select Create an Alarm on this Query.

  4. On the Create Alarm page, under Define alarm, add the trigger, and fill in or update other alarm settings as needed:

    Alarm settings
    Basic Mode (default)

    By default, this page uses Basic Mode, which separates the metric from its dimensions and its trigger rule.

    • Alarm name

      User-friendly name for the new alarm. This name is sent as the title for notifications related to this alarm. Avoid entering confidential information.

      Rendering of the title by protocol
      Protocol Rendering of the title
      Email Subject line of the email message.
      HTTPS (Custom URL) Not rendered.
      PagerDuty Title field of the published message.
      Slack Not rendered.
      SMS Not rendered.
    • Alarm severity: The perceived type of response required when the alarm is in the firing state.
    • Alarm body: The human-readable content of the notification delivered. Oracle recommends providing guidance to operators for resolving the alarm condition. Consider adding links to standard runbook practices. Example: "High CPU usage alert. Follow runbook instructions for resolution."
    • Tags (optional): If you have permissions to create a resource, then you also have permissions to apply free-form tags to that resource. To apply a defined tag, you must have permissions to use the tag namespace. For more information about tagging, see Resource Tags. If you are not sure whether to apply tags, skip this option (you can apply tags later) or ask your administrator.
    • Metric description: The metric to evaluate for the alarm condition.
      • Compartment: The compartment  containing the resources that emit the metrics evaluated by the alarm. The selected compartment is also the storage location of the alarm. By default, the first accessible compartment is selected.
      • Metric namespace: The service or application emitting metrics for the resources that you want to monitor.
      • Resource group (optional): The group that the metric belongs to. A resource group is a custom string provided with a custom metric. Not applicable to service metrics.
      • Metric name: The name of the metric. Only one metric can be specified. Example: CpuUtilization
      • Interval: The aggregation window, or the frequency at which data points are aggregated.

        Interval values
        Note

        Valid alarm intervals depend on the frequency at which the metric is emitted. For example, a metric emitted every five minutes requires a 5-minute alarm interval or higher. Most metrics are emitted every minute, which means most metrics support any alarm interval. To determine valid alarm intervals for a given metric, check the relevant service's metric reference.
        • 1m - 1 minute
        • 5m - 5 minutes
        • 1h - 1 hour
        • 1d - 1 day
        Note

        For alarm queries, the specified interval  has no effect on the resolution  of the request. The only valid value of the resolution for an alarm query request is 1m. For more information about the resolution parameter as used in alarm queries, see Alarm.

      • Statistic: The aggregation function.

        Statistic values
        • Count - The number of observations received in the specified time period.
        • Max - The highest value observed during the specified time period.
        • Mean - The value of Sum divided by Count during the specified time period.
        • Min - The lowest value observed during the specified time period.
        • P50 - The value of the 50th percentile.
        • P90 - The value of the 90th percentile.
        • P95 - The value of the 95th percentile.
        • P99 - The value of the 99th percentile.
        • Rate - The per-interval average rate of change.
        • Sum - All values added together.
    • Metric dimensions: Optional filters to narrow the metric data evaluated.

      Dimension fields
      Note

      Additional dimension fields appear for some metric namespaces. See the service-specific documentation for details. For example, a deployment type field appears for the metric namespace oci_autonomous_database; for more information about this field, see To view default metric charts for multiple Autonomous Databases.
      • Dimension name: A qualifier specified in the metric definition. For example, the dimension resourceId is specified in the metric definition for CpuUtilization.

        Note

        Long lists of dimensions are trimmed.

        • To view dimensions by name, type one or more characters in the box. A refreshed (trimmed) list shows matching dimension names.
        • To retrieve all dimensions for a given metric, use the following API operation: ListMetrics
      • Dimension value: The value you want to use for the specified dimension. For example, the resource identifier for your instance of interest.
      • Additional dimension: Adds another name-value pair for a dimension.
    • Aggregate metric streams: Returns the combined value of all metric streams for the selected statistic.

      The Aggregate metric streams option is equivalent to the grouping() query component.

    • Trigger rule: The condition that must be satisfied for the alarm to be in the firing state. The condition can specify a threshold, such as 90% for CPU Utilization, or an absence.

      • Operator: The operator used in the condition threshold.

        Operator values
        • greater than
        • greater than or equal to
        • equal to
        • less than
        • less than or equal to
        • between (inclusive of specified values)
        • outside (inclusive of specified values)
        • absent
      • Value: The value to use for the condition threshold.
      • Trigger delay minutes: The number of minutes that the condition must be maintained before the alarm is in firing state.
    Advanced Mode

    Click Switch to Advanced Mode to view the alarm query as a Monitoring Query Language (MQL) expression. Edit your query using MQL syntax to aggregate results by group or for additional parameter values. See Monitoring Query Language (MQL) Reference.

    • Alarm name

      User-friendly name for the new alarm. This name is sent as the title for notifications related to this alarm. Avoid entering confidential information.

      Rendering of the title by protocol
      Protocol Rendering of the title
      Email Subject line of the email message.
      HTTPS (Custom URL) Not rendered.
      PagerDuty Title field of the published message.
      Slack Not rendered.
      SMS Not rendered.
    • Alarm severity: The perceived type of response required when the alarm is in the firing state.
    • Alarm body: The human-readable content of the notification delivered. Oracle recommends providing guidance to operators for resolving the alarm condition. Consider adding links to standard runbook practices. Example: "High CPU usage alert. Follow runbook instructions for resolution."
    • Tags (optional): If you have permissions to create a resource, then you also have permissions to apply free-form tags to that resource. To apply a defined tag, you must have permissions to use the tag namespace. For more information about tagging, see Resource Tags. If you are not sure whether to apply tags, skip this option (you can apply tags later) or ask your administrator.
    • Metric description, dimensions, and trigger rule: The metric to evaluate for the alarm condition, including dimensions and the trigger rule.

      • Compartment: The compartment  containing the resources that emit the metrics evaluated by the alarm. The selected compartment is also the storage location of the alarm. By default, the first accessible compartment is selected.
      • Metric namespace: The service or application emitting metrics for the resources that you want to monitor.
      • Resource group (optional): The group that the metric belongs to. A resource group is a custom string provided with a custom metric. Not applicable to service metrics.
      • Query code editor box: The alarm query as a Monitoring Query Language (MQL) expression.

        Note

        Valid alarm intervals depend on the frequency at which the metric is emitted. For example, a metric emitted every five minutes requires a 5-minute alarm interval or higher. Most metrics are emitted every minute, which means most metrics support any alarm interval. To determine valid alarm intervals for a given metric, check the relevant service's metric reference.

        Example alarm query: 

        CpuUtilization[1m]{availabilityDomain=AD1}.groupBy(poolId).percentile(0.9) > 85

        For query syntax and examples, see Working with Metric Queries.

      • Trigger delay minutes: The number of minutes that the condition must be maintained before the alarm is in firing state.

    The chart below the Define alarm section dynamically displays the last six hours of emitted metrics according to currently selected fields for the query. Very small or large values are indicated by International System of Units (SI units), such as M for mega (10 to the sixth power).

  5. Under Notifications, select or create at least one notification destination: 

    Notifications settings
    • Destination
      • Destination service: The provider of the destination to use for alarm notifications.
        Note

        If you expect more than 60 messages per minute, specify Streaming as the alarm destination. For more information, see Alarm Message Limits.
      • Compartment: The compartment  storing the resource (such as a topic or stream) to be used for notifications. Can be a different compartment from the alarm and metric. By default, the first accessible compartment is selected.
      • Topic (Notifications destination): The topic to use for notifications. Each topic supports one or more subscription protocols, such as PagerDuty.
      • Stream (Streaming destination): The stream to use for alarm notifications.
      • Create new topic (Notifications destination): Sets up a topic and subscription protocol in the selected compartment, using the specified destination service.

        • Topic name: User-friendly name for the new topic. Example: "Operations Team" for a topic used to notify operations staff of firing alarms. Avoid entering confidential information.
        • Topic description: Description of the new topic.
        • Subscription protocol: Medium of communication to use for the new topic. Configure your subscription for the protocol you want: 

          Email subscription

          Sends an email message when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Note

          Follow best practices for integrating with Email Delivery. See Maintain a Positive Email Sender Reputation and Set Up Custom Domains for Email.
          Message contents and appearance vary by message type. See alarm messages, event messages, and service connector messages.

          Some message types allow friendly formatting.

          • Subscription protocol: Select Email.
          • Subscription email: Type an email address.
          Function subscription
          Runs the specified function when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic . For example, runs a function to resize VMs when an associated alarm is triggered.
          Note

          You must have FN_INVOCATION permission against the function to be able to add the function as a subscription to a topic.

          The Notifications service has no information about a function after it's invoked. For more details, see the troubleshooting information at Function Not Invoked or Run.

          Confirmation is not required for function subscriptions.

          • Subscription protocol: Select Function.
          • Function Compartment: Select the compartment containing your function.
          • Function Application: Select the application containing your function.
          • Function: Select your function.
          HTTPS (Custom URL) subscription
          Note

          The client service must be able to support the HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized header response. For more information, see HTTPS (Custom URL) Subscription.

          Sends specified information when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Endpoint format (URL using HTTPS protocol): 

          https://<anyvalidURL>

          Authentication: Only Basic Access Authentication is supported. For more information, see RFC-2617: HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication. You can specify a username and password in the URL, as in https://user:password@domain.com or https://user@domain.com. In the URL, encode (escape) the characters noted at RFC-3986: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax.

          Certificates: Only valid certificate authority (CA) certificates are trusted. No self-signed certificates are allowed.

          Encryption: As with any subscription protocol, data in the endpoint (including username and password if supplied in the URL) is encrypted in transit over the SSL connection established when using HTTPS, and at rest in the service database.

          POST calls: The endpoint that you provide must accept POST calls. The Notifications service uses POST calls to send messages to HTTPS (custom URL) endpoints.

          Not supported: Query parameters are not allowed in URLs. Custom HTTP header parameters are not supported. When sending a message to the URL endpoint, the Notifications service adds standard metadata to the HTTP request in the header.

          • Subscription protocol: Select HTTPS (Custom URL).
          • Subscription URL: Type (or copy and paste) the URL you want to use as the endpoint.
          PagerDuty subscription
          Creates a PagerDuty incident by default when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Endpoint format (URL): 

          https://events.pagerduty.com/integration/<integrationkey>/enqueue
          Query parameters are not allowed in URLs.

          To create an endpoint for a PagerDuty subscription (set up and retrieve an integration key), see To create a PagerDuty endpoint

          • Subscription protocol: Select PagerDuty.
          • Subscription URL: Type (or copy and paste) the integration key portion of the URL for your PagerDuty subscription. (The other portions of the URL are hard-coded.)
          Slack subscription

          Sends a message to the specified Slack channel by default when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .
          Message contents and appearance vary by message type. See alarm messages, event messages, and service connector messages.
          Sends a message to the specified Slack channel by default when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Endpoint format (URL): 

          https://hooks.slack.com/services/<webhook-token>

          The <webhook-token> portion of the URL contains two slashes (/).

          Query parameters are not allowed in URLs.

          To create an endpoint for a Slack subscription (using a webhook for your Slack channel), see the Slack documentation.

          • Subscription protocol: Select Slack.
          • Subscription URL: Type (or copy and paste) the Slack endpoint, including your webhook token.
          SMS subscription
          Sends a text message using Short Message Service (SMS) to the specified phone number when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic . Supported endpoint formats: E.164 format.
          Note

          International SMS capabilities are required if SMS messages come from a phone number in another country. We continuously add support for more countries so that more users can receive SMS messages from local phone numbers.

          SMS subscriptions are enabled only for messages sent by the following Oracle Cloud Infrastructure services: Monitoring, Service Connector Hub. SMS messages sent by unsupported services are dropped. Troubleshoot dropped messages.

          The Notifications service delivers SMS messages from a preconfigured pool of numbers. You might receive SMS messages from multiple numbers.

          Message contents and appearance vary by message type. See alarm messages, event messages, and service connector messages.
          Available Countries and Regions

          You can use Notifications to send SMS messages to the following countries and regions:

          Country or region ISO code
          Australia AU
          Brazil BR
          Canada CA
          Chile CL
          China CN
          Costa Rica CR
          Croatia HR
          Czechia CZ
          France FR
          Germany DE
          Hungary HU
          India IN
          Ireland IE
          Israel IL
          Japan JP
          Lithuania LT
          Mexico MX
          Netherlands NL
          New Zealand NZ
          Norway NO
          Philippines PH
          Poland PL
          Portugal PT
          Romania RO
          Saudi Arabia SA
          Singapore SG
          South Africa ZA
          South Korea KR
          Spain ES
          Sweden SE
          Switzerland CH
          Ukraine UA
          United Arab Emirates AE
          United Kingdom GB
          United States US
          • Subscription protocol: Select SMS.
          • Country: Select the country for the phone number.
          • Phone Number: Enter the phone number, using E.164 format. Example: +14255550100
    • Message grouping: Specify how to group alarm messages with regard to metric streams.
      • Group messages across metric streams: Collectively track metric status across all metric streams. Send a message when metric status across all metric streams changes.

      • Split messages per metric stream: Individually track metric status by metric stream. Send a message when metric status for each metric stream changes. For an example, see Scenario: Split Messages by Metric Stream.

    • Message format: Determines the appearance of the messages you receive from this alarm (Notifications destination):
      • Send formatted messages: Simplified, user-friendly layout.
        Note

        To view supported subscription protocols and message types for formatted messages (options other than Raw), see Friendly Formatting.
      • Send Pretty JSON messages (raw text with line breaks): JSON with new lines and indents.
      • Send raw messages: Raw JSON blob.
    • Repeat notification?: While the alarm is in the firing state, resends notifications at the specified interval.
      • Notification frequency: The period of time to wait before resending the notification.
    • Suppress notifications: Sets up a suppression time window during which to suspend evaluations and notifications. Useful for avoiding alarm notifications during system maintenance periods.

      • Suppression description
      • Start time
      • End time
  6. If you want to disable the new alarm, clear Enable this alarm?.

  7. Click Save alarm.

    The new alarm is listed on the Alarm Definitions page.

    For more information about alarms, see Alarms Feature Overview.

Metrics Explorer page
To create an alarm from a chart query (Metrics Explorer)
  1. View the Metrics Explorer page: Open the navigation menu and click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Metrics Explorer.
  2. If necessary, open the query for editing: Click Edit queries.

  3. Click Create Alarm.

  4. On the Create Alarm page, under Define alarm, add the trigger, and fill in or update other alarm settings as needed:

    Alarm settings
    Basic Mode (default)

    By default, this page uses Basic Mode, which separates the metric from its dimensions and its trigger rule.

    • Alarm name

      User-friendly name for the new alarm. This name is sent as the title for notifications related to this alarm. Avoid entering confidential information.

      Rendering of the title by protocol
      Protocol Rendering of the title
      Email Subject line of the email message.
      HTTPS (Custom URL) Not rendered.
      PagerDuty Title field of the published message.
      Slack Not rendered.
      SMS Not rendered.
    • Alarm severity: The perceived type of response required when the alarm is in the firing state.
    • Alarm body: The human-readable content of the notification delivered. Oracle recommends providing guidance to operators for resolving the alarm condition. Consider adding links to standard runbook practices. Example: "High CPU usage alert. Follow runbook instructions for resolution."
    • Tags (optional): If you have permissions to create a resource, then you also have permissions to apply free-form tags to that resource. To apply a defined tag, you must have permissions to use the tag namespace. For more information about tagging, see Resource Tags. If you are not sure whether to apply tags, skip this option (you can apply tags later) or ask your administrator.
    • Metric description: The metric to evaluate for the alarm condition.
      • Compartment: The compartment  containing the resources that emit the metrics evaluated by the alarm. The selected compartment is also the storage location of the alarm. By default, the first accessible compartment is selected.
      • Metric namespace: The service or application emitting metrics for the resources that you want to monitor.
      • Resource group (optional): The group that the metric belongs to. A resource group is a custom string provided with a custom metric. Not applicable to service metrics.
      • Metric name: The name of the metric. Only one metric can be specified. Example: CpuUtilization
      • Interval: The aggregation window, or the frequency at which data points are aggregated.

        Interval values
        Note

        Valid alarm intervals depend on the frequency at which the metric is emitted. For example, a metric emitted every five minutes requires a 5-minute alarm interval or higher. Most metrics are emitted every minute, which means most metrics support any alarm interval. To determine valid alarm intervals for a given metric, check the relevant service's metric reference.
        • 1m - 1 minute
        • 5m - 5 minutes
        • 1h - 1 hour
        • 1d - 1 day
        Note

        For alarm queries, the specified interval  has no effect on the resolution  of the request. The only valid value of the resolution for an alarm query request is 1m. For more information about the resolution parameter as used in alarm queries, see Alarm.

      • Statistic: The aggregation function.

        Statistic values
        • Count - The number of observations received in the specified time period.
        • Max - The highest value observed during the specified time period.
        • Mean - The value of Sum divided by Count during the specified time period.
        • Min - The lowest value observed during the specified time period.
        • P50 - The value of the 50th percentile.
        • P90 - The value of the 90th percentile.
        • P95 - The value of the 95th percentile.
        • P99 - The value of the 99th percentile.
        • Rate - The per-interval average rate of change.
        • Sum - All values added together.
    • Metric dimensions: Optional filters to narrow the metric data evaluated.

      Dimension fields
      Note

      Additional dimension fields appear for some metric namespaces. See the service-specific documentation for details. For example, a deployment type field appears for the metric namespace oci_autonomous_database; for more information about this field, see To view default metric charts for multiple Autonomous Databases.
      • Dimension name: A qualifier specified in the metric definition. For example, the dimension resourceId is specified in the metric definition for CpuUtilization.

        Note

        Long lists of dimensions are trimmed.

        • To view dimensions by name, type one or more characters in the box. A refreshed (trimmed) list shows matching dimension names.
        • To retrieve all dimensions for a given metric, use the following API operation: ListMetrics
      • Dimension value: The value you want to use for the specified dimension. For example, the resource identifier for your instance of interest.
      • Additional dimension: Adds another name-value pair for a dimension.
    • Aggregate metric streams: Returns the combined value of all metric streams for the selected statistic.

      The Aggregate metric streams option is equivalent to the grouping() query component.

    • Trigger rule: The condition that must be satisfied for the alarm to be in the firing state. The condition can specify a threshold, such as 90% for CPU Utilization, or an absence.

      • Operator: The operator used in the condition threshold.

        Operator values
        • greater than
        • greater than or equal to
        • equal to
        • less than
        • less than or equal to
        • between (inclusive of specified values)
        • outside (inclusive of specified values)
        • absent
      • Value: The value to use for the condition threshold.
      • Trigger delay minutes: The number of minutes that the condition must be maintained before the alarm is in firing state.
    Advanced Mode

    Click Switch to Advanced Mode to view the alarm query as a Monitoring Query Language (MQL) expression. Edit your query using MQL syntax to aggregate results by group or for additional parameter values. See Monitoring Query Language (MQL) Reference.

    • Alarm name

      User-friendly name for the new alarm. This name is sent as the title for notifications related to this alarm. Avoid entering confidential information.

      Rendering of the title by protocol
      Protocol Rendering of the title
      Email Subject line of the email message.
      HTTPS (Custom URL) Not rendered.
      PagerDuty Title field of the published message.
      Slack Not rendered.
      SMS Not rendered.
    • Alarm severity: The perceived type of response required when the alarm is in the firing state.
    • Alarm body: The human-readable content of the notification delivered. Oracle recommends providing guidance to operators for resolving the alarm condition. Consider adding links to standard runbook practices. Example: "High CPU usage alert. Follow runbook instructions for resolution."
    • Tags (optional): If you have permissions to create a resource, then you also have permissions to apply free-form tags to that resource. To apply a defined tag, you must have permissions to use the tag namespace. For more information about tagging, see Resource Tags. If you are not sure whether to apply tags, skip this option (you can apply tags later) or ask your administrator.
    • Metric description, dimensions, and trigger rule: The metric to evaluate for the alarm condition, including dimensions and the trigger rule.

      • Compartment: The compartment  containing the resources that emit the metrics evaluated by the alarm. The selected compartment is also the storage location of the alarm. By default, the first accessible compartment is selected.
      • Metric namespace: The service or application emitting metrics for the resources that you want to monitor.
      • Resource group (optional): The group that the metric belongs to. A resource group is a custom string provided with a custom metric. Not applicable to service metrics.
      • Query code editor box: The alarm query as a Monitoring Query Language (MQL) expression.

        Note

        Valid alarm intervals depend on the frequency at which the metric is emitted. For example, a metric emitted every five minutes requires a 5-minute alarm interval or higher. Most metrics are emitted every minute, which means most metrics support any alarm interval. To determine valid alarm intervals for a given metric, check the relevant service's metric reference.

        Example alarm query: 

        CpuUtilization[1m]{availabilityDomain=AD1}.groupBy(poolId).percentile(0.9) > 85

        For query syntax and examples, see Working with Metric Queries.

      • Trigger delay minutes: The number of minutes that the condition must be maintained before the alarm is in firing state.

    The chart below the Define alarm section dynamically displays the last six hours of emitted metrics according to currently selected fields for the query. Very small or large values are indicated by International System of Units (SI units), such as M for mega (10 to the sixth power).

  5. Under Notifications, select or create at least one notification destination: 

    Notifications settings
    • Destination
      • Destination service: The provider of the destination to use for alarm notifications.
        Note

        If you expect more than 60 messages per minute, specify Streaming as the alarm destination. For more information, see Alarm Message Limits.
      • Compartment: The compartment  storing the resource (such as a topic or stream) to be used for notifications. Can be a different compartment from the alarm and metric. By default, the first accessible compartment is selected.
      • Topic (Notifications destination): The topic to use for notifications. Each topic supports one or more subscription protocols, such as PagerDuty.
      • Stream (Streaming destination): The stream to use for alarm notifications.
      • Create new topic (Notifications destination): Sets up a topic and subscription protocol in the selected compartment, using the specified destination service.

        • Topic name: User-friendly name for the new topic. Example: "Operations Team" for a topic used to notify operations staff of firing alarms. Avoid entering confidential information.
        • Topic description: Description of the new topic.
        • Subscription protocol: Medium of communication to use for the new topic. Configure your subscription for the protocol you want: 

          Email subscription

          Sends an email message when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Note

          Follow best practices for integrating with Email Delivery. See Maintain a Positive Email Sender Reputation and Set Up Custom Domains for Email.
          Message contents and appearance vary by message type. See alarm messages, event messages, and service connector messages.

          Some message types allow friendly formatting.

          • Subscription protocol: Select Email.
          • Subscription email: Type an email address.
          Function subscription
          Runs the specified function when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic . For example, runs a function to resize VMs when an associated alarm is triggered.
          Note

          You must have FN_INVOCATION permission against the function to be able to add the function as a subscription to a topic.

          The Notifications service has no information about a function after it's invoked. For more details, see the troubleshooting information at Function Not Invoked or Run.

          Confirmation is not required for function subscriptions.

          • Subscription protocol: Select Function.
          • Function Compartment: Select the compartment containing your function.
          • Function Application: Select the application containing your function.
          • Function: Select your function.
          HTTPS (Custom URL) subscription
          Note

          The client service must be able to support the HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized header response. For more information, see HTTPS (Custom URL) Subscription.

          Sends specified information when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Endpoint format (URL using HTTPS protocol): 

          https://<anyvalidURL>

          Authentication: Only Basic Access Authentication is supported. For more information, see RFC-2617: HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication. You can specify a username and password in the URL, as in https://user:password@domain.com or https://user@domain.com. In the URL, encode (escape) the characters noted at RFC-3986: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax.

          Certificates: Only valid certificate authority (CA) certificates are trusted. No self-signed certificates are allowed.

          Encryption: As with any subscription protocol, data in the endpoint (including username and password if supplied in the URL) is encrypted in transit over the SSL connection established when using HTTPS, and at rest in the service database.

          POST calls: The endpoint that you provide must accept POST calls. The Notifications service uses POST calls to send messages to HTTPS (custom URL) endpoints.

          Not supported: Query parameters are not allowed in URLs. Custom HTTP header parameters are not supported. When sending a message to the URL endpoint, the Notifications service adds standard metadata to the HTTP request in the header.

          • Subscription protocol: Select HTTPS (Custom URL).
          • Subscription URL: Type (or copy and paste) the URL you want to use as the endpoint.
          PagerDuty subscription
          Creates a PagerDuty incident by default when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Endpoint format (URL): 

          https://events.pagerduty.com/integration/<integrationkey>/enqueue
          Query parameters are not allowed in URLs.

          To create an endpoint for a PagerDuty subscription (set up and retrieve an integration key), see To create a PagerDuty endpoint

          • Subscription protocol: Select PagerDuty.
          • Subscription URL: Type (or copy and paste) the integration key portion of the URL for your PagerDuty subscription. (The other portions of the URL are hard-coded.)
          Slack subscription

          Sends a message to the specified Slack channel by default when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .
          Message contents and appearance vary by message type. See alarm messages, event messages, and service connector messages.
          Sends a message to the specified Slack channel by default when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Endpoint format (URL): 

          https://hooks.slack.com/services/<webhook-token>

          The <webhook-token> portion of the URL contains two slashes (/).

          Query parameters are not allowed in URLs.

          To create an endpoint for a Slack subscription (using a webhook for your Slack channel), see the Slack documentation.

          • Subscription protocol: Select Slack.
          • Subscription URL: Type (or copy and paste) the Slack endpoint, including your webhook token.
          SMS subscription
          Sends a text message using Short Message Service (SMS) to the specified phone number when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic . Supported endpoint formats: E.164 format.
          Note

          International SMS capabilities are required if SMS messages come from a phone number in another country. We continuously add support for more countries so that more users can receive SMS messages from local phone numbers.

          SMS subscriptions are enabled only for messages sent by the following Oracle Cloud Infrastructure services: Monitoring, Service Connector Hub. SMS messages sent by unsupported services are dropped. Troubleshoot dropped messages.

          The Notifications service delivers SMS messages from a preconfigured pool of numbers. You might receive SMS messages from multiple numbers.

          Message contents and appearance vary by message type. See alarm messages, event messages, and service connector messages.
          Available Countries and Regions

          You can use Notifications to send SMS messages to the following countries and regions:

          Country or region ISO code
          Australia AU
          Brazil BR
          Canada CA
          Chile CL
          China CN
          Costa Rica CR
          Croatia HR
          Czechia CZ
          France FR
          Germany DE
          Hungary HU
          India IN
          Ireland IE
          Israel IL
          Japan JP
          Lithuania LT
          Mexico MX
          Netherlands NL
          New Zealand NZ
          Norway NO
          Philippines PH
          Poland PL
          Portugal PT
          Romania RO
          Saudi Arabia SA
          Singapore SG
          South Africa ZA
          South Korea KR
          Spain ES
          Sweden SE
          Switzerland CH
          Ukraine UA
          United Arab Emirates AE
          United Kingdom GB
          United States US
          • Subscription protocol: Select SMS.
          • Country: Select the country for the phone number.
          • Phone Number: Enter the phone number, using E.164 format. Example: +14255550100
    • Message grouping: Specify how to group alarm messages with regard to metric streams.
      • Group messages across metric streams: Collectively track metric status across all metric streams. Send a message when metric status across all metric streams changes.

      • Split messages per metric stream: Individually track metric status by metric stream. Send a message when metric status for each metric stream changes. For an example, see Scenario: Split Messages by Metric Stream.

    • Message format: Determines the appearance of the messages you receive from this alarm (Notifications destination):
      • Send formatted messages: Simplified, user-friendly layout.
        Note

        To view supported subscription protocols and message types for formatted messages (options other than Raw), see Friendly Formatting.
      • Send Pretty JSON messages (raw text with line breaks): JSON with new lines and indents.
      • Send raw messages: Raw JSON blob.
    • Repeat notification?: While the alarm is in the firing state, resends notifications at the specified interval.
      • Notification frequency: The period of time to wait before resending the notification.
    • Suppress notifications: Sets up a suppression time window during which to suspend evaluations and notifications. Useful for avoiding alarm notifications during system maintenance periods.

      • Suppression description
      • Start time
      • End time
  6. If you want to disable the new alarm, clear Enable this alarm?.

  7. Click Save alarm.

    The new alarm is listed on the Alarm Definitions page.

    For more information about alarms, see Alarms Feature Overview.

resource page

Examples of resource pages are Compute service instance detail pages and Block Volume volume detail pages. Alarms are available from these pages for resources that emit metrics.

To create an alarm from a chart query (resource page)
  1. To view charts: On the resource page, under Resources, click Metrics.

  2. At the top of the chart you're interested in, go to Options, and then select Create an Alarm on this Query.

  3. On the Create Alarm page, under Define alarm, add the trigger, and fill in or update other alarm settings as needed:

    Alarm settings
    Basic Mode (default)

    By default, this page uses Basic Mode, which separates the metric from its dimensions and its trigger rule.

    • Alarm name

      User-friendly name for the new alarm. This name is sent as the title for notifications related to this alarm. Avoid entering confidential information.

      Rendering of the title by protocol
      Protocol Rendering of the title
      Email Subject line of the email message.
      HTTPS (Custom URL) Not rendered.
      PagerDuty Title field of the published message.
      Slack Not rendered.
      SMS Not rendered.
    • Alarm severity: The perceived type of response required when the alarm is in the firing state.
    • Alarm body: The human-readable content of the notification delivered. Oracle recommends providing guidance to operators for resolving the alarm condition. Consider adding links to standard runbook practices. Example: "High CPU usage alert. Follow runbook instructions for resolution."
    • Tags (optional): If you have permissions to create a resource, then you also have permissions to apply free-form tags to that resource. To apply a defined tag, you must have permissions to use the tag namespace. For more information about tagging, see Resource Tags. If you are not sure whether to apply tags, skip this option (you can apply tags later) or ask your administrator.
    • Metric description: The metric to evaluate for the alarm condition.
      • Compartment: The compartment  containing the resources that emit the metrics evaluated by the alarm. The selected compartment is also the storage location of the alarm. By default, the first accessible compartment is selected.
      • Metric namespace: The service or application emitting metrics for the resources that you want to monitor.
      • Resource group (optional): The group that the metric belongs to. A resource group is a custom string provided with a custom metric. Not applicable to service metrics.
      • Metric name: The name of the metric. Only one metric can be specified. Example: CpuUtilization
      • Interval: The aggregation window, or the frequency at which data points are aggregated.

        Interval values
        Note

        Valid alarm intervals depend on the frequency at which the metric is emitted. For example, a metric emitted every five minutes requires a 5-minute alarm interval or higher. Most metrics are emitted every minute, which means most metrics support any alarm interval. To determine valid alarm intervals for a given metric, check the relevant service's metric reference.
        • 1m - 1 minute
        • 5m - 5 minutes
        • 1h - 1 hour
        • 1d - 1 day
        Note

        For alarm queries, the specified interval  has no effect on the resolution  of the request. The only valid value of the resolution for an alarm query request is 1m. For more information about the resolution parameter as used in alarm queries, see Alarm.

      • Statistic: The aggregation function.

        Statistic values
        • Count - The number of observations received in the specified time period.
        • Max - The highest value observed during the specified time period.
        • Mean - The value of Sum divided by Count during the specified time period.
        • Min - The lowest value observed during the specified time period.
        • P50 - The value of the 50th percentile.
        • P90 - The value of the 90th percentile.
        • P95 - The value of the 95th percentile.
        • P99 - The value of the 99th percentile.
        • Rate - The per-interval average rate of change.
        • Sum - All values added together.
    • Metric dimensions: Optional filters to narrow the metric data evaluated.

      Dimension fields
      Note

      Additional dimension fields appear for some metric namespaces. See the service-specific documentation for details. For example, a deployment type field appears for the metric namespace oci_autonomous_database; for more information about this field, see To view default metric charts for multiple Autonomous Databases.
      • Dimension name: A qualifier specified in the metric definition. For example, the dimension resourceId is specified in the metric definition for CpuUtilization.

        Note

        Long lists of dimensions are trimmed.

        • To view dimensions by name, type one or more characters in the box. A refreshed (trimmed) list shows matching dimension names.
        • To retrieve all dimensions for a given metric, use the following API operation: ListMetrics
      • Dimension value: The value you want to use for the specified dimension. For example, the resource identifier for your instance of interest.
      • Additional dimension: Adds another name-value pair for a dimension.
    • Aggregate metric streams: Returns the combined value of all metric streams for the selected statistic.

      The Aggregate metric streams option is equivalent to the grouping() query component.

    • Trigger rule: The condition that must be satisfied for the alarm to be in the firing state. The condition can specify a threshold, such as 90% for CPU Utilization, or an absence.

      • Operator: The operator used in the condition threshold.

        Operator values
        • greater than
        • greater than or equal to
        • equal to
        • less than
        • less than or equal to
        • between (inclusive of specified values)
        • outside (inclusive of specified values)
        • absent
      • Value: The value to use for the condition threshold.
      • Trigger delay minutes: The number of minutes that the condition must be maintained before the alarm is in firing state.
    Advanced Mode

    Click Switch to Advanced Mode to view the alarm query as a Monitoring Query Language (MQL) expression. Edit your query using MQL syntax to aggregate results by group or for additional parameter values. See Monitoring Query Language (MQL) Reference.

    • Alarm name

      User-friendly name for the new alarm. This name is sent as the title for notifications related to this alarm. Avoid entering confidential information.

      Rendering of the title by protocol
      Protocol Rendering of the title
      Email Subject line of the email message.
      HTTPS (Custom URL) Not rendered.
      PagerDuty Title field of the published message.
      Slack Not rendered.
      SMS Not rendered.
    • Alarm severity: The perceived type of response required when the alarm is in the firing state.
    • Alarm body: The human-readable content of the notification delivered. Oracle recommends providing guidance to operators for resolving the alarm condition. Consider adding links to standard runbook practices. Example: "High CPU usage alert. Follow runbook instructions for resolution."
    • Tags (optional): If you have permissions to create a resource, then you also have permissions to apply free-form tags to that resource. To apply a defined tag, you must have permissions to use the tag namespace. For more information about tagging, see Resource Tags. If you are not sure whether to apply tags, skip this option (you can apply tags later) or ask your administrator.
    • Metric description, dimensions, and trigger rule: The metric to evaluate for the alarm condition, including dimensions and the trigger rule.

      • Compartment: The compartment  containing the resources that emit the metrics evaluated by the alarm. The selected compartment is also the storage location of the alarm. By default, the first accessible compartment is selected.
      • Metric namespace: The service or application emitting metrics for the resources that you want to monitor.
      • Resource group (optional): The group that the metric belongs to. A resource group is a custom string provided with a custom metric. Not applicable to service metrics.
      • Query code editor box: The alarm query as a Monitoring Query Language (MQL) expression.

        Note

        Valid alarm intervals depend on the frequency at which the metric is emitted. For example, a metric emitted every five minutes requires a 5-minute alarm interval or higher. Most metrics are emitted every minute, which means most metrics support any alarm interval. To determine valid alarm intervals for a given metric, check the relevant service's metric reference.

        Example alarm query: 

        CpuUtilization[1m]{availabilityDomain=AD1}.groupBy(poolId).percentile(0.9) > 85

        For query syntax and examples, see Working with Metric Queries.

      • Trigger delay minutes: The number of minutes that the condition must be maintained before the alarm is in firing state.

    The chart below the Define alarm section dynamically displays the last six hours of emitted metrics according to currently selected fields for the query. Very small or large values are indicated by International System of Units (SI units), such as M for mega (10 to the sixth power).

  4. Under Notifications, select or create at least one notification destination: 

    Notifications settings
    • Destination
      • Destination service: The provider of the destination to use for alarm notifications.
        Note

        If you expect more than 60 messages per minute, specify Streaming as the alarm destination. For more information, see Alarm Message Limits.
      • Compartment: The compartment  storing the resource (such as a topic or stream) to be used for notifications. Can be a different compartment from the alarm and metric. By default, the first accessible compartment is selected.
      • Topic (Notifications destination): The topic to use for notifications. Each topic supports one or more subscription protocols, such as PagerDuty.
      • Stream (Streaming destination): The stream to use for alarm notifications.
      • Create new topic (Notifications destination): Sets up a topic and subscription protocol in the selected compartment, using the specified destination service.

        • Topic name: User-friendly name for the new topic. Example: "Operations Team" for a topic used to notify operations staff of firing alarms. Avoid entering confidential information.
        • Topic description: Description of the new topic.
        • Subscription protocol: Medium of communication to use for the new topic. Configure your subscription for the protocol you want: 

          Email subscription

          Sends an email message when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Note

          Follow best practices for integrating with Email Delivery. See Maintain a Positive Email Sender Reputation and Set Up Custom Domains for Email.
          Message contents and appearance vary by message type. See alarm messages, event messages, and service connector messages.

          Some message types allow friendly formatting.

          • Subscription protocol: Select Email.
          • Subscription email: Type an email address.
          Function subscription
          Runs the specified function when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic . For example, runs a function to resize VMs when an associated alarm is triggered.
          Note

          You must have FN_INVOCATION permission against the function to be able to add the function as a subscription to a topic.

          The Notifications service has no information about a function after it's invoked. For more details, see the troubleshooting information at Function Not Invoked or Run.

          Confirmation is not required for function subscriptions.

          • Subscription protocol: Select Function.
          • Function Compartment: Select the compartment containing your function.
          • Function Application: Select the application containing your function.
          • Function: Select your function.
          HTTPS (Custom URL) subscription
          Note

          The client service must be able to support the HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized header response. For more information, see HTTPS (Custom URL) Subscription.

          Sends specified information when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Endpoint format (URL using HTTPS protocol): 

          https://<anyvalidURL>

          Authentication: Only Basic Access Authentication is supported. For more information, see RFC-2617: HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication. You can specify a username and password in the URL, as in https://user:password@domain.com or https://user@domain.com. In the URL, encode (escape) the characters noted at RFC-3986: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax.

          Certificates: Only valid certificate authority (CA) certificates are trusted. No self-signed certificates are allowed.

          Encryption: As with any subscription protocol, data in the endpoint (including username and password if supplied in the URL) is encrypted in transit over the SSL connection established when using HTTPS, and at rest in the service database.

          POST calls: The endpoint that you provide must accept POST calls. The Notifications service uses POST calls to send messages to HTTPS (custom URL) endpoints.

          Not supported: Query parameters are not allowed in URLs. Custom HTTP header parameters are not supported. When sending a message to the URL endpoint, the Notifications service adds standard metadata to the HTTP request in the header.

          • Subscription protocol: Select HTTPS (Custom URL).
          • Subscription URL: Type (or copy and paste) the URL you want to use as the endpoint.
          PagerDuty subscription
          Creates a PagerDuty incident by default when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Endpoint format (URL): 

          https://events.pagerduty.com/integration/<integrationkey>/enqueue
          Query parameters are not allowed in URLs.

          To create an endpoint for a PagerDuty subscription (set up and retrieve an integration key), see To create a PagerDuty endpoint

          • Subscription protocol: Select PagerDuty.
          • Subscription URL: Type (or copy and paste) the integration key portion of the URL for your PagerDuty subscription. (The other portions of the URL are hard-coded.)
          Slack subscription

          Sends a message to the specified Slack channel by default when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .
          Message contents and appearance vary by message type. See alarm messages, event messages, and service connector messages.
          Sends a message to the specified Slack channel by default when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic .

          Endpoint format (URL): 

          https://hooks.slack.com/services/<webhook-token>

          The <webhook-token> portion of the URL contains two slashes (/).

          Query parameters are not allowed in URLs.

          To create an endpoint for a Slack subscription (using a webhook for your Slack channel), see the Slack documentation.

          • Subscription protocol: Select Slack.
          • Subscription URL: Type (or copy and paste) the Slack endpoint, including your webhook token.
          SMS subscription
          Sends a text message using Short Message Service (SMS) to the specified phone number when you publish a message  to the subscription's parent topic . Supported endpoint formats: E.164 format.
          Note

          International SMS capabilities are required if SMS messages come from a phone number in another country. We continuously add support for more countries so that more users can receive SMS messages from local phone numbers.

          SMS subscriptions are enabled only for messages sent by the following Oracle Cloud Infrastructure services: Monitoring, Service Connector Hub. SMS messages sent by unsupported services are dropped. Troubleshoot dropped messages.

          The Notifications service delivers SMS messages from a preconfigured pool of numbers. You might receive SMS messages from multiple numbers.

          Message contents and appearance vary by message type. See alarm messages, event messages, and service connector messages.
          Available Countries and Regions

          You can use Notifications to send SMS messages to the following countries and regions:

          Country or region ISO code
          Australia AU
          Brazil BR
          Canada CA
          Chile CL
          China CN
          Costa Rica CR
          Croatia HR
          Czechia CZ
          France FR
          Germany DE
          Hungary HU
          India IN
          Ireland IE
          Israel IL
          Japan JP
          Lithuania LT
          Mexico MX
          Netherlands NL
          New Zealand NZ
          Norway NO
          Philippines PH
          Poland PL
          Portugal PT
          Romania RO
          Saudi Arabia SA
          Singapore SG
          South Africa ZA
          South Korea KR
          Spain ES
          Sweden SE
          Switzerland CH
          Ukraine UA
          United Arab Emirates AE
          United Kingdom GB
          United States US
          • Subscription protocol: Select SMS.
          • Country: Select the country for the phone number.
          • Phone Number: Enter the phone number, using E.164 format. Example: +14255550100
    • Message grouping: Specify how to group alarm messages with regard to metric streams.
      • Group messages across metric streams: Collectively track metric status across all metric streams. Send a message when metric status across all metric streams changes.

      • Split messages per metric stream: Individually track metric status by metric stream. Send a message when metric status for each metric stream changes. For an example, see Scenario: Split Messages by Metric Stream.

    • Message format: Determines the appearance of the messages you receive from this alarm (Notifications destination):
      • Send formatted messages: Simplified, user-friendly layout.
        Note

        To view supported subscription protocols and message types for formatted messages (options other than Raw), see Friendly Formatting.
      • Send Pretty JSON messages (raw text with line breaks): JSON with new lines and indents.
      • Send raw messages: Raw JSON blob.
    • Repeat notification?: While the alarm is in the firing state, resends notifications at the specified interval.
      • Notification frequency: The period of time to wait before resending the notification.
    • Suppress notifications: Sets up a suppression time window during which to suspend evaluations and notifications. Useful for avoiding alarm notifications during system maintenance periods.

      • Suppression description
      • Start time
      • End time
  5. If you want to disable the new alarm, clear Enable This Alarm?.

  6. Click Save alarm.

    The new alarm is listed on the Alarm Definitions page.

    For more information about alarms, see Alarms Feature Overview.