Use Microsoft Active Directory with Autonomous Database

You can configure Autonomous Database to authenticate and authorize Microsoft Active Directory users. This configuration allows Active Directory users to access a database using their Active Directory credentials.

Configure CMU with Microsoft Active Directory on Autonomous Database

You can configure Autonomous Database to authenticate and authorize Microsoft Active Directory users.

Note:

The CMU option supports Microsoft Active Directory servers but does not support the Azure Active Directory service. See Use Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) with Autonomous Database for information on using Azure Active Directory with Autonomous Database.

The integration of Autonomous Database with Centrally Managed Users (CMU) provides integration with Microsoft Active Directory. CMU with Active Directory works by mapping Oracle database global users and global roles to Microsoft Active Directory users and groups.

See Configuring Centrally Managed Users with Microsoft Active Directory for information on Centrally Managed Users (CMU).

The following are required before you configure the connection from Autonomous Database to Active Directory:

  • You must have Microsoft Active Directory installed and configured. See AD DS Getting Started for more information.

  • You must create an Oracle service directory user in Active Directory. See Connecting to Microsoft Active Directory for information on the Oracle service directory user account.

  • An Active Directory system administrator must have installed Oracle password filter on the Active Directory servers, and set up Active Directory groups with Active Directory users to meet your requirements. Only password authentication is supported with CMU for Autonomous Database, so you must use the included utility, opwdintg.exe, to install the Oracle password filter on Active Directory, extend the schema, and create three new ORA_VFR groups for three types of password verifier generation. See Connecting to Microsoft Active Directory for information on installing the Oracle password filter.

  • The Active Directory servers must be accessible from Autonomous Database through the public internet and the port 636 of the Active Directory servers must be open to Autonomous Database in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, so that Autonomous Database can have secured LDAP access over TLS/SSL to the Active Directory servers through the internet.

    You can also extend your on-premise Active Directory to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, where you can set up Read Only Domain Controllers (RODCs) for the on-premise Active Directory. Then you can use these RODCs in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure to authenticate and authorize the on-premise Active Directory users for access to Autonomous Databases. See Microsoft Windows: Extending Active Directory to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure for more information.

  • You need the CMU configuration database wallet, cwallet.sso and the CMU configuration file dsi.ora to configure CMU for your Autonomous Database. If you have configured CMU for an on-premise database, you can obtain these configuration files from your on-premise database server. If you have not configured CMU for an on-premise database, you need to create these files on your local computer, or on an on-premise database server. You can validate the wallet and the dsi.ora by configuring CMU for an on-premise database and verifying that an Active Directory user can successfully log on to the on-premise database with these configuration files. Then you upload these configuration files to the cloud in order to configure CMU for your Autonomous Database.

    For details on the wallet file for CMU, see Create the Wallet for a Secure Connection and Verify the Oracle Wallet.

    For details on the dsi.ora file for CMU, see Creating the dsi.ora File.

    For details on configuring Active Directory for CMU and troubleshooting CMU for on-premise databases, see How To Configure Centrally Managed Users For Database Release 18c or Later Releases (Doc ID 2462012.1).

The following limitation applies to CMU with Active Directory on Autonomous Database:

  • Only "password authentication" is supported for CMU with Autonomous Database. When you are using CMU authentication with Autonomous Database, other CMU authentication methods including Kerberos and PKI are not supported.

Note:

When you perform the configuration steps, connect to the database as the ADMIN user.

To configure Autonomous Database for CMU to connect to Active Directory servers:

  1. Upload the CMU configuration files, including the database wallet file, cwallet.sso and the CMU configuration file, dsi.ora to your Object Store. This step depends on the Object Store you use.

    The dsi.ora configuration file contains the information to find the Active Directory servers.

    If you are using Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Store, see Putting Data into Object Storage for details on uploading files.

  2. Run DBMS_CLOUD_ADMIN.ENABLE_EXTERNAL_AUTHENTICATION procedure and pass in a location URI with the params JSON argument. You must place the configuration files cwallet.sso and dsi.ora in the Object Storage location specified in the location_uri parameter.

    For example:

    BEGIN
       DBMS_CLOUD_ADMIN.ENABLE_EXTERNAL_AUTHENTICATION(
           type     => 'CMU',
           params   => JSON_OBJECT('location_uri' value 'https://objectstorage.us-phoenix-1.oraclecloud.com/n/namespace-string/b/bucketname/o',
                                   'credential_name' value 'my_credential_name')
       );
    END;
    /

    Note:

    Oracle recommends that you store the CMU configuration files in a private bucket in your Object Store.

    In this example, namespace-string is the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure object storage namespace and bucketname is the bucket name. See Understanding Object Storage Namespaces for more information.

    The credential_name you use in this step is the credentials to access the Object Store.

    Creating a credential to access Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Store is not required if you enable resource principal credentials. See Use Resource Principal to Access Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Resources for more information.

    If the location_uri is a pre-authenticated URL or a pre-signed URL, then supplying a credential_name is not required.

    The procedure creates a directory object named CMU_WALLET_DIR in your database and copies the CMU configuration files from the Object Store location to the directory object. This procedure also sets the database property CMU_WALLET to the value 'CMU_WALLET_DIR' and sets the LDAP_DIRECTORY_ACCESS parameter value to the value PASSWORD to enable access from the Autonomous Database instance to Active Directory.

  3. After you enable CMU authentication, remove the CMU configuration files including the database wallet cwallet.sso and the CMU configuration file dsi.ora from Object Store. You can use local Object Store methods to remove these files or use DBMS_CLOUD.DELETE_OBJECT to delete the files from Object Store.

Note:

See Disable Active Directory Access on Autonomous Database for instructions to disable the access from Autonomous Database to Active Directory.

See ENABLE_EXTERNAL_AUTHENTICATION Procedure for information on DBMS_CLOUD_ADMIN.ENABLE_EXTERNAL_AUTHENTICATION.

See Configuring Centrally Managed Users with Microsoft Active Directory for more information on configuring CMU with Microsoft Active Directory.

Add Microsoft Active Directory Roles on Autonomous Database

To add Active Directory roles, map the database global roles to Active Directory groups with CREATE ROLE or ALTER ROLE statements (and include the IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS clause).

To add global roles for Active Directory groups on Autonomous Database:

  1. Log in as the ADMIN user to the database that is configured to use Active Directory (the ADMIN user has the CREATE ROLE and ALTER ROLE system privileges that you need for these steps).
  2. Set the database authorization for Autonomous Database roles with CREATE ROLE or ALTER ROLE statement. Include the IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS clause and specify the DN of an Active Directory group.

    Use the following syntax to map a directory user group to a database global role:

    CREATE ROLE global_role IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS 
         'DN_of_an_AD_GROUP_of_WHICH_the_AD_USER_IS_a_MEMBER';

    For example:

    CREATE ROLE widget_sales_role IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS
         'CN=widget_sales_group,OU=sales,DC=production,DC=example,DC=com';

    In this example all members of the widget_sales_group are authorized with the database role widget_sales_role when they log in to the database.

  3. Use GRANT statements to grant the required privileges or other roles to the global role.

    For example:

    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO WIDGET_SALES_ROLE;
    GRANT DWROLE TO WIDGET_SALES_ROLE;

    DWROLE is a predefined role that has common privileges defined. See Manage User Privileges on Autonomous Database - Connecting with a Client Tool for information on setting common privileges for Autonomous Database users.

  4. If you want to make an existing database role to be associated with an Active Directory group, then use ALTER ROLE statement to alter the existing database role to map the role to an Active Directory group.

    Use the following syntax to alter an existing database role to map it to an Active Directory group:

    ALTER ROLE existing_database_role 
       IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS 'DN_of_an_AD_GROUP_of_WHICH_the_AD_USER_IS_a_MEMBER';
  5. If you want to create additional global role mappings for other Active Directory groups, follow these steps for each Active Directory group.

See Configuring Authorization for Centrally Managed Users for more information on configuring roles with Microsoft Active Directory.

Add Microsoft Active Directory Users on Autonomous Database

To add Active Directory users to access a database, map database global users to Active Directory groups or users with CREATE USER or ALTER USER statements (with IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS clause).

The integration of Autonomous Database with Active Directory works by mapping Microsoft Active Directory users and groups directly to Oracle database global users and global roles.

To add global users for Active Directory groups or users on Autonomous Database:

  1. Log in as the ADMIN user to the database that is configured to use Active Directory (the ADMIN user has the required CREATE USER and ALTER USER system privileges that you need for these steps).
  2. Set database authorization for Autonomous Database users with CREATE USER or ALTER USER statements and include the IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS clause, specifying the DN of an Active Directory user or group.

    Use the following syntax to map a directory user to a database global user:

    CREATE USER global_user IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS 'DN_of_an_AD_USER';

    Use the following syntax to map a directory group to a database global user:

    CREATE USER global_user IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS
        'DN_of_an_AD_GROUP_of_WHICH_the_AD_USER_IS_a_MEMBER';

    For example, to map a directory group named widget_sales_group in the sales organization unit of the production.example.com domain to a shared database global user named WIDGET_SALES:

    CREATE USER widget_sales IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS
         'CN=widget_sales_group,OU=sales,DC=production,DC=example,DC=com';
    

    This creates a shared global user mapping. The mapping, with global user widget_sales, is effective for all users in the Active Directory group. Thus, anyone in the widget_sales_group can log in to the database using their Active Directory credentials (through the shared mapping of the widget_sales global user).

  3. If you want Active Directory users to use an existing database user, own its schema, and own its existing data, then use ALTER USER to alter an existing database user to map the user to an Active Directory group or user.
    • Use the following syntax to alter an existing database user to map it to an Active Directory user:

      ALTER USER existing_database_user IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS 'DN_of_an_AD_USER';
    • Use the following syntax to alter an existing database user to map it to an Active Directory group:

      ALTER USER existing_database_user 
           IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS 'DN_of_an_AD_GROUP_of_WHICH_the_AD_USER_IS_a_MEMBER';
  4. If you want to create additional global user mappings for other Active Directory groups or users, follow these steps for each Active Directory group or user.

See Configuring Authorization for Centrally Managed Users for more information on configuring users with Microsoft Active Directory.

Connect to Autonomous Database with Active Directory User Credentials

After the ADMIN user completes the CMU Active Directory configuration steps and creates global roles and global users, users log in to the database using their Active Directory username and password.

Note:

Do not log in using a Global User name. Global User names do not have a password and connecting with a Global User name will not be successful. You must have a global user mapping in your Autonomous Database in order to log in to the database. You cannot log in to the database with only global role mappings.
  1. To log in to the database using an Active Directory username and password, connect as follows:
    CONNECT "AD_DOMAIN\AD_USERNAME"/AD_USER_PASSWORD@TNS_ALIAS_OF_THE_AUTONOMOUS_DATABASE;

    For example:

    CONNECT "production\pfitch"/password@adbname_medium;

    You need to include double quotes when the Active Directory domain is included along with the username, as with this example: "production\pfitch".

    In this example, the Active Directory username is pfitch in domain production. The Active Directory user is a member of widget_sales_group group which is identified by its DN 'CN=widget_sales_group,OU=sales,DC=production,DC=example,DC=com'.

After configuring CMU with Active Directory on Autonomous Database and setting up Active Directory authorization, with global roles and global users, you can connect to your database using any of the connection methods described in Connecting to Autonomous Database. When you connect, if you want to use an Active Directory user then use Active Directory user credentials. For example, provide a username in this form, "AD_DOMAIN\AD_USERNAME" (double quotes must be included), and use your AD_USER_PASSWORD for the password.

If your Autonomous Database instance is in Restricted Mode, this mode only allows users with the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege to connect to the database. The ADMIN user has this privilege. You can use restricted access mode to perform administrative tasks such as indexing, data loads, or other planned activities. See Change Autonomous Database Operation Mode to Read/Write Read-Only or Restricted for more information.

Tools Restrictions with Active Directory on Autonomous Database

Notes for using Autonomous Database tools with Active Directory:

Verify Active Directory User Connection Information with Autonomous Database

When users log in to the database using their Active Directory username and password, you can verify and audit the user activity.

For example, when the user pfitch logs in:

CONNECT "production\pfitch"/password@exampleadb_medium;

The Active Directory user's log on username (samAccountName) is pfitch and widget_sales_group is the Active Directory Group name, and widget_sales is the database global user.

After pfitch logs in to the database, the command SHOW USER shows the global user name:

SHOW USER;

USER is "WIDGET_SALES"

The following command shows the DN (Distinguished Name) of the Active Directory user:

SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV', 'ENTERPRISE_IDENTITY') FROM DUAL;

For example you can verify this centrally managed user's enterprise identity:

SQL> SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV', 'ENTERPRISE_IDENTITY') FROM DUAL;

SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','ENTERPRISE_IDENTITY')
----------------------------------------------------------------------
cn=Peter Fitch,ou=sales,dc=production,dc=examplecorp,dc=com

The following command shows the "AD_DOMAIN\AD_USERNAME":

SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV', 'AUTHENTICATED_IDENTITY') FROM DUAL;

For example, the Active Directory authenticated user identity is captured and audited when the user logs on to the database:

SQL> SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV', 'AUTHENTICATED_IDENTITY') FROM DUAL;

SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','AUTHENTICATED_IDENTITY')
----------------------------------------------------------------------
production\pfitch

See Verifying the Centrally Managed User Logon Information for more information.

Remove Active Directory Users and Roles on Autonomous Database

To remove Active Directory users and roles from Autonomous Databases, use standard database commands. This does not remove the related Active Directory users or groups that were mapped from the dropped database users or roles.

To remove users or roles from Autonomous Database:

  1. Log in to the database that is configured to use Active Directory as a user who has been granted the DROP USER or DROP ROLE system privilege.
  2. Drop the global users or the global roles that are mapped to Active Directory groups or users with DROP USER or DROP ROLE statement.
    See Remove Users on Autonomous Database for more information.

Disable Active Directory Access on Autonomous Database

Describes the steps to remove the CMU configuration from your Autonomous Database (and disable the LDAP access from your Autonomous Database to Active Directory).

After you configure your Autonomous Database instance to access CMU Active Directory, you can disable the access as follows:

  1. Use the DBMS_CLOUD_ADMIN.DISABLE_EXTERNAL_AUTHENTICATION to disable CMU authentication. To run this procedure you must be logged in as ADMIN user or have the EXECUTE privilege on DBMS_CLOUD_ADMIN.

    For example:

    BEGIN   
       DBMS_CLOUD_ADMIN.DISABLE_EXTERNAL_AUTHENTICATION;
    END;
    /

    This disables CMU authentication on your Autonomous Database instance.

See DISABLE_EXTERNAL_AUTHENTICATION Procedure for more information.