Use Oracle Data Guard with Exadata Cloud Infrastructure

Learn to configure and manage Data Guard associations in your VM cluster.

About Using Oracle Data Guard with Exadata Cloud Infrastructure

This topic explains how to use the Console or the API to manage Data Guard associations in your VM cluster.

Note

This procedure is only applicable to Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instances. To use Oracle Data Guard with bare metal and virtual machine DB systems, see Using Oracle Data Guard.

This topic explains how to use the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Console or the API to manage Oracle Data Guard associations in your Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instances. This topic does not apply to Data Guard configurations created by accessing the host directly and setting up Oracle Data Guard manually.

For complete information on Data Guard, see Introduction to Oracle Data Guard in the Oracle Help Center. For information on the features offered by Active Data Guard, see Active Data Guard. To switch an existing Data Guard association to Active Data Guard, see To edit the Data Guard association in this topic.

When you use the Console or the API to enable Data Guard for an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure database:
  • The standby database is a physical standby.
  • The peer databases (primary and standby) are:
    • in the same compartment
    • both Exadata system shapes
    • identical database versions
  • You are limited to one standby database for each primary database.
  • The standby database is deployed as an open, read-only database (Active Data Guard).
Note

The primary and standby databases must use the same version of the Exadata cloud tooling (dbaastools). See Updating Tooling on an Exadata Cloud Service Instance for more information on cloud tooling.

To configure a Data Guard system across regions or between on-premises and Exadata database virtual machines, or to configure your database with multiple standbys, you must access the database host directly and set up Data Guard manually.

For complete information on Oracle Data Guard, see the Data Guard Concepts and Administration documentation on the Oracle Document Portal.

Prerequisites for Using Oracle Data Guard with Exadata Cloud Infrastructure

An Exadata Cloud Infrastructure Oracle Data Guard implementation requires two existing Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instances: one containing an existing database that is to be duplicated by Data Guard, and one that will house the new standby database by Data Guard.

When enabling Data Guard, you can create a new Database Home on the standby Exadata instance to house the new standby database during the enable Data Guard operation. Alternately, you can choose to provision the standby database in an existing Database Home on the standby instance. For information on creating the required resources for the standby system, see the following topics:

You can use a custom database software image to that contains the necessary patches for your databases when creating a Database Home on either the primary or the standby Exadata instance. See Oracle Database Software Images for information on working with custom Oracle Database software images.

If you choose to provision a standby database in an existing Database Home, ensure that the target Database Home on the standby instance has all required patches that are in use for the primary database before you provision the standby database. See the following topics for more information on patching an existing Database Home:

Network Requirements for Data Guard

Describe the network requirements for using Exadata Cloud Infrastructure with Oracle Data Guard.

Ensure that your environment meets the following network requirements:

  • If you want to configure Oracle Data Guard across regions, then you must configure remote virtual cloud network (VCN) peering between the primary and standby databases. Networking is configured on the cloud VM cluster resource for systems using the The new Exadata Resource Model, and on the DB system resource for system using the old resource model. See Remote VCN Peering using an RPC .

    For Exadata Data Guard configurations, OCI supports the use of hub-and-spoke network topology for the VCNs within each region. This means that the primary and standby databases can each utilize a "spoke" VCN that passes network traffic to the "hub" VCN that has a remote peering connection. See Transit Routing inside a hub VCN for information on setting up this network topology.

  • To set up Oracle Data Guard within a single region, both Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instances must use the same VCN. When setting up Data Guard within the same region, Oracle recommends that the instance containing the standby database be in a different availability domain from the instance containing the primary database to improve availability and disaster recovery.
  • Configure the ingress and egress security rules for the subnets of both Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instances in the Oracle Data Guard association to enable TCP traffic to move between the applicable ports. Ensure that the rules you create are stateful (the default).

    For example, if the subnet of the primary Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance uses the source CIDR 10.0.0.0/24 and the subnet of the standby instance uses the source CIDR 10.0.1.0/24, then create rules as shown in the subsequent example.

Note

The egress rules in the example show how to enable TCP traffic only for port 1521, which is a minimum requirement for Oracle Data Guard to work. If TCP traffic is already enabled for all destinations (0.0.0.0/0) on all of your outgoing ports, then you need not explicitly add these specific egress rules.

Security Rules for Subnet of Primary Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance

Ingress Rules:

						Stateless: No
						Source: 10.0.1.0/24 
						IP Protocol: TCP 
						Source Port Range: All 
						Destination Port Range: 1521
						Allows: TCP traffic for ports: 1521

						Egress Rules:


						Stateless: No
						Destination: 10.0.1.0/24 
						IP Protocol: TCP 
						Source Port Range: All
						Destination Port Range: 1521
						Allows: TCP traffic for ports: 1521
					

Security Rules for Subnet of Standby Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance

Ingress Rules:

						Stateless: No
						Source: 10.0.0.0/24 
						IP Protocol: TCP 
						Source Port Range: All 
						Destination Port Range: 1521
						Allows: TCP traffic for ports: 1521

						Egress Rules:

						Stateless: No
						Destination: 10.0.0.0/24 
						IP Protocol: TCP 
						Source Port Range: All
						Destination Port Range: 1521
						Allows: TCP traffic for ports: 1521
					

For information about creating and editing rules, see Security Lists .

Password Requirements

For Data Guard operations to work, the SYS password and the TDE wallet password of the primary and standby databases must all be the same.

If you change any one of these passwords, you must update the rest of the passwords to match. See Changing the Database Passwords to learn how to change the SYS password or the TDE wallet password.

If you make any change to the TDE wallet (such as adding a master key for a new PDB or changing the wallet password), you must copy the wallet from the primary to the standby so that Data Guard can continue to operate. For Oracle Database versions earlier than 12.2, if you change the SYS password on one of the peers, you need to manually sync the password file between the DB systems.

Working with Data Guard

Oracle Data Guard ensures high availability, data protection, and disaster recovery for enterprise data.

The Data Guard implementation requires two databases, one in a primary role and one in a standby role. The two databases compose a Data Guard association. Most of your applications access the primary database. The standby database is a transactionally consistent copy of the primary database.

Data Guard maintains the standby database by transmitting and applying redo data from the primary database. If the primary database becomes unavailable, you can use Data Guard to switch or fail over the standby database to the primary role.

Switchover

A switchover reverses the primary and standby database roles.

Each database continues to participate in the Data Guard association in its new role. A switchover ensures no data loss. You can use a switchover before you perform planned maintenance on the primary database. Performing planned maintenance on a Exadata database virtual machine with a Data Guard association is typically done by switching the primary to the standby role, performing maintenance on the standby, and then switching it back to the primary role.

Failover

A failover transitions the standby database into the primary role after the existing primary database fails or becomes unreachable.

A failover might result in some data loss when you use Maximum Performance protection mode.

Reinstate

Reinstates a database into the standby role in a Data Guard association.

You can use the reinstate command to return a failed database into service after correcting the cause of failure.

Note

You can't terminate a primary database that has a Data Guard association with a peer (standby) database. Delete the standby database first. Alternatively, you can switch over the primary database to the standby role, and then terminate the former primary.

You can't terminate a VM cluster that includes Data Guard enabled databases. You must first remove the Data Guard association by terminating the standby database.

Using the Console to Manage Oracle Data Guard Associations

Learn how to enable a Data Guard association between databases, change the role of a database in a Data Guard association using either a switchover or a failover operation, and reinstate a failed database.

When you enable Data Guard, a separate Data Guard association is created for the primary and the standby database.

Using the Console to Enable Data Guard on an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure System

Learn to enable Data Guard association between databases.

Note

When you enable Data Guard, replication of data happens only over the client network.
  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Oracle Database, click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose your Compartment that contains the Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance with the database for which you want to enable Oracle Data Guard..
  3. Navigate to the cloud VM cluster or DB system that contains a database you want to assume the primary role:
    • Cloud VM clusters ( new resource model): Under Exadata at Oracle Cloud, click Exadata VM Clusters. In the list of VM clusters, find the VM cluster you want to access and click its highlighted name to view the details page for the cluster.

    • DB systems: Under Bare Metal, VM, and Exadata, click DB Systems. In the list of DB systems, find the Exadata DB system you want to access, and then click its name to display details about it.

  4. On the VM cluster or DB system details page, in the Databases section, click the name of the database you want to make primary.
  5. On the Database Details page, under Resources, click Data Guard Associations.
  6. In the Data Guard Associations section, click Enable Data Guard.
  7. On the Enable Data Guard page, configure your Data Guard association.
    • In the Select peer DB system section, provide the following information for the standby database to obtain a list of available Exadata systems in which to locate the standby database:

      • Region: Select a region where you want to locate the standby database. The region where the primary database is located is selected, by default. You can choose to locate the standby database in a different region. The hint text associated with this field tells you in which region the primary database is located.
      • Availability domain: Select an availability domain for the standby database. The hint text associated with this field tells you in which availability domain the primary database is located.
      • Shape: Select the shape of the standby Exadata system.
      • Data Guard peer resource type: Select DB System or VM Cluster.
      • Select a DB system or cloud VM cluster from the drop-down list.
    • Data Guard association details:
      • Data Guard Type: Select Active Data Guard or Data Guard. Active Data Guard provides additional features including: Real-Time Query and DML Offload, Automatic Block Repair, Standby Block Change Tracking, Far Sync, Global Data Services, and Application Continuity. Note that Active Data Guard requires an Oracle Active Data Guard license. For more information on Active Data Guard, see Active Data Guard. For a complete overview of both Data Guard types, see Introduction to Oracle Data Guard

      • Protection mode: The protection mode can be Maximum Performance or Maximum Availability. See Oracle Data Guard Protection Modes for information on these options.

      • Transport type: The redo transport type used for this Data Guard association.

        See Managing Redo Transport Services for Data Protection Modes for information on these options.
    • In the Choose Database Home section, choose one of the following:
      • Select an existing Database Home: If you use this option, select a home from the Database Home display name drop-down list.

      • Create a new Database Home: If you choose this option, enter a name for the new Database Home in the Database Home display name field. Click Change Database Image to select a database software image for the new Database Home. In the Select a Database Software Image panel, do the following:
        1. Select the compartment containing the database software image you want to use to create the new Database Home.
        2. Select the Oracle Database software version that the new Database Home will use, then choose an image from the list of available images for your selected software version.
        3. Click Select.
        Note

        Oracle recommends applying the same list of patches to the Database Homes of the primary and standby databases.
    • In the Configure standby database: section, provide standby database details.
      Note

      You cannot modify the db_unique_name and SID prefix after creating the database.
      • Database unique name: Optionally, specify a value for the DB_UNIQUE_NAME database parameter. This value must be unique across the primary and standby cloud VM clusters. The unique name must meet the requirements:

        • Maximum of 30 characters
        • Contain only alphanumeric or underscore (_) characters
        • Begin with an alphabetic character
        • Unique across the VM cluster. Recommended to be unique across the tenancy.
        If not specified, the system automatically generates a unique name value, as follows:
        <db_name>_<3_chars_unique_string>_<region-name>
      • Database password: Enter the database administrator password of the primary database. Use this same database administrator password for the standby database.

        Note

        The administrator password and the TDE wallet password must be identical. If the passwords are not identical, then follow the instructions in Changing the Database Passwords to ensure that they are.

  8. Click Show Advanced Options to specify advanced options for the standby database:
    • Management:

      Oracle SID prefix: The Oracle Database instance number is automatically added to the SID prefix to create the INSTANCE_NAME database parameter. The INSTANCE_NAME parameter is also known as the SID. If not provided, then the SID prefix defaults to the first 12 characters of the db_unique_name.

      Note: Entering an SID prefix is only available for Oracle 12.1 databases and above.

      The SID prefix must meet the requirements:

      • Maximum of 12 characters
      • Contain only alphanumeric characters
      • Begin with an alphabetic character
      • Unique in the VM cluster and across primary and standby databases
  9. Click Enable Data Guard. When you create the association, the details for a database and its peer display their respective roles as Primary or Standby.

When the association is created, the details for a database and its peer display their respective roles as Primary or Standby.

To perform a database switchover

You initiate a switchover operation by using the Data Guard association of the primary database.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Click Oracle Database, then click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose the Compartment that contains the Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance with the database for which you want to enable Oracle Data Guard.
  3. Navigate to the cloud VM cluster or DB system that contains the Data Guard association:

    Cloud VM clusters (new resource model): Under Exadata at Oracle Cloud, click Exadata VM Clusters. In the list of VM clusters, find the VM cluster you want to access and click its highlighted name to view the details page for the cluster.

    DB systems: Under Bare Metal, VM, and Exadata, click DB Systems. In the list of DB systems, find the Exadata DB system you want to access, and then click its name to display details about it.

  4. Under Resources, click Data Guard Associations.
  5. For the Data Guard association on which you want to perform a switchover, click the Actions icon (three dots), and then click Switchover.
  6. In the Switchover Database dialog box, enter the database admin password, and then click OK.

    This database should now assume the role of the standby, and the standby should assume the role of the primary in the Data Guard association.

To edit the Oracle Data Guard association

  1. Open the navigation menu. Click Oracle Database, then click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose the Compartment that contains the Exadata Cloud Service instance with the database for which you want to enable Oracle Data Guard.
  3. Navigate to the cloud VM cluster or DB system that contains the Data Guard association:

    Cloud VM clusters ( new resource model): Under Exadata at Oracle Cloud, click Exadata VM Clusters. In the list of VM clusters, find the VM cluster you want to access and click its highlighted name to view the details page for the cluster.

    DB systems: Under Bare Metal, VM, and Exadata, click DB Systems. In the list of DB systems, find the Exadata DB system you want to access, and then click its name to display details about it.

  4. Under Resources, click Data Guard Associations.
  5. For the Data Guard association you want to manage, click the Actions icon (three dots), and then click Edit Protection Mode.
  6. In the Edit Data Guard Association panel, configure the Data Guard association:

    • Data Guard Type: Select Active Data Guard or Data Guard. Active Data Guard provides additional features including: Real-Time Query and DML Offload, Automatic Block Repair, Standby Block Change Tracking, Far Sync, Global Data Services, and Application Continuity. Note that Active Data Guard requires an Oracle Active Data Guard license. For more information on Active Data Guard, see Active Data Guard. For a complete overview of both Data Guard types, see Introduction to Oracle Data Guard
    • Protection mode: The protection mode can be Maximum Performance or Maximum Availability. See Oracle Data Guard Protection Modes for information on these options.
    • Transport type: The redo transport type used for this Oracle Data Guard association. See Managing Redo Transport Services for Data Protection Modes for information on these options.

    • Database admin password: Enter the ADMIN password for the database.
  7. Click Save.

To perform a database failover

You initiate a failover operation by using the Data Guard association of the standby database.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Click Oracle Database, then click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose the Compartment that contains the Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance with the database for which you want to enable Oracle Data Guard.
  3. Navigate to the cloud VM cluster or DB system that contains the Data Guard association:

    Cloud VM clusters ( new resource model): Under Exadata at Oracle Cloud, click Exadata VM Clusters. In the list of VM clusters, find the VM cluster you want to access and click its highlighted name to view the details page for the cluster.

    DB systems: Under Bare Metal, VM, and Exadata, click DB Systems. In the list of DB systems, find the Exadata DB system you want to access, and then click its name to display details about it.

  4. Under Resources, click Data Guard Associations.
  5. For the Data Guard association on which you want to perform a failover, click Failover.
  6. In the Failover Database dialog box, enter the database admin password, and then click OK.

    This database should now assume the role of the primary, and the old primary's role should display as Disabled Standby.

To reinstate a database

After you fail over a primary database to its standby, the standby assumes the primary role and the old primary is identified as a disabled standby. After you correct the cause of failure, you can reinstate the failed database as a functioning standby for the current primary by using its Data Guard association.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Click Oracle Database, then click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose the Compartment that contains the Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance with the database for which you want to enable Oracle Data Guard.
  3. Navigate to the cloud VM cluster or DB system that contains the Data Guard association:

    Cloud VM clusters (new resource model): Under Exadata at Oracle Cloud, click Exadata VM Clusters. In the list of VM clusters, find the VM cluster you want to access and click its highlighted name to view the details page for the cluster.

    DB systems: Under Bare Metal, VM, and Exadata, click DB Systems. In the list of DB systems, find the Exadata DB system you want to access, and then click its name to display details about it.

  4. Under Resources, click Data Guard Associations.
  5. For the Data Guard association on which you want to reinstate this database, click the Actions icon (three dots), and then click Reinstate.
  6. In the Reinstate Database dialog box, enter the database admin password, and then click OK.

    This database should now be reinstated as the standby in the Data Guard association.

To terminate a Data Guard association on an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance

On an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance, you remove a Data Guard association by terminating the standby database.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Click Oracle Database, then click Exadata at Oracle Cloud.
  2. Choose the Compartment that contains the Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance with the database for which you want to enable Oracle Data Guard.
  3. Navigate to the cloud VM cluster or DB system that contains the standby database:

    Cloud VM clusters (new resource model): Under Exadata at Oracle Cloud, click Exadata VM Clusters. In the list of VM clusters, find the VM cluster you want to access and click its highlighted name to view the details page for the cluster.

    DB systems: Under Bare Metal, VM, and Exadata, click DB Systems. In the list of DB systems, find the Exadata DB system you want to access, and then click its name to display details about it.

  4. For the standby database you want to terminate, click the Actions icon (three dots), and then click Terminate.
  5. In the Terminate Database dialog box, enter the name of the database, and then click OK.

Using the API to manage Data Guard associations

Use these API operations to manage Data Guard associations on an Exadata Cloud Infrastructure instance:

For information about using the API and signing requests, see REST APIs and Security Credentials. For information about SDKs, see Software Development Kits and Command Line Interface.

For the complete list of APIs for the Database service, see Database Service API.