Supported Encryption Domain or Proxy ID
The IPSec protocol uses Security Associations (SAs) to determine how to encrypt packets. Within each SA, you define encryption domains to map a packet's source and destination IP address and protocol type to an entry in the SA database to define how to encrypt or decrypt a packet.
Other vendors or industry documentation might use the term proxy ID, security parameter index (SPI), or traffic selector when referring to SAs or encryption domains.
There are two general methods for implementing IPSec tunnels:
- Route-based tunnels: Also called next-hop-based tunnels. A route table lookup is performed on a packet's destination IP address. If that route’s egress interface is an IPSec tunnel, the packet is encrypted and sent to the other end of the tunnel.
- Policy-based tunnels: The packet's source and destination IP address and protocol are matched against a list of policy statements. If a match is found, the packet is encrypted based on the rules in that policy statement.
The Oracle Site-to-Site VPN headends use route-based tunnels but can work with policy-based tunnels with some caveats listed in the following sections.
If your CPE supports route-based tunnels, use that method to configure the tunnel. It's the simplest configuration with the most interoperability with the Oracle VPN headend.
Route-based IPSec uses an encryption domain with the following values:
- Source IP address: Any (0.0.0.0/0)
- Destination IP address: Any (0.0.0.0/0)
- Protocol: IPv4
If you need to be more specific, you can use a single summary route for your encryption domain values instead of a default route.
When you use policy-based tunnels, every policy entry (a CIDR block on one side of the IPSec connection) that you define generates an IPSec security association (SA) with every eligible entry on the other end of the tunnel. This pair is referred to as an encryption domain.
In this diagram, the Oracle DRG end of the IPSec tunnel has policy entries for three IPv4 CIDR blocks and one IPv6 CIDR block. The on-premises CPE end of the tunnel has policy entries two IPv4 CIDR blocks and two IPv6 CIDR blocks. Each entry generates an encryption domain with all possible entries on the other end of the tunnel. Both sides of an SA pair must use the same version of IP. The result is a total of eight encryption domains.
If your CPE supports only policy-based tunnels, be aware of the following restrictions.
- Site-to-Site VPN supports multiple encryption domains, but has an upper limit of 50 encryption domains.
- If you had a situation similar to the example above and only configured three of the six possible IPv4 encryption domains on the CPE side, the link would be listed in a "Partial UP" state since all possible encryption domains are always created on the DRG side.
- Policy-based routing depends on Site-to-Site VPN v2. See Updated Site-to-Site VPN service for more about Site-to-Site VPN v2.
- Depending on when your tunnel was created you might not be able to edit an existing tunnel to use policy-based routing and might need to replace the tunnel with a new IPSec tunnel.
- The CIDR blocks used on the Oracle DRG end of the tunnel can't overlap the CIDR blocks used on the on-premises CPE end of the tunnel.
- An encryption domain must always be between two CIDR blocks of the same IP version.