Functions
There are various types of functions that you can use in expressions.
Topics:
Aggregate Functions
Aggregate functions perform operations on multiple values to create summary results.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

Aggregate At 

This function aggregates columns based on the level or levels you specify. measure is the name of a measure column. level is the level at which you want to aggregate. You can optionally specify more than one level. You cannot specify a level from a dimension that contains levels that are being used as the measure level for the measure you specified in the first argument. For example, you cannot write the function as AGGREGATE(yearly_sales AT month) because "month" is from the same time dimension that is being used as the measure level for "yearly_sales". 

Avg 

Calculates the average (mean) of a numeric set of values. 

AvgDistinct 
Calculates the average (mean) of all distinct values of an expression. 


Bin 

The BIN function classifies a given numeric expression into a specified number of equal width buckets. The function can return either the bin number or one of the two end points of the bin interval. numeric_expr is the measure or numeric attribute to bin BY grain_expr1,…, grain_exprN is a list of expressions that define the grain at which the numeric_expr will be calculated. BY is required for measure expressions and is optional for attribute expressions. WHERE a filter to apply to the numeric_expr before the numeric values are assigned to bins INTO number_of_bins BINS is the number of bins to return BETWEEN min_value AND max_value is the min and max values used for the end points of the outermost bins RETURNING NUMBER indicates that the return value should be the bin number (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.). This is the default. RETURNING RANGE_LOW indicates the lower value of the bin interval RETURNING RANGE_HIGH indicates the higher value of the bin interval 

BottomN 
Ranks the lowest n values of the expression argument from 1 to n, 1 corresponding to the lowest numerical value. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. integer is any positive integer. Represents the bottom number of rankings displayed in the result set, 1 being the lowest rank. 


Count 

Determines the number of items with a nonnull value. 

CountDistinct 
Adds distinct processing to the Count function. expr is any expression. 


Count* 

Counts the number of rows. 

First 

Selects the first nonnull returned value of the expression argument. The 

Last 

Selects the last nonnull returned value of the expression. 

Mavg 
Calculates a moving average (mean) for the last n rows of data in the result set, inclusive of the current row. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. integer is any positive integer. Represents the average of the last n rows of data. 


Max 

Calculates the maximum value (highest numeric value) of the rows satisfying the numeric expression argument. 

Median 

Calculates the median (middle) value of the rows satisfying the numeric expression argument. When there are an even number of rows, the median is the mean of the two middle rows. This function always returns a double. 

Min 

Calculates the minimum value (lowest numeric value) of the rows satisfying the numeric expression argument. 

NTile 
Determines the rank of a value in terms of a userspecified range. It returns integers to represent any range of ranks. NTile with numTiles=100 returns what is commonly called the "percentile" (with numbers ranging from 1 to 100, with 100 representing the high end of the sort). expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. numTiles is a positive, nonnull integer that represents the number of tiles. 


Percentile 
Calculates a percentile rank for each value satisfying the numeric expression argument. The percentile rank ranges are between 0 (0th percentile) to 1 (100th percentile). expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 


Rank 

Calculates the rank for each value satisfying the numeric expression argument. The highest number is assigned a rank of 1, and each successive rank is assigned the next consecutive integer (2, 3, 4,...). If certain values are equal, they are assigned the same rank (for example, 1, 1, 1, 4, 5, 5, 7...). expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

StdDev 

Returns the standard deviation for a set of values. The return type is always a double. 

StdDev_Pop 

Returns the standard deviation for a set of values using the computational formula for population variance and standard deviation. 

Sum 

Calculates the sum obtained by adding up all values satisfying the numeric expression argument. 

SumDistinct 
Calculates the sum obtained by adding all of the distinct values satisfying the numeric expression argument. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 


TopN 
Ranks the highest n values of the expression argument from 1 to n, 1 corresponding to the highest numerical value. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. integer is any positive integer. Represents the top number of rankings displayed in the result set, 1 being the highest rank. 

Analytics Functions
Analytics functions allow you to explore data using models such as trendline and cluster.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

Trendline 

Fits a linear or exponential model and returns the fitted values or model. The numeric_expr represents the Y value for the trend and the series (time columns) represent the X value. 

Cluster 

Collects a set of records into groups based on one or more input expressions using KMeans or Hierarchical Clustering. 

Outlier 

This function classifies a record as Outlier based on one or more input expressions using KMeans or Hierarchical Clustering or MultiVariate Outlier detection Algorithms. 

Regr 

Fits a linear model and returns the fitted values or model. This function can be used to fit a linear curve on two measures. 

Evaluate_Script 

Executes a Python script as specified in the script_file_path, passing in one or more columns or literal expressions as input. The output of the function is determined by the output_column_name. 

Calendar Functions
Calendar functions manipulate data of the data types DATE
and DATETIME
based on a calendar year.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

CURRENT_Date 

Returns the current date. The date is determined by the system in which the Oracle BI is running. 

CURRENT_TIME 

Returns the current time to the specified number of digits of precision, for example: HH:MM:SS.SSS If no argument is specified, the function returns the default precision. 

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP 

Returns the current date/timestamp to the specified number of digits of precision. 

DAYNAME 

Returns the name of the day of the week for a specified date expression. 

DAYOFMONTH 

Returns the number corresponding to the day of the month for a specified date expression. 

DAYOFWEEK 

Returns a number between 1 and 7 corresponding to the day of the week for a specified date expression. For example, 1 always corresponds to Sunday, 2 corresponds to Monday, and so on through to Saturday which returns 7. 

DAYOFYEAR 

Returns the number (between 1 and 366) corresponding to the day of the year for a specified date expression. 

DAY_OF_QUARTER 

Returns a number (between 1 and 92) corresponding to the day of the quarter for the specified date expression. 

HOUR 

Returns a number (between 0 and 23) corresponding to the hour for a specified time expression. For example, 0 corresponds to 12 a.m. and 23 corresponds to 11 p.m. 

MINUTE 

Returns a number (between 0 and 59) corresponding to the minute for a specified time expression. 

MONTH 

Returns the number (between 1 and 12) corresponding to the month for a specified date expression. 

MONTHNAME 

Returns the name of the month for a specified date expression. 

MONTH_OF_QUARTER 

Returns the number (between 1 and 3) corresponding to the month in the quarter for a specified date expression. 

NOW 

Returns the current timestamp. The 

QUARTER_OF_YEAR 

Returns the number (between 1 and 4) corresponding to the quarter of the year for a specified date expression. 

SECOND 

Returns the number (between 0 and 59) corresponding to the seconds for a specified time expression. 

TIMESTAMPADD 

Adds a specified number of intervals to a timestamp, and returns a single timestamp. Interval options are: SQL_TSI_SECOND, SQL_TSI_MINUTE, SQL_TSI_HOUR, SQL_TSI_DAY, SQL_TSI_WEEK, SQL_TSI_MONTH, SQL_TSI_QUARTER, SQL_TSI_YEAR 

TIMESTAMPDIFF 

Returns the total number of specified intervals between two timestamps. Use the same intervals as TimeStampAdd. 

WEEK_OF_QUARTER 

Returns a number (between 1 and 13) corresponding to the week of the quarter for the specified date expression. 

WEEK_OF_YEAR 

Returns a number (between 1 and 53) corresponding to the week of the year for the specified date expression. 

YEAR 

Returns the year for the specified date expression. 

Conversion Functions
Conversion functions convert a value from one form to another.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

CAST 

Changes the data type of an expression or a null literal to another data type. For example, you can cast a customer_name (a data type of Char or Varchar) or birthdate (a datetime literal). Use Don’t use 

IfNull 

Tests if an expression evaluates to a null value, and if it does, assigns the specified value to the expression. 

INDEXCOL 

Uses external information to return the appropriate column for the signedin user to see. 

NullIf 

Compares two expressions. If they’re equal, then the function returns NULL. If they’re not equal, then the function returns the first expression. You can’t specify the literal NULL for the first expression. 

To_DateTime 

Converts string literals of DateTime format to a DateTime data type. 

VALUEOF 

References the value of an Oracle BI repository variable in a filter. Use 

Display Functions
Display functions operate on the result set of a query.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

BottomN 

Returns the n lowest values of expression, ranked from lowest to highest. 

Filter 

Computes the expression using the given preaggregate filter. 

Mavg 

Calculates a moving average (mean) for the last n rows of data in the result set, inclusive of the current row. 

Msum 

Calculates a moving sum for the last n rows of data, inclusive of the current row. The sum for the first row is equal to the numeric expression for the first row. The sum for the second row is calculated by taking the sum of the first two rows of data, and so on. When the nth row is reached, the sum is calculated based on the last n rows of data. 

NTile 

Determines the rank of a value in terms of a userspecified range. It returns integers to represent any range of ranks. The example shows a range from 1 to 100, with the lowest sale = 1 and the highest sale = 100. 

Percentile 

Calculates a percent rank for each value satisfying the numeric expression argument. The percentile rank ranges are from 0 (1st percentile) to 1 (100th percentile), inclusive. 

Rank 

Calculates the rank for each value satisfying the numeric expression argument. The highest number is assigned a rank of 1, and each successive rank is assigned the next consecutive integer (2, 3, 4,...). If certain values are equal, they are assigned the same rank (for example, 1, 1, 1, 4, 5, 5, 7...). 

Rcount 

Takes a set of records as input and counts the number of records encountered so far. 

Rmax 

Takes a set of records as input and shows the maximum value based on records encountered so far. The specified data type must be one that can be ordered. 

Rmin 

Takes a set of records as input and shows the minimum value based on records encountered so far. The specified data type must be one that can be ordered. 

Rsum 

Calculates a running sum based on records encountered so far. The sum for the first row is equal to the numeric expression for the first row. The sum for the second row is calculated by taking the sum of the first two rows of data, and so on. 

TopN 

Returns the n highest values of expression, ranked from highest to lowest. 

Evaluate Functions
Evaluate functions are database functions that can be used to pass through expressions to get advanced calculations.
Embedded database functions can require one or more columns. These columns are referenced by %1 ... %N within the function. The actual columns must be listed after the function.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

Evaluate 

Passes the specified database function with optional referenced columns as parameters to the database for evaluation. 

Evaluate_Aggr 

Passes the specified database function with optional referenced columns as parameters to the database for evaluation. This function is intended for aggregate functions with a 

Mathematical Functions
The mathematical functions described in this section perform mathematical operations.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

Abs 

Calculates the absolute value of a numeric expression. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Acos 

Calculates the arc cosine of a numeric expression. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Asin 

Calculates the arc sine of a numeric expression. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Atan 

Calculates the arc tangent of a numeric expression. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Atan2 

Calculates the arc tangent of 

Ceiling 

Rounds a noninteger numeric expression to the next highest integer. If the numeric expression evaluates to an integer, the 

Cos 

Calculates the cosine of a numeric expression. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Cot 

Calculates the cotangent of a numeric expression. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Degrees 

Converts an expression from radians to degrees. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Exp 

Sends the value to the power specified. Calculates 

ExtractBit 

Retrieves a bit at a particular position in an integer. It returns an integer of either 0 or 1 corresponding to the position of the bit. 

Floor 

Rounds a noninteger numeric expression to the next lowest integer. If the numeric expression evaluates to an integer, the 
FLOOR(expr) 
Log 

Calculates the natural logarithm of an expression. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Log10 

Calculates the base 10 logarithm of an expression. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Mod 

Divides the first numeric expression by the second numeric expression and returns the remainder portion of the quotient. 

Pi 

Returns the constant value of pi. 

Power 

Takes the first numeric expression and raises it to the power specified in the second numeric expression. 

Radians 

Converts an expression from degrees to radians. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Rand 

Returns a pseudorandom number between 0 and 1. 

RandFromSeed 

Returns a pseudorandom number based on a seed value. For a given seed value, the same set of random numbers are generated. 

Round 

Rounds a numeric expression to expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. integer is any positive integer that represents the number of digits of precision. 

Sign 

This function returns the following:


Sin 

Calculates the sine of a numeric expression. 

Sqrt 

Calculates the square root of the numeric expression argument. The numeric expression must evaluate to a nonnegative number. 

Tan 

Calculates the tangent of a numeric expression. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Truncate 

Truncates a decimal number to return a specified number of places from the decimal point. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. integer is any positive integer that represents the number of characters to the right of the decimal place to return. 

Running Aggregate Functions
Running aggregate functions perform operations on multiple values to create summary results.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

Mavg 
Calculates a moving average (mean) for the last n rows of data in the result set, inclusive of the current row. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. integer is any positive integer. Represents the average of the last n rows of data. 


Msum 

This function calculates a moving sum for the last n rows of data, inclusive of the current row. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. integer is any positive integer. Represents the sum of the last n rows of data. 

Rsum 

This function calculates a running sum based on records encountered so far. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value. 

Rcount 

This function takes a set of records as input and counts the number of records encountered so far. expr is an expression of any datatype. 

Rmax 

This function takes a set of records as input and shows the maximum value based on records encountered so far. expr is an expression of any datatype. 

Rmin 

This function takes a set of records as input and shows the minimum value based on records encountered so far. expr is an expression of any datatype. 

String Functions
String functions perform various character manipulations. They operate on character strings.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

Ascii 

Converts a single character string to its corresponding ASCII code, between 0 and 255. If the character expression evaluates to multiple characters, the ASCII code corresponding to the first character in the expression is returned. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

Bit_Length 

Returns the length, in bits, of a specified string. Each Unicode character is 2 bytes in length (equal to 16 bits). expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

Char 

Converts a numeric value between 0 and 255 to the character value corresponding to the ASCII code. expr is any expression that evaluates to a numerical value between 0 and 255. 

Char_Length 

Returns the length, in number of characters, of a specified string. Leading and trailing blanks aren’t counted in the length of the string. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

Concat 

Concatenates two character strings. exprs are expressions that evaluate to character strings, separated by commas. 

Insert 

Inserts a specified character string into a specified location in another character string. expr1 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. Identifies the target character string. integer1 is any positive integer that represents the number of characters from the beginning of the target string where the second string is to be inserted. integer2 is any positive integer that represents the number of characters in the target string to be replaced by the second string. expr2 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. Identifies the character string to be inserted into the target string. 

Left 

Returns a specified number of characters from the left of a string. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string integer is any positive integer that represents the number of characters from the left of the string to return. 

Length 

Returns the length, in number of characters, of a specified string. The length is returned excluding any trailing blank characters. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

Locate 

Returns the numeric position of a character string in another character string. If the character string isn’t found in the string being searched, the function returns a value of 0. expr1 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. Identifies the string for which to search. expr2 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. Identifies the string to be searched. 

LocateN 

Like Locate, returns the numeric position of a character string in another character string. LocateN includes an integer argument that enables you to specify a starting position to begin the search. expr1 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. Identifies the string for which to search. expr2 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. Identifies the string to be searched. integer is any positive (nonzero) integer that represents the starting position to begin to look for the character string. 

Lower 

Converts a character string to lowercase. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

Octet_Length 

Returns the number of bytes of a specified string. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

Position 

Returns the numeric position of expr1 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. Identifies the string to search for in the target string. expr2 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. Identifies the target string to be searched. 

Repeat 

Repeats a specified expression expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string integer is any positive integer that represents the number of times to repeat the character string. 

Replace 

Replaces one or more characters from a specified character expression with one or more other characters. expr1 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. This is the string in which characters are to be replaced. expr2 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. This second string identifies the characters from the first string that are to be replaced. expr3 is any expression that evaluates to a character string. This third string specifies the characters to substitute into the first string. 

Right 

Returns a specified number of characters from the right of a string. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. integer is any positive integer that represents the number of characters from the right of the string to return 

Space 

Inserts blank spaces. integer is any positive integer that indicates the number of spaces to insert. 

Substring 

Creates a new string starting from a fixed number of characters into the original string. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. startPos is any positive integer that represents the number of characters from the start of the left side of the string where the result is to begin. 

SubstringN 

Like Substring, creates a new string starting from a fixed number of characters into the original string. SubstringN includes an integer argument that enables you to specify the length of the new string, in number of characters. xpr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. startPos is any positive integer that represents the number of characters from the start of the left side of the string where the result is to begin. 

TrimBoth 

Strips specified leading and trailing characters from a character string. char is any single character. If you omit this specification (and the required single quotes), a blank character is used as the default. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

TrimLeading 

Strips specified leading characters from a character string. char is any single character. If you omit this specification (and the required single quotes), a blank character is used as the default. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

TrimTrailing 

Strips specified trailing characters from a character string. char is any single character. If you omit this specification (and the required single quotes), a blank character is used as the default. expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

Upper 

Converts a character string to uppercase. Expr is any expression that evaluates to a character string. 

System Functions
The USER
system function returns values relating to the session.
It returns the user name you signed in with.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

Database 
Returns the name of the Oracle BI subject area to which you are logged on. 


User 
Returns the user name for the Oracle BI Repository to which you are logged on. 

Time Series Functions
Time series functions are aggregate functions that operate on time dimensions.
The time dimension members must be at or below the level of the function. Because of this, one or more columns that uniquely identify members at or below the given level must be projected in the query.
Function  Example  Description  Syntax 

Ago 

Calculates the aggregated value of a measure from the current time to a specified time period in the past. For example, 

Periodrolling 

Computes the aggregate of a measure over the period starting measure is the name of a measure column. x is an integer that specifies theoffset from the current time. y specifies the number of time units over which the function will compute. hierarchy is an optional argument that specifies the name of a hierarchy in a time dimension, such as yr, mon, day, that you want to use to compute the time window. 

ToDate 

Aggregates a measure from the beginning of a specified time period to the currently displayed time. For example, this function can calculate Year to Date sales. expr is an expression that references at least one measure column. time_level is the type of time period, such as quarter, month, or year. 

Forecast 

Creates a timeseries model of the specified measure over the series using Exponential Smoothing (ETS) or Seasonal ARIMA or ARIMA, and outputs a forecast for a set of periods as specified by numPeriods. numeric _expr represents the measure to forecast. series is the time grain at which the forecast model is built. It is a list of one or more time dimension columns. If series is omitted, the time grain is determined from the query. output_column_name is the output column. The valid values are 'forecast', 'low', 'high', 'predictionInterval' . options is a string list of name=value pairs separated by ';'. The value can include %1 ... %N, which can be specified using runtime_binded_options. runtime_binded_options is an optional comma separated list of runtime binded columns or literal expressions. 
