11Security Configuration

This chapter contains the following:

Data Security Policies

Data Security

By default, users are denied access to all data.

Data security makes data available to users by the following means.

  • Policies that define grants available through provisioned roles

  • Policies defined in application code

You secure data by provisioning roles that provide the necessary access.

Data roles also can be generated based on HCM security profiles. Data roles and HCM security profiles enable defining the instance sets specified in data security policies.

When you provision a job role to a user, the job role limits data access based on the data security policies of the inherited duty roles. When you provision a data role to a user, the data role limits the data access of the inherited job role to a dimension of data.

Data security consists of privileges conditionally granted to a role and used to control access to the data. A privilege is a single, real world action on a single business object. A data security policy is a grant of a set of privileges to a principal on an object or attribute group for a given condition. A grant authorizes a role, the grantee, to actions on a set of database resources. A database resource is an object, object instance, or object instance set. An entitlement is one or more allowable actions applied to a set of database resources.

The following table describes the ways through which data is secured.

Data security feature Does what?

Data security policy

Defines the conditions in which access to data is granted to a role.

Role

Applies data security policies with conditions to users through role provisioning.

HCM security profile

Defines data security conditions on instances of object types such as person records, positions, and document types without requiring users to enter SQL code

The sets of data that a user can access are defined by creating and provisioning data roles. Oracle data security integrates with Oracle Platform Security Services (OPSS) to entitle users or roles (which are stored externally) with access to data. Users are granted access through the privilege assigned to the roles or role hierarchy with which the user is provisioned. Conditions are WHERE clauses that specify access within a particular dimension, such as by business unit to which the user is authorized.

Data Security Policies

Data security policies articulate the security requirement "Who can do what on which set of data."

The following table provides an example, accounts payable managers can view AP disbursements for their business unit.

Who can do what on which set of data

Accounts payable managers

view

AP disbursements

for their business unit

A data security policy is a statement in a natural language, such as English, that typically defines the grant by which a role secures business objects. The grant records the following.

  • Table or view

  • Entitlement (actions expressed by privileges)

  • Instance set (data identified by the condition)

For example, disbursement is a business object that an accounts payable manager can manage by payment function for any employee expenses in the payment process.

Note: Some data security policies are not defined as grants but directly in applications code. The security reference manuals for Oracle Fusion Applications offerings differentiate between data security policies that define a grant and data security policies defined in Oracle Fusion applications code.

A data security policy identifies the entitlement (the actions that can be made on logical business objects or dashboards), the roles that can perform those actions, and the conditions that limit access. Conditions are readable WHERE clauses. The WHERE clause is defined in the data as an instance set and this is then referenced on a grant that also records the table name and required entitlement.

HCM Security Profiles

HCM security profiles are used to secure HCM data, such as people and departments. Data authorization for some roles, such as the Manager role, is managed in HCM, even in ERP and SCM applications. You can use HCM security profiles to generate grants for a job role such as Manager. The resulting data role with its role hierarchy and grants operates in the same way as any other data role.

For example, an HCM security profile identifies all employees in the Finance division.

Applications outside of HCM can use the HCM Data Roles UI pages to give roles access to HR people.

Advanced Data Security

Advanced Data Security offers two types of added data protection. Database Vault protects data from access by highly privileged users and Transparent Data Encryption encrypts data at rest. Advanced Data Security is available for Oracle Applications Cloud by subscription to Break-Glass service.

Oracle Database Vault

Database Vault reduces the risk of highly privileged users such as database and system administrators accessing and viewing your application data. This feature restricts access to specific database objects, such as the application tables and SOA objects.

Administrators can perform regular database maintenance activities, but cannot select from the application tables. If a DBA requires access to the application tables, request temporary access to the Oracle Fusion schema at which point keystroke auditing is enabled.

Transparent Data Encryption

Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) protects Oracle Fusion Applications data which is at rest on the file system from being read or used. Data in the database files (DBF) is protected because DBF files are encrypted. Data in backups and in temporary files is protected. All data from an encrypted tablespace is automatically encrypted when written to the undo tablespace, to the redo logs, and to any temporary tablespace.

Advanced security enables encryption at the tablespace level on all tablespaces which contain applications data. This includes SOA tablespaces which might contain dehydrated payloads with applications data.

Encryption keys are stored in the Oracle Wallet. The Oracle Wallet is an encrypted container outside the database that stores authentication and signing credentials, including passwords, the TDE master key, PKI private keys, certificates, and trusted certificates needed by secure sockets layer (SSL). Tablespace keys are stored in the header of the tablespace and in the header of each operating system (OS) file that makes up the tablespace. These keys are encrypted with the master key which is stored in the Oracle Wallet. Tablespace keys are AES128-bit encryption while the TDE master key is always an AES256-bit encryption.

How Database Resources and Data Security Policies Work Together

A data security policy applies a condition and allowable actions to a database resource for a role. When that role is provisioned to a user, the user has access to data defined by the policy. In the case of the predefined security reference implementation, this role is always a duty role.

The database resource defines an instance of a data object. The data object is a table, view, or flexfield.

The following figure shows the database resource definition as the means by which a data security policy secures a data object. The database resource names the data object. The data security policy grants to a role access to that database resource based on the policy's action and condition.

The figure illustrates the relation between database
resource and data security policy. Database resource is a table or
view in the database, on which a data security policy is defined that
consists of a condition, an action, and a role.

Database Resources

A database resource specifies access to a table, view, or flexfield that is secured by a data security policy.

  • Name providing a means of identifying the database resource

  • Data object to which the database resource points

Data Security Policies

Data security policies consist of actions and conditions for accessing all, some, or a single row of a database resource.

  • Condition identifying the instance set of values in the data object

  • Action specifying the type of access allowed on the available values

Note: If the data security policy needs to be less restrictive than any available database resource for a data object, define a new data security policy.

Actions

Actions correspond to privileges that entitle kinds of access to objects, such as view, edit, or delete. The actions allowed by a data security policy include all or a subset of the actions that exist for the database resource.

Conditions

A condition is either a SQL predicate or an XML filter. A condition expresses the values in the data object by a search operator or a relationship in a tree hierarchy. A SQL predicate, unlike an XML filter, is entered in a text field in the data security user interface pages and supports more complex filtering than an XML filter, such as nesting of conditions or sub queries. An XML filter, unlike a SQL predicate, is assembled from choices in the UI pages as an AND statement.

Note: An XML filter can be effective in downstream processes such as business intelligence metrics. A SQL predicate cannot be used in downstream metrics.

FAQs on Security Configuration

What's the difference between function security and data security?

Function security is a statement of what actions you can perform in which user interface pages.

Data security is a statement of what action can be taken against which data.

Function security controls access to user interfaces and actions needed to perform the tasks of a job. For example, an accounts payable manager can view invoices. The Accounts Payable Manager role provisioned to the accounts payable manager authorizes access the functions required to view invoices.

Data security controls access to data. In this example, the accounts payable manager for the North American Commercial Operation can view invoices in the North American Business Unit. Since invoices are secured objects, and a data role template exists for limiting the Accounts Payable Manager role to the business unit for which the provisioned user is authorized, a data role inherits the job role to limit access to those invoices that are in the North American Business Unit. Objects not secured explicitly with a data role are secured implicitly by the data security policies of the job role.

Both function and data are secured through role-based access control.

How can I design roles?

You can simulate menus that existing roles present to users to determine how the access they provide may be expanded. Create a visualization, or populate the Search Results column with a selection of roles or users. Select the user or role and click the Actions menu. A menu appears, click Simulate Navigator.

A simulated Navigator menu appears, listing menu and task entries. If the menu item appears without a lock, the menu is not authorized for the role or user. If the menu item appears with a lock, the menu is authorized for the role or user. Click any menu item and select either of two options. One lists roles that grant access to the menu item. The other lists privileges required for access to the menu item.

How can I mask data in an environment?

To have an environment created with the data masked, create a service request using the Production to Test (P2T) template. Before you submit the request, be sure you select the Data Mask check box.

To have the data in an existing nonproduction environment masked, create a standard service request. Enter the following as the service request title: Data Mask for Environment: Name_of_The_Environment_To_Mask

How do I create a role hierarchy?

The most efficient way to create role hierarchies is to use the Security Console. You use the Edit Role action to navigate through the steps and add roles and privileges in the visualizer or table view.

Why would I need to remove duty roles from a role hierarchy?

If your custom duty roles enable actions and user interface features that your enterprise does not want users to perform in your application.

Note: Don't remove duty roles from predefined job or abstract roles in the reference implementation. In the Security Console, you can identify predefined application roles by the ORA_ prefix in the Role Code field. You must copy any role that doesn't match your needs, and then edit the copy.

How do I create a new job role?

Click the Create Role button in the Security Console to create job roles. Enter a job role category in the Create Roles page and then navigate to each subsequent page that you see in the page header. You can add functional and data security policies, roles, and privileges to create the job role.