Functions

There are various types of functions that you can use in expressions.

Topics:

Aggregate Functions

Aggregate functions perform operations on multiple values to create summary results.

Function Example Description

Avg

Avg(Sales)

Calculates the average (mean) of a numeric set of values.

Bin

Bin(UnitPrice BY ProductName)

Selects any numeric attribute from a dimension, fact table, or measure containing data values and places them into a discrete number of bins. This function is treated like a new dimension attribute for purposes such as aggregation, filtering, and drilling.

Count

Count(Products)

Determines the number of items with a non-null value.

First

First(Sales)

Selects the first non-null returned value of the expression argument. The First function operates at the most detailed level specified in your explicitly defined dimension.

Last

Last(Sales)

Selects the last non-null returned value of the expression.

Max

Max(Revenue)

Calculates the maximum value (highest numeric value) of the rows satisfying the numeric expression argument.

Median

Median(Sales)

Calculates the median (middle) value of the rows satisfying the numeric expression argument. When there are an even number of rows, the median is the mean of the two middle rows. This function always returns a double.

Min

Min(Revenue)

Calculates the minimum value (lowest numeric value) of the rows satisfying the numeric expression argument.

StdDev

StdDev(Sales) StdDev(DISTINCT Sales)

Returns the standard deviation for a set of values. The return type is always a double.

StdDev_Pop

StdDev_Pop(Sales) StdDev_Pop(DISTINCT Sales)

Returns the standard deviation for a set of values using the computational formula for population variance and standard deviation.

Sum

Sum(Revenue)

Calculates the sum obtained by adding up all values satisfying the numeric expression argument.

Analytics Functions

Analytics functions allow you to explore data using models such as trendline and cluster.

Function Example Description

Trendline

TRENDLINE(revenue, (calendar_year, calendar_quarter, calendar_month) BY (product), 'LINEAR', 'VALUE')

Fits a linear or exponential model and returns the fitted values or model. The numeric_expr represents the Y value for the trend and the series (time columns) represent the X value.

Cluster

CLUSTER((product, company), (billed_quantity, revenue), 'clusterName', 'algorithm=k-means;numClusters=%1;maxIter=%2;useRandomSeed=FALSE;enablePartitioning=TRUE', 5, 10)

Collects a set of records into groups based on one or more input expressions using K-Means or Hierarchical Clustering.

Outlier

OUTLIER((product, company), (billed_quantity, revenue), 'isOutlier', 'algorithm=mvoutlier')

This function classifies a record as Outlier based on one or more input expressions using K-Means or Hierarchical Clustering or Multi-Variate Outlier detection Algorithms.

Regr

REGR(revenue, (discount_amount), (product_type, brand), 'fitted', '')

Fits a linear model and returns the fitted values or model. This function can be used to fit a linear curve on two measures.

Evaluate_Script

EVALUATE_SCRIPT('filerepo://obiee.Outliers.xml', 'isOutlier', 'algorithm=mvoutlier;id=%1;arg1=%2;arg2=%3;useRandomSeed=False;', customer_number, expected_revenue, customer_age)

Executes an R script as specified in the script_file_path, passing in one or more columns or literal expressions as input. The output of the function is determined by the output_column_name.

Calendar Functions

Calendar functions manipulate data of the data types DATE and DATETIME based on a calendar year.

Function Example Description

Current_Date

Current_Date

Returns the current date.

Current_Time

Current_Time(3)

Returns the current time to the specified number of digits of precision, for example: HH:MM:SS.SSS

If no argument is specified, the function returns the default precision.

Current_TimeStamp

Current_TimeStamp(3)

Returns the current date/timestamp to the specified number of digits of precision.

DayName

DayName(Order_Date)

Returns the name of the day of the week for a specified date expression.

DayOfMonth

DayOfMonth(Order_Date)

Returns the number corresponding to the day of the month for a specified date expression.

DayOfWeek

DayOfWeek(Order_Date)

Returns a number between 1 and 7 corresponding to the day of the week for a specified date expression. For example, 1 always corresponds to Sunday, 2 corresponds to Monday, and so on through to Saturday which returns 7.

DayOfYear

DayOfYear(Order_Date)

Returns the number (between 1 and 366) corresponding to the day of the year for a specified date expression.

Day_Of_Quarter

Day_Of_Quarter(Order_Date)

Returns a number (between 1 and 92) corresponding to the day of the quarter for the specified date expression.

Hour

Hour(Order_Time)

Returns a number (between 0 and 23) corresponding to the hour for a specified time expression. For example, 0 corresponds to 12 a.m. and 23 corresponds to 11 p.m.

Minute

Minute(Order_Time)

Returns a number (between 0 and 59) corresponding to the minute for a specified time expression.

Month

Month(Order_Time)

Returns the number (between 1 and 12) corresponding to the month for a specified date expression.

MonthName

MonthName(Order_Time)

Returns the name of the month for a specified date expression.

Month_Of_Quarter

Month_Of_Quarter(Order_Date)

Returns the number (between 1 and 3) corresponding to the month in the quarter for a specified date expression.

Now

Now()

Returns the current timestamp. The Now function is equivalent to the Current_Timestamp function.

Quarter_Of_Year

Quarter_Of_Year(Order_Date)

Returns the number (between 1 and 4) corresponding to the quarter of the year for a specified date expression.

Second

Second(Order_Time)

Returns the number (between 0 and 59) corresponding to the seconds for a specified time expression.

TimeStampAdd

TimeStampAdd(SQL_TSI_MONTH, 12,Time."Order Date")

Adds a specified number of intervals to a timestamp, and returns a single timestamp.

Interval options are: SQL_TSI_SECOND, SQL_TSI_MINUTE, SQL_TSI_HOUR, SQL_TSI_DAY, SQL_TSI_WEEK, SQL_TSI_MONTH, SQL_TSI_QUARTER, SQL_TSI_YEAR

TimeStampDiff

TimeStampDiff(SQL_TSI_MONTH, Time."Order Date",CURRENT_DATE)

Returns the total number of specified intervals between two timestamps.

Use the same intervals as TimeStampAdd.

Week_Of_Quarter

Week_Of_Quarter(Order_Date)

Returns a number (between 1 and 13) corresponding to the week of the quarter for the specified date expression.

Week_Of_Year

Week_Of_Year(Order_Date)

Returns a number (between 1 and 53) corresponding to the week of the year for the specified date expression.

Year

Year(Order_Date)

Returns the year for the specified date expression.

Conversion Functions

Conversion functions convert a value from one form to another.

Function Example Description

Cast

Cast(hiredate AS CHAR(40)) FROM employee

Changes the data type of an expression or a null literal to another data type. For example, you can cast a customer_name (a data type of Char or Varchar) or birthdate (a datetime literal).

Use Cast to change to a Date data type.

Don’t use ToDate.

IfNull

IfNull(Sales, 0)

Tests if an expression evaluates to a null value, and if it does, assigns the specified value to the expression.

IndexCol

SELECT IndexCol(VALUEOF (NQ_SESSION.GEOGRAPHY_LEVEL), Country, State, City), Revenue FROM Sales

Uses external information to return the appropriate column for the signed-in user to see.

NullIf

SELECT e.last_name, NULLIF(e.job_id, j.job_id) "Old Job ID" FROM employees e, job_history j WHERE e.employee_id = j.employee_id ORDER BY last_name, "Old Job ID";

Compares two expressions. If they’re equal, then the function returns null. If they’re not equal, then the function returns the first expression. You can’t specify the literal NULL for the first expression.

To_DateTime

SELECT To_DateTime ('2009-03-0301:01:00', 'yyyy-mm-dd hh:mi:ss') FROM sales

Converts string literals of dateTime format to a DateTime data type.

Display Functions

Display functions operate on the result set of a query.

Function Example Description

BottomN

BottomN(Sales, 10)

Returns the n lowest values of expression, ranked from lowest to highest.

Filter

Filter(Sales USING Product = 'widget')

Computes the expression using the given preaggregate filter.

Mavg

Mavg(Sales, 10)

Calculates a moving average (mean) for the last n rows of data in the result set, inclusive of the current row.

Msum

SELECT Month, Revenue, Msum(Revenue, 3) as 3_MO_SUM FROM Sales

Calculates a moving sum for the last n rows of data, inclusive of the current row.

The sum for the first row is equal to the numeric expression for the first row. The sum for the second row is calculated by taking the sum of the first two rows of data, and so on. When the nth row is reached, the sum is calculated based on the last n rows of data.

NTile

Ntile(Sales, 100)

Determines the rank of a value in terms of a user-specified range. It returns integers to represent any range of ranks. The example shows a range from 1 to 100, with the lowest sale = 1 and the highest sale = 100.

Percentile

Percentile(Sales)

Calculates a percent rank for each value satisfying the numeric expression argument. The percentile rank ranges are from 0 (1st percentile) to 1 (100th percentile), inclusive.

Rank

Rank(Sales)

Calculates the rank for each value satisfying the numeric expression argument. The highest number is assigned a rank of 1, and each successive rank is assigned the next consecutive integer (2, 3, 4,...). If certain values are equal, they are assigned the same rank (for example, 1, 1, 1, 4, 5, 5, 7...).

Rcount

SELECT month, profit, Rcount(profit) FROM sales WHERE profit > 200

Takes a set of records as input and counts the number of records encountered so far.

Rmax

SELECT month, profit, Rmax(profit) FROM sales

Takes a set of records as input and shows the maximum value based on records encountered so far. The specified data type must be one that can be ordered.

Rmin

SELECT month, profit, Rmin(profit) FROM sales

Takes a set of records as input and shows the minimum value based on records encountered so far. The specified data type must be one that can be ordered.

Rsum

SELECT month, revenue, Rsum(revenue) as RUNNING_SUM FROM sales

Calculates a running sum based on records encountered so far.

The sum for the first row is equal to the numeric expression for the first row. The sum for the second row is calculated by taking the sum of the first two rows of data, and so on.

TopN

TopN(Sales, 10)

Returns the n highest values of expression, ranked from highest to lowest.

Evaluate Functions

Evaluate functions are database functions that can be used to pass through expressions to get advanced calculations.

Embedded database functions can require one or more columns. These columns are referenced by %1 ... %N within the function. The actual columns must be listed after the function.

Function Example Description

Evaluate

SELECT EVALUATE('instr(%1, %2)', address, 'Foster City') FROM employees

Passes the specified database function with optional referenced columns as parameters to the database for evaluation.

Evaluate_Aggr

EVALUATE_AGGR('REGR_SLOPE(%1, %2)', sales.quantity, market.marketkey)

Passes the specified database function with optional referenced columns as parameters to the database for evaluation. This function is intended for aggregate functions with a GROUP BY clause.

Mathematical Functions

The mathematical functions described in this section perform mathematical operations.

Function Example Description

Abs

Abs(Profit)

Calculates the absolute value of a numeric expression.

Acos

Acos(1)

Calculates the arc cosine of a numeric expression.

Asin

Asin(1)

Calculates the arc sine of a numeric expression.

Atan

Atan(1)

Calculates the arc tangent of a numeric expression.

Atan2

Atan2(1, 2)

Calculates the arc tangent of y/x, where y is the first numeric expression and x is the second numeric expression.

Ceiling

Ceiling(Profit)

Rounds a non-integer numeric expression to the next highest integer. If the numeric expression evaluates to an integer, the CEILING function returns that integer.

Cos

Cos(1)

Calculates the cosine of a numeric expression.

Cot

Cot(1)

Calculates the cotangent of a numeric expression.

Degrees

Degrees(1)

Converts an expression from radians to degrees.

Exp

Exp(4)

Sends the value to the power specified. Calculates e raised to the n-th power, where e is the base of the natural logarithm.

ExtractBit

Int ExtractBit(1, 5)

Retrieves a bit at a particular position in an integer. It returns an integer of either 0 or 1 corresponding to the position of the bit.

Floor

Floor(Profit)

Rounds a non-integer numeric expression to the next lowest integer. If the numeric expression evaluates to an integer, the FLOOR function returns that integer.

Log

Log(1)

Calculates the natural logarithm of an expression.

Log10

Log10(1)

Calculates the base 10 logarithm of an expression.

Mod

Mod(10, 3)

Divides the first numeric expression by the second numeric expression and returns the remainder portion of the quotient.

Pi

Pi()

Returns the constant value of pi.

Power

Power(Profit, 2)

Takes the first numeric expression and raises it to the power specified in the second numeric expression.

Radians

Radians(30)

Converts an expression from degrees to radians.

Rand

Rand()

Returns a pseudo-random number between 0 and 1.

RandFromSeed

Rand(2)

Returns a pseudo-random number based on a seed value. For a given seed value, the same set of random numbers are generated.

Round

Round(2.166000, 2)

Rounds a numeric expression to n digits of precision.

Sign

Sign(Profit)

This function returns the following:

  • 1 if the numeric expression evaluates to a positive number

  • -1 if the numeric expression evaluates to a negative number

  • 0 if the numeric expression evaluates to zero

Sin

Sin(1)

Calculates the sine of a numeric expression.

Sqrt

Sqrt(7)

Calculates the square root of the numeric expression argument. The numeric expression must evaluate to a nonnegative number.

Tan

Tan(1)

Calculates the tangent of a numeric expression.

Truncate

Truncate(45.12345, 2)

Truncates a decimal number to return a specified number of places from the decimal point.

String Functions

String functions perform various character manipulations. They operate on character strings.

Function Example Description

Ascii

Ascii('a')

Converts a single character string to its corresponding ASCII code, between 0 and 255. If the character expression evaluates to multiple characters, the ASCII code corresponding to the first character in the expression is returned.

Bit_Length

Bit_Length('abcdef')

Returns the length, in bits, of a specified string. Each Unicode character is 2 bytes in length (equal to 16 bits).

Char

Char(35)

Converts a numeric value between 0 and 255 to the character value corresponding to the ASCII code.

Char_Length

Char_Length(Customer_Name)

Returns the length, in number of characters, of a specified string. Leading and trailing blanks aren’t counted in the length of the string.

Concat

SELECT DISTINCT Concat ('abc', 'def') FROM employee

Concatenates two character strings.

Insert

SELECT Insert('123456', 2, 3, 'abcd') FROM table

Inserts a specified character string into a specified location in another character string.

Left

SELECT Left('123456', 3) FROM table

Returns a specified number of characters from the left of a string.

Length

Length(Customer_Name)

Returns the length, in number of characters, of a specified string. The length is returned excluding any trailing blank characters.

Locate

Locate('d' 'abcdef')

Returns the numeric position of a character string in another character string. If the character string isn’t found in the string being searched, the function returns a value of 0.

LocateN

Locate('d' 'abcdef', 3)

Like Locate, returns the numeric position of a character string in another character string. LocateN includes an integer argument that enables you to specify a starting position to begin the search.

Lower

Lower(Customer_Name)

Converts a character string to lowercase.

Octet_Length

Octet_Length('abcdef')

Returns the number of bytes of a specified string.

Position

Position('d', 'abcdef')

Returns the numeric position of strExpr1 in a character expression. If strExpr1 isn’t found, the function returns 0.

Repeat

Repeat('abc', 4)

Repeats a specified expression n times.

Replace

Replace('abcd1234', '123', 'zz')

Replaces one or more characters from a specified character expression with one or more other characters.

Right

SELECT Right('123456', 3) FROM table

Returns a specified number of characters from the right of a string.

Space

Space(2)

Inserts blank spaces.

Substring

Substring('abcdef' FROM 2)

Creates a new string starting from a fixed number of characters into the original string.

SubstringN

Substring('abcdef' FROM 2 FOR 3)

Like Substring, creates a new string starting from a fixed number of characters into the original string.

SubstringN includes an integer argument that enables you to specify the length of the new string, in number of characters.

TrimBoth

Trim(BOTH '_' FROM '_abcdef_')

Strips specified leading and trailing characters from a character string.

TrimLeading

Trim(LEADING '_' FROM '_abcdef')

Strips specified leading characters from a character string.

TrimTrailing

Trim(TRAILING '_' FROM 'abcdef_')

Strips specified trailing characters from a character string.

Upper

Upper(Customer_Name)

Converts a character string to uppercase.

System Functions

The USER system function returns values relating to the session.

It returns the user name you signed in with.

Time Series Functions

Time series functions are aggregate functions that operate on time dimensions.

The time dimension members must be at or below the level of the function. Because of this, one or more columns that uniquely identify members at or below the given level must be projected in the query.

Function Example Description

Ago

SELECT Year_ID, Ago(sales, year, 1)

Calculates the aggregated value of a measure from the current time to a specified time period in the past. For example, AGO can produce sales for every month of the current quarter and the corresponding quarter-ago sales.

Periodrolling

SELECT Month_ID, Periodrolling (monthly_sales, -1, 1)

Computes the aggregate of a measure over the period starting x units of time and ending y units of time from the current time. For example, PERIODROLLING can compute sales for a period that starts at a quarter before and ends at a quarter after the current quarter.

ToDate

SELECT Year_ID, Month_ID, ToDate (sales, year)

Aggregates a measure from the beginning of a specified time period to the currently displayed time. For example, this function can calculate Year to Date sales.

Forecast

FORECAST(numeric_expr, ([series]), output_column_name, options, [runtime_binded_options])

Creates a time-series model of the specified measure over the series using either Exponential Smoothing or ARMIA and outputs a forecast for a set of periods as specified by numPeriods.