OCI Configuration Detector Rules

Reference material for the Oracle-managed configuration detector recipes that Cloud Guard provides is grouped below by resource type. Expand a Rule Display Name to view the details.

Compute Resources

Instance has a public IP address

Description: Alert when a Compute instance has a public IP address.

Recommendation: Carefully consider allowing internet access to any instances. For example, you do not want to accidentally allow internet access to sensitive database instances.

Background: For an instance to be publicly addressable, it must:

  • Have a public IP address
  • Exist in a public virtual computer network (VCN) subnet
  • Be on a VCN that has an internet gateway enabled that is configured for outbound traffic
  • Be on a subnet where the security list is configured for all IP addresses and all ports (0.0.0.0/0)

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Compute
  • Resource Type: Instance
  • Risk Level: HIGH
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_NETWORK, CIS_OCI_V1.1_NETWORK, Compute
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 1.3 - Prohibit direct public access between the Internet and any system component in the cardholder data environment.
  • CIS 1.1:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

    2.3 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.4 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

  • CIS 1.0:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

    2.3 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.4 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out OCIDs for any instance that should have a public IP address.

    Filter on CIDR blocks if specific OCIDs are not known. For example, an automated process might be creating new instances within a CIDR range.

Instance is publicly accessible

Description: Alert when an instance is publicly accessible.

Recommendation: Carefully consider allowing internet access to any instances.

Background: For an instance to be publicly addressable, it must:

  • Have a public IP address
  • Exist in a public VCN subnet
  • Be on a VCN that has an internet gateway enabled that is configured for outbound traffic
  • Be on a subnet where the security list is configured for all IP addresses and all ports (0.0.0.0/0)

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Compute
  • Resource Type: Instance
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: Compute
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 1.3 Prohibit direct public access between the Internet and any system component in the cardholder data environment.
  • CIS 1.1:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

    2.3 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.4 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

  • CIS 1.0:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

    2.3 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.4 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out instance OCIDs for any that should have a public IP address.
Instance is running an Oracle public image

Description: Alert when a Compute instance that's running is built from an Oracle public image.

Recommendation: Ensure that your instances are all running sanctioned images from trusted sources.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Compute
  • Resource Type: Instance
  • Risk Level: LOW
  • Labels: Compute
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
Instance is running without required Tags

Description: Alert when a Compute instance is running without required configured tags.

Recommendation: Ensure that the instances are using required tags.

Background: Tags are important for auditing and tracking purposes.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Compute
  • Resource Type: Instance
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_MONITORING, CIS_OCI_V1.1_MONITORING, TAGS
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Add required tags in the rule's Input Setting section.

    These formats are allowed in the Input Setting box. Separate multiple entries with commas.

    • <namespace>.<definedkey>=<definedValue>
    • <namespace>.<definedKey>
    • <freeformkey>=<freeformValue>
    • <freeformkey>

    Examples:

    • <namespace>.<definedkey>=<definedValue>
      • Operations.Environment=Production - Rule doesn't trigger a problem if resource has a tag set to Operations namespace, defined key of Environment, and defined value of Production,
      • Operations.*=* - Rule doesn't trigger a problem if resource has a tag set Operations namespace, with any defined key and any defined value.
    • <namespace>.<definedkey>
      • Operations.Environment - Rule doesn't trigger a problem if resource has a tag set to Operations namespace, with a defined key of Environment, and any defined value.
    • <freeformKey>
    • <freeformKey>=freeformValue
      • Project=APPROVED - Rule doesn't trigger a problem if resource has a tag set to freeform key Project with a value of APPROVED.

Database Resources

Database is not backed up automatically

Description: Alert when automatic backup isn't enabled for a database.

Recommendation: Ensure that automatic backup is enabled.

Background: Enabling automatic backup ensures that if a catastrophic hardware failure occurs, you are able to restore the database with minimal data loss,

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Database
  • Resource Type: DB System
  • Risk Level: HIGH
  • Labels: Database
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out database OCIDs for any that do not need to be backed up automatically, for example, OCIDs in developer test environments.
Database patch is not applied

Description: Alert when an available database patch has not been applied within your specified number of days.

Recommendation: Apply released patches to the database when they are available.

Background: Database patches address functionality, security, and performance issues. Most security breaches can be prevented by applying available patches.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Database
  • Resource Type: DB System
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: Database
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Set Number of days to apply patch in the rule's Input Setting section.
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out database OCIDs for any that do not need to have latest patch applied, for example, OCIDs in developer test environments.
Database System has public IP address

Description: Alert when a database system has a public IP address assigned.

Recommendation: Ensure that the database system does not have a public IP address.

Background: Use of a public IP address to access a database increases your exposure to potential security and business continuity risks.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Database
  • Resource Type: DB System
  • Risk Level: HIGH
  • Labels: Database
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out database OCIDs for any that are supposed to be public.
Database System is publicly accessible

Description: Alert when a database is publicly accessible.

Recommendation: Carefully consider allowing internet access to any database system.

Background: For a database to be publicly accessible, it must:

  • Have a public IP address.
  • Be in a public VCN subnet.
  • Be on a subnet that has an internet gateway enabled that is configured for outbound traffic.
  • Be on:
    • A subnet where the security list allows traffic from any source CIDR range and "All protocols," or...
    • Be on network security group which allows traffic from any source CIDR range and "All protocols."

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Database
  • Resource Type: ExadataBareMetalVM
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: Database
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out database OCIDs for any that are supposed to be public.
Database system patch is not applied

Description: Alert when an available database system patch has not been applied.

Recommendation: Apply released patches to the database system when they are available.

Background: Database system patches often include updates that eliminate known security vulnerabilities.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Database
  • Resource Type: DB System
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: Database
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Set Number of days to apply patch in the rule's Input Setting section.
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out database system OCIDs for any that do not need to have latest patch applied, for example, OCIDs in developer test environments.
Database System version is not sanctioned

Description: Alert when a database system is running with a version that's not sanctioned.

Recommendation: Ensure that the deployed database system version is approved and tested.

Background: Running unsanctioned versions of database systems might increase your chances of a security breach, putting your data confidentiality, integrity, and availability at risk.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Database
  • Resource Type: DB System
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: Database
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out database system OCIDs for any that do not need to have a sanctioned version, for example, OCIDs in developer test environments.
Database version is not sanctioned

Description: Alert when a database is running with a version that's not sanctioned.

Recommendation: Ensure that the deployed database version is approved and tested.

Background: The sanctioned version of a database has the most recent security features and vulnerability patches. Running unsanctioned versions of a database might increase your chances of a security breach, putting your data confidentiality, integrity, and availability at risk.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Database
  • Resource Type: DB System
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: Database
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out database OCIDs for any that do not need to have a sanctioned version, for example, OCIDs in developer test environments.

IAM Resources

API key is too old

Description: Alert when an IAM private/public key pair assigned to a user is too old.

Recommendation: Rotate API keys regularly, at least every 90 days.

Background: Changing IAM API keys at least every 90 days is a security best practice. The longer that IAM credentials remain unchanged, the greater the risk that they can become compromised.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: IAMKey
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_IAM, CIS_OCI_V1.1_IAM, IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 8.2.4 - Credentials must be rotated at least every 90 days.
  • CIS 1.1: 1.8 - Ensure that user API keys rotate within 90 days or less.
  • CIS 1.0: Doesn't cover.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: (Optional) You can change the default value of 90 days in the rule's Input Setting section.
IAM Auth Token is too old

Description: Alert when IAM Auth Tokens are older than your specified maximum number of days.

Recommendation: Rotate IAM Auth Tokens regularly, at least every 90 days.

Background: Changing IAM Auth Tokens at least every 90 days is a security best practice. The longer that IAM Auth Tokens remain unchanged, the greater the risk that they can become compromised.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: User
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.1_IAM, IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 8.2.4 - Credentials must be rotated at least every 90 days.
  • CIS 1.1: 1.9 Ensure user Auth tokens rotate within 90 days or less.
  • CIS 1.0: None
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Set the maximum number of days for IAM Auth Tokens (default is 90) in the rule's Input Setting section.
IAM Customer Secret Key is too old

Description: Alert when IAM Customer Secret Keys are older than your specified maximum number of days.

Recommendation: Rotate IAM Customer Secret Keys regularly, at least every 90 days.

Background: Changing IAM Customer Secret Keys at least every 90 days is a security best practice. The longer that IAM Customer Secret Keys remain unchanged, the greater the risk that they can become compromised.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: User
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.1_IAM, IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 8.2.4 - Credentials must be rotated at least every 90 days.
  • CIS 1.1: 1.9 Ensure user customer secret keys rotate within 90 days or less.
  • CIS 1.0: None
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Set the maximum number of days for IAM Customer Secret Keys (default is 90) in the rule's Input Setting section.
IAM group has too few members

Description: Alert when an IAM group has fewer than your specified minimum number of members.

Recommendation: Increase the number of group members to be fewer than your specified minimum number of members.

Background: IAM group membership frequently grants access to resources and features. Group memberships that have too few members might represent excess privileges being "orphaned" (no longer available to any users).

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: Group
  • Risk Level: LOW
  • Labels: IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
IAM group has too many members

Description: Alert when an IAM group has more than your specified maximum number of members.

Recommendation: Reduce number of group members to be less than your specified maximum number of members.

Background: IAM group membership frequently grants access to resources and features. Group memberships that have too many members might represent overly permissive privileges being given to too many users.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: Group
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
Password is too old

Description: Alert when an IAM password is older than your specified maximum number of days.

Recommendation: Rotate IAM passwords regularly, at least every 90 days.

Background: Changing IAM passwords at least every 90 days is a security best practice. The longer that IAM credentials remain unchanged, the greater the risk that they can become compromised.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: User
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_IAM, CIS_OCI_V1.1_IAM, IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 8.2.4 - Credentials must be rotated at least every 90 days.
  • CIS 1.1: 1.5 - Ensure that IAM password policy expires passwords within 365 days.
  • CIS 1.0: 1.9 Ensure that IAM password policy expires passwords within 365 days.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Set the maximum number of days for passwords (default is 90) in the rule's Input Setting section.
Password policy does not meet complexity requirements

Description: Password policy does not meet complexity requirements.

Recommendation: Oracle recommends that a strong password policy include at least one lower case letter.

Background: Complex passwords are harder to guess and can decrease the chances of unauthorized access or compromised data.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: Policy
  • Risk Level: LOW
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.1_IAM, CIS_OCI_V1.0_IAM, IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 8.2.3 - Passwords/passphrases must meet the following:
    • Require a minimum length of at least seven characters.
    • Contain both numeric and alphabetic characters.

    Alternatively, the passwords or passphrases must have complexity and strength at least equivalent to the parameters specified above.

  • CIS 1.1: 1.4 - Ensure that IAM password policy requires minimum length of 14 or greater.
  • CIS 1.0:

    1.4 - Ensure that IAM password policy requires minimum length of 14 or greater.

    1.5 - Ensure that IAM password policy requires at least one uppercase letter.

    1.6 - Ensure that IAM password policy requires at least one lowercase letter.

    1.7 - Ensure that IAM password policy requires at least one symbol.

    1.8 - Ensure that IAM password policy requires at least one number.

Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
Policy gives too many privileges

Description: Alert when an IAM policy grants any administrator role access to a user who is not member of the Administrators group.

Recommendation: Ensure that the policy is restricted to allow only specific users to access the resources required to accomplish their job functions.

Background: A policy is a document that specifies who can access which OCI resources that your company has, and how. A policy simply allows a group to work in certain ways with specific types of resources in a particular compartment.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: Policy
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.1_IAM, CIS_OCI_V1.0_IAM, IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 7.1.2 - Restrict access to privileged user IDs to least privileges necessary to perform job responsibilities.
  • CIS 1.1: - 1.2 Ensure that permissions on all resources are given only to the tenancy administrator group.
  • CIS 1.0: - 1.2 Ensure that permissions on all resources are given only to the tenancy administrator group.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Add OCIDs for any groups that should be allowed these privileges in the rule's Input Setting section.
Tenancy admin privilege granted to group

Description: Alert when the tenancy administrator privilege is granted to an extra IAM group.

Recommendation: Verify with the OCI administrator that this entitlement grant was sanctioned, and that the membership of the group remains valid after the grant of the administrator privilege.

Background: Default tenancy administrator group members can perform any action on all resources in that tenancy. This high-privilege entitlement must be controlled and restricted to only those users who need it to perform their job functions.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: Policy
  • Risk Level: LOW
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.1_IAM, CIS_OCI_V1.0_IAM, IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 7.1.2 - Restrict access to privileged user IDs to least privileges necessary to perform job responsibilities.
  • CIS 1.1: 1.3 Ensure that IAM administrators cannot update tenancy Administrators group.
  • CIS 1.0: 1.3 - Ensure that IAM administrators cannot update tenancy Administrators group.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Add OCIDs of groups that should have admin privilege in the rule's Input Setting section.
User does not have MFA enabled

Description: Alert when a user doesn't have multifactor authentication (MFA) enabled.

Recommendation: Enable MFA for all users, using the Oracle Mobile Authenticator (OMA) application on each user's mobile device and the one-time passcode (OTP) sent to the user's registered email address.

Background: MFA provides an extra layer of security, on top of user name and password. A second verification factor is required each time a user logs in. During the authentication process, users can enable a single device as a trusted device for a maximum period of one day. The email passcode must not be valid for more than 10 minutes. These features combine to provide a degree of protection from password spraying, credential stuffing, and account takeover attacks.
Note

Only applicable to local users. Not applicable to IDCS users, unless they are mapped to local users.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: User
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_IAM, CIS_OCI_V1.1_IAM, IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 8.3 - Secure all individual non-console administrative access and all remote access to the CDE using multi-factor authentication.
  • CIS 1.1: 1.7 - Ensure that MFA is enabled for all users with a console password.
  • CIS 1.0: 1.11 - Ensure that MFA is enabled for all users with a console password.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
User has API keys

Description: Alert when a user has API keys enabled.

Recommendation: Ensure that OCI access by administrators through API keys is performed as an exception. Do not hard-code IAM credentials directly in software or documents to a wide audience.

Background: IAM API keys are credentials used to grant programmatic access to resources. Actual human users should not use API keys.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: IAM
  • Resource Type: User
  • Risk Level: LOW
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_IAM, CIS_OCI_V1.1_IAM, IAM
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 8.6 - Where other authentication mechanisms are used, such as physical or logical security tokens, smart cards, or certificates, use of these mechanisms must be assigned as follows:
    • Authentication mechanisms must be assigned to an individual account and not shared among multiple accounts.
    • Physical or logical controls, or both, must be in place to ensure that only the intended account can use that mechanism to gain access.
  • CIS 1.1: 1.11 - Ensure that API keys are not created for tenancy administrator users.
  • CIS 1.0: 1.13 - Ensure that API keys are not created for tenancy administrator users.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.

KMS Resources

Key has not been rotated

Description: Alert when a KMS key has not been rotated within your specified time period.

Recommendation: Ensure that you rotate the KMS keys regularly.

Background: For information security, you should periodically change or rotate, passwords, keys, and cryptographic materials. Rotating your keys in KMS reduces the impact and probability of key compromise. Set the minimum. You can change the default time for rotating keys from 180 days in the rule's Input Setting section.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: KMS
  • Resource Type: KMS Key
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.1_MONITORING, KMS
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 8.2.4 - Credentials must be rotated at least every 90 days.
  • CIS 1.1: 3.16 - Ensure that customer created Customer Managed Key (CMK) is rotated at least annually.
  • CIS 1.0: Not Covered by CIS 1.0
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Set the default time for rotating keys in the rule's Input Setting section.

Multiple Resources

Resource is not tagged appropriately

Description: Alert when a resource is not tagged in compliance with the tagging requirements you've specified.

Recommendation: Verify that the configured tags are in use for compute images, compute instances, database systems, VCNs, object storage, and storage block volumes.

Background: Verify that the configured tags are in use for compute images, compute instances, database systems, VCNs, object storage, and storage block volumes.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Multiple
  • Resource Type: Multiple
  • Risk Level: LOW
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_MONITORING, CIS_OCI_V1.1_MONITORING, TAGS
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 2.4 - Maintain an inventory of system components that are in scope for PCI DSS.
  • CIS 1.1: 3.2 - Ensure that default tags are used on resources.
  • CIS 1.0: 4.2 - Ensure that default tags are used on resources.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Add appropriate tags in the rule's Input Setting section.

Networking Resources

Load balancer allows weak cipher suites

Description: Alert when a load balancer has a cipher suite configured that is oci-wider-compatible-ssl-cipher-suite-v1. This cipher suite includes algorithms like DES and RC4 that are considered weak and prone to attacks. Only applicable for predefined cipher suites and not the custom cipher suite values.

Recommendation: Use default, modern cipher suites that support stronger encryption.

Background: Certain versions of cipher suites with algorithms like DES are not recommended.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: Load Balancer
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
Load balancer allows weak SSL communication

Description: Alert when a load balancer has a protocol configured as part its SSL policy that includes any version less than Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.2.

Recommendation: Ensure that the SSL policy version configured is at least TLS 1.2.

Background: Older versions of are risky and vulnerable to many types of attacks. Several standards, such as PCI-DSS and NIST, strongly encourage the use of TLS 1.2.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: Load Balancer
  • Risk Level: HIGH
  • Labels: Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
Load balancer has no backend set

Description: Alert when a load balancer has no associated backend sets.

Recommendation: Ensure that you configure load balancers with backend sets to control the health and access to a load balancer by defined instances.

Background: A backend set is a logical entity defined by a load balancing policy, a health check policy, and a list of backend servers.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: Load Balancer
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
Load balancer has no inbound rules or listeners

Description: Alert when a security list of a load balancer has ingress rules that accept traffic from an open source (0.0.0.0/0).

Recommendation: Ensure that your OCI load balancers use inbound rules or listeners to only allow access from known resources.

Background: OCI load balancers enable end-to-end TLS connections between a client's applications and your VCN. A listener is a logical entity that checks for incoming traffic on the load balancer's IP address. To handle TCP, HTTP, and HTTPS traffic, you must configure at least one listener per traffic type.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: Load Balancer
  • Risk Level: MINOR
  • Labels: Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
Load balancer SSL certificate expiring soon

Description: Alert when the SSL certificate in a load balancer is set to expire within your specified time period.

Recommendation: Ensure that certificates are rotated on a timely basis.

Background: To ensure continuous security and usability, SSL certificates must be rotated in OCI.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: Load Balancer
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Set Days before expiring (default is 48) in the rule's Input Setting section.
NSG egress rule contains disallowed IP/port

Description: Alert when the egress rule for a network security group (NSG) contains a disallowed destination IP address and port number.

Recommendation: Ensure that the egress rules for communication with the IP/port are permitted for this NSG.

Background: NSGs act as a virtual firewall for compute instances and other kinds of resources. NSG's outbound (egress) security rules apply to a set of virtual NICs in a VCN to allow access to specific ports and IP addresses.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: Network Security Group
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_NETWORK, CIS_OCI_V1.1_NETWORK, Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 1.3.4 - Do not allow unauthorized outbound traffic from the cardholder data environment to the Internet.
  • CIS 1.1:

    2.3 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.4 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

  • CIS 1.0:

    2.3 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.4 - Ensure that no network security groups allow that ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Add disallowed ports in the rule's Input Setting section.
NSG ingress rule contains disallowed IP/port

Description: Alert when the ingress rule for a network security group contains a disallowed destination IP address and port number.

Recommendation: Ensure that the ingress rules for communication with the IP/port are permitted for this NSG.

Background: NSGs act as a virtual firewall for compute instances and other kinds of resources. NSGs inbound (ingress) security rules apply to a set of virtual NICs in a VCN to allow access to specific ports and IP addresses.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: Network Security Group
  • Risk Level: HIGH
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_NETWORK, CIS_OCI_V1.1_NETWORK, Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 1.2.1 - Restrict inbound and outbound traffic to what's necessary for the cardholder data environment, and specifically deny all other traffic.
  • CIS 1.1:

    2.3 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.4 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

  • CIS 1.0:

    2.3 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.4 - Ensure that no network security groups allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Add disallowed ports in the rule's Input Setting section.
VCN has Internet Gateway attached

Description: Alert when a VCN is attached to an internet gateway.

Recommendation: Ensure that internet gateways are authorized to be attached to a VCN, and that this attachment doesn’t expose resources to the internet. Ensure that security lists with ingress / inbound rules and those security lists are not configured to allow access from all IP addresses 0.0.0.0/0.

Background: Gateways provide external connectivity to hosts in a VCN. They include internet gateway (IGW) for internet connectivity.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: VCN
  • Risk Level: LOW
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_NETWORK, CIS_OCI_V1.1_NETWORK, CIS_OCI_V1.1_MONITORING, Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 1.3.4 - Do not allow unauthorized outbound traffic from the cardholder data environment to the Internet.
  • CIS 1.1:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389

    2.5 - Ensure that the default security list of every VCN restricts all traffic except ICMP

    3.13 - Ensure that a notification is configured for changes to network gateways

  • CIS 1.0:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389

    2.7 - Ensure that the default security list of every VCN restricts all traffic except ICMP

Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
VCN has Local Peering Gateway attached

Description: Alert when a VCN is attached to a local peering gateway.

Recommendation: Ensure that local peering gateways are authorized to be attached to a VCN, and that this attachment doesn’t expose resources to the internet.

Background: Gateways provide external connectivity to hosts in a VCN. They include local peering gateway (LPG) for connectivity to peered VCN.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: VCN
  • Risk Level: LOW
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_NETWORK, CIS_OCI_V1.1_NETWORK, CIS_OCI_V1.1_MONITORING, Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 1.2 Build firewall and router configurations that restrict connections between untrusted networks and any system components in the cardholder data environment.
  • CIS 1.1:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

    2.5 - Ensure that the default security list of every VCN restricts all traffic except ICMP.

    3.13 - Ensure that a notification is configured for changes to network gateways.

  • CIS 1.0:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

    2.5 - Ensure that the default security list of every VCN restricts all traffic except ICMP.

Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
VCN has no inbound Security List

Description: Alert when a VCN has no inbound security list.

Recommendation: Ensure that your OCI VCN's use security lists with ingress or inbound rules to only allow access from known resources.

Background: Security lists provide stateful and stateless firewall capability to control network access to your instances. A security list is configured at the subnet level and enforced at the instance level. You can apply multiple security lists to a subnet where a network packet is allowed, if it matches any rule in the security lists.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: VCN
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
VCN Security list allows traffic to non-public port from all sources (0.0.0.0/0)

Description: Alert when a VCN security list allows unrestricted traffic to a non-public port from an open source (0.0.0.0/0).

Recommendation: Use VCN security lists to restrict network access to instances in a subnet. To prevent unauthorized access or attacks on compute instances, Oracle recommends that you:

  • Use a VCN security list to allow SSH or RDP access only from authorized CIDR blocks
  • Do not leave compute instances open to the internet (0.0.0.0/0)

Background: A VCN has a collection of features for enforcing network access control and securing VCN traffic. Security lists provide stateful and stateless firewall capability to control network access to your instances. A security list is configured at the subnet level and enforced at the instance level. You can apply multiple security lists to a subnet where a network packet is allowed, if it matches any rule in the security lists.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: VCN
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_NETWORK, CIS_OCI_V1.1_NETWORK, Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 1.3 - Prohibit direct public access between the Internet and any system component in the cardholder data environment.
  • CIS 1.1:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

  • CIS 1.0:

    2.1 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 22.

    2.2 - Ensure that no security lists allow ingress from 0.0.0.0/0 to port 3389.

Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave default settings.
VCN Security list allows traffic to restricted port

Description: Alert when a VCN security list allows certain restricted ports (see Input Settings, Restricted Protocol:Ports List) as part of the Security list ingress rule.

Recommendation: If "Restricted Protocol:Ports List" includes port values that are identified or allowed for your workloads, then modify the list of ports in Input Settings accordingly. Additional details section of the problem provides a list of open Restricted ports that triggered this problem. Ensure that your OCI VCNs use security lists with ingress or inbound rules to only allow traffic access to identified ports. Review if detected ports should be open on this security list Ingress rule and close them if they are not required to be open. Oracle also recommends checking the "Restricted Protocol:Ports List" in the Input setting of this detector rule and modify it to allow certain required ports and thus notifying Cloud Guard to not detect a problem for those ports.

Background: Security lists provide stateful and stateless firewall capability to control network access to your instances. A security list is configured at the subnet level and enforced at the instance level. You can apply multiple security lists to a subnet where a network packet is allowed, if it matches any rule in the security lists.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: VCN
  • Risk Level: MINOR
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.0_NETWORK, CIS_OCI_V1.1_NETWORK, Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 1.2 - Build firewall and router configurations that restrict connections between untrusted networks and any system components in the cardholder data environment.
  • CIS 1.1: 2.5 - Ensure that the default security list of every VCN restricts all traffic except ICMP.
  • CIS 1.0: 2.7 - Ensure that the default security list of every VCN restricts all traffic except ICMP.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration:
    • Add Allowed Protocol:Ports List, in the rule's Input Setting section.
    • Modify Restricted Protocol:Ports List as needed, in the rule's Input Setting section.

    You can enter ports lists manually, or you can enter names of one or more security lists that you've defined. See Security Lists.

    Note

    Choosing between use of Allowed... List and Restricted... List:
    • If you leave both lists empty, accesses to all ports generate problems. Specify one or both lists to avoid this problem.
    • If you specify allowed ports, accesses to all other ports generate problems.
    • If you specify only restricted ports, accesses to only those ports generate problems.
    • If you specify the same port number in both lists, you aren't allowed to save your changes.
VNIC without associated network security group

Description: Alert when a virtual network interface card (VNIC) has no associated (NSG).

Recommendation: Ensure that all VNICs have an associated NSG.

Background: A VNIC is a networking component that enables a resource such as a compute instance to connect to a VCN. The VNIC determines how the instance connects with endpoints inside and outside the VCN. Each VNIC resides in a subnet in a VCN. A VNIC without an NSG might trigger a connectivity issue.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Networking
  • Resource Type: VCN
  • Risk Level: MINOR
  • Labels: Network
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Modify Restricted Protocol:Ports List as needed, in the rule's Input Setting section.

Scanning Resources

Scanned host has open ports

Description: Alert when Oracle Vulnerability Scanning Service (VSS) scans Compute instances (hosts) and identifies open ports. To use this rule, you must create a Host Scan Recipe and a Host Scan Target in the Scanning service. See Getting Started in the Scanning documentation.

Recommendation: Review the identified ports and close them if you determine that they should not be open on this host.

Background: Certain ports are required for operation and delivery of services, but any open ports beyond the intended list can potentially be used to exploit the services.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Scanning, Compute
  • Resource Type: Compute
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: VSS
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: Add any Allowed Ports that should be ignored in the rule's Input Setting section.
Scanned host has vulnerabilities

Description: Alert when Oracle Vulnerability Scanning Service (VSS) scans Compute instances (hosts) and identifies known cybersecurity vulnerabilities. To use this rule, you must create a Host Scan Recipe and a Host Scan Target in the Scanning service. See Getting Started in the Scanning documentation.

Recommendation: Perform the recommended actions that are documented for each vulnerability, such as applying an OS patch.

Background: The Scanning service identifies vulnerabilities for applications, libraries, operating systems, and services. Each vulnerability in the database has a distinct identifier or CVE.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Scanning, Compute
  • Resource Type: Compute
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: VSS
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Leave the default settings (all CVEs are detected)

Storage Resources

Block Volume is encrypted with Oracle-managed key

Description: Alert when a block volume is encrypted with Oracle-managed keys.

Recommendation: Assign a KMS key to this volume.

Background: Encryption of volumes provides an extra level of security on your data. Management of encryption keys is critical to protecting and accessing protected data. Some customers want to identify block volumes encrypted Oracle-managed keys vs the user-managed keys.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Storage
  • Resource Type: Block Volume
  • Risk Level: MINOR
  • Labels: KMS
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Oracle-Managed Keys: Recommended to secure block volumes.
  • User-Managed Keys:
    • Use KMS wherever possible.
    • Implement Oracle Security Zones on compartments to ensure that practice is followed.
  • Conditional Groups: Avoid using, because of the large number of volumes.
Block Volume is not attached

Description: Alert when a block volume is not attached to its associated instance.

Recommendation: Ensure that the volume is attached.

Background: Detaching a block volume decouples the volume from its associated instance and could affect data availability, from business-critical data to point-in-time copies of volumes as backups.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Storage
  • Resource Type: Block Volume
  • Risk Level: MEDIUM
  • Labels: Storage
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not applicable.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Conditional Groups: Avoid using, because of large number of volumes.
Bucket is public

Description: Alert when a bucket is public.

Recommendation: Ensure that the bucket is sanctioned for public access, and if not, direct the OCI administrator to restrict the bucket policy to allow only specific users access to the resources required to accomplish their job functions.

Background: Object Storage supports anonymous, unauthenticated access to a bucket. A public bucket that has read access enabled for anonymous users allows anyone to obtain object metadata, download bucket objects, and optionally list bucket contents.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Storage
  • Resource Type: Bucket
  • Risk Level: CRITICAL
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.1_ObjectStorage, ObjectStorage
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: 1.2.1 - Restrict inbound and outbound traffic to what's necessary for the cardholder data environment, and specifically deny all other traffic.
  • CIS 1.1: 4.1 - Ensure that no Object Storage buckets are publicly visible.
  • CIS 1.0: Not Covered by CIS 1.0.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Conditional Groups: Filter out bucket names (<namespace>/<name>) for any that are supposed to be public.
Object Storage bucket is encrypted with Oracle-managed key

Description: Alert when an Object Storage bucket is encrypted with an Oracle-managed key.

Recommendation: Assign a KMS key to this bucket.

Background: Encryption of storage buckets provides an extra level of security on your data. Management of encryption keys is critical to protecting and accessing protected data. Some customers want to identify storage buckets encrypted Oracle-managed keys.

Rule Parameters:

  • Service Type: Storage
  • Resource Type: Bucket
  • Risk Level: MINOR
  • Labels: CIS_OCI_V1.1_ObjectStorage, ObjectStorage, KMS
Compliance Control Mapping:
  • PCI-DSS 3.2.1: Not an issue for PCI.
  • CIS 1.1: 4.2 -Ensure Object Storage Buckets are encrypted with a Customer Managed Key (CMK).
  • CIS 1.0: Not Covered by CIS 1.0.
Best Practice for Rule Modifications:
  • Configuration: If you require strict key control using user-managed keys through KMS, create an Oracle Security Zone compartment and create resources in that compartment.