1Transaction Taxes

This chapter contains the following:

Calculate Transaction Taxes

Tax Calculation on Transactions

Taxes for a transaction are determined by evaluating the transaction information in the context of applicable tax configuration.

Note: The default rule type values you assign to the tax as a part of the minimum tax configuration requirements are used as a basis. You can define tax rules to vary the tax determination and calculation.

Following are the four broad processes involved in determination of taxes, and are listed in the order in which they're evaluated:

  • Determine applicable tax regimes and taxes

  • Tax status and rate

  • Tax calculation

  • Tax recovery

Determine Applicable Tax Regimes and Taxes

The first step is to determine the first party for the transaction. It is usually the first-party legal entity for the transaction, but can also be a business unit. The first-party legal entity generally subscribes to several tax regimes of which some may apply to the transaction. The tax regimes applicable depend on the configuration owner tax options created for the first party and the transaction event class. You assign a regime determination template to the tax option, which lists the tax locations for the transactions.

Of the tax regimes to which the first party subscribes, the tax determination process selects those with countries matching the countries assigned to the relevant transaction location. The tax determination process considers all taxes for these tax regimes that are enabled and effective as of the transaction date as candidates for further evaluation.

For the candidate tax, if the default value for tax applicability is set to Applicable, then it is considered to be applicable.

For each applicable tax, the tax determination process determines the location type assigned for the default place of supply and the geography type. The tax determination process determines the transaction location address for the location type. The relevant information on the address is the geography value for the geography type assigned to the tax. For the tax, the tax determination process determines if a tax jurisdiction is defined for the geography value. If there is one, then the tax and the relevant tax jurisdiction is applicable to the transaction.

For each applicable tax, a valid tax registration that is used for reporting is determined. The tax determination process determines this based on the party type assigned to the default tax registration for the tax. For this party on the transaction, determine the most specific tax registration for tax regime, tax, and tax jurisdiction combination, effective as of the transaction date. The tax and tax jurisdiction are optional for defining registrations.

Tax Status and Rate

For the tax, the tax determination process selects the tax status that has default effectivity as of the transaction date. For this tax status, the default tax rate that's applicable as of the transaction date is determined. You can optionally define tax rates for tax jurisdictions. You usually define these for state, provincial, and city taxes where tax rates vary by the tax jurisdiction. If there is a tax rate defined then this takes precedence over the default tax rate defined for the tax status. If applicable, the tax rate is then modified by any exception rate or tax exemption that applies.

Tax Calculation

The tax determination process applies the tax rate on a taxable basis. The default taxable basis formula assigned to the tax is used for tax calculation. This is usually the line amount. However, the formula can include other elements that alter the taxable basis.

The default tax calculation formula assigned to the tax is used for tax calculation. The tax determination process performs tax rounding for the calculated taxes as applicable.

Tax Recovery

Taxes for a purchase transaction can be recovered fully or partially. This is dependent on the default tax recovery rate assigned to the transaction. The tax determination process applies the recovery rate on the tax amount (calculated in the tax calculation step) to determine recoverable and nonrecoverable tax amounts.

Taxes are levied on transactions as per the legislations in a country or region. They are seldom uniformly applied on all transactions and tax legislation may seek differential levy, treatment, and administration of taxes based on various transaction attributes. Configure Oracle Fusion Tax to evaluate transactions based on transaction attributes. The transaction attributes determine which taxes apply to a transaction and how to calculate tax amount for each tax that applies to the transaction.

The tax determination process evaluates transaction header and line information to derive tax lines for taxes applicable to the transactions. The evaluation process is subdivided into the following processes:

  • Determine Applicable Tax Regimes and Candidate Taxes

  • Determine Place of Supply and Tax Jurisdiction

  • Determine Tax Applicability

  • Determine Tax Registration

  • Determine Tax Status

  • Determine Tax Rate

  • Determine Taxable Basis

  • Determine Tax Calculation

  • Determine Tax Recovery

The tax determination process utilizes the tax foundation configuration in conjunction with configuration options and tax rules to process transactions for tax applicability and calculation. Tax configuration ranges from simple models to complex models. Simple models make use of default values without extensive processing while complex models consider each tax requirement related to a transaction before making the final calculation.

When setting up a tax, examine the regulations that govern the determination of the tax amount, from identifying applicability drivers to how the tax is calculated. Organize the regulations into one or more rule types for each tax. When the regulations indicate that more than one result is possible for a given rule type, you need to define rules within that rule type. Otherwise you can defer to a default value for that rule type associated to the tax.

The complexity of setup can be classified as follows:

  • No tax rules required: Oracle Fusion Tax uses the default tax status, tax rate, and tax recovery rate defined for the tax. Tax rules aren't required. However, tax rates can vary by:

    • Class of products set up using tax exceptions

    • Location set up using tax jurisdictions

    • Party set up using exemption definitions

    In addition, applicability can still be controlled without the use of tax rules such as through the party tax profile that you define for a supplier.

  • Simple tax rule regimes: The tax authority levies tax on your transactions at the same rate, with a simple set of identifiable exceptions. The exceptions either apply to:

    • One part of the transaction only, such as to certain parties

    • Combination of parties, products, and transaction processes that you can summarize in a simple way.

    In such cases, use a simple set of tax rules, for example, to identify place of supply and tax registration, and use default values for other processes.

  • Complex tax regimes: Tax regimes in certain countries require a complex logic to determine the applicable taxes and rates on a transaction. Both tax applicability and tax rates can vary. For example, by place of origin and place of destination, party registration, status, service, or a combination of factors. In some cases, the taxable amount of one tax may depend upon the amount of another tax on the same transaction. And in rare cases, the tax amount itself may depend on the tax amount of another tax. For all of these and similar situations, you set up tax rules to define the logic necessary to identify each step of the tax determination process.

Tax Determination Process Steps

The tax determination process evaluates transaction header and line information to derive tax lines for taxes applicable to the transactions. The first step of the determination process is to identify the first party of the transaction. The tax determination process looks to the business unit on the transaction. The process identifies whether its pointing to the configuration owner of the business unit or legal entity depending on the Use subscription of the legal entity option. The option is on the party tax profile definition of the business unit. The tax determination process determines if there are configuration owner tax options associated with this party or if the predefined event class option should be used.

The Determine Applicable Tax Regimes process can be the predefined TAXREGIME, STCC (standard tax classification code), or another user-defined regime determination set. TAXREGIME or user-defined regime determination sets derive the applicable tax regimes or tax regime through country or zone of the location. The country or zone of the location is identified in the processing of the regime determination determining factor set location values. STCC determination is typically used for purposes of migrated data and has a different processing logic driven by tax classification code. A third option of determination is third-party integration.

Determine Applicable Tax Regimes and Candidate Taxes

Tax regimes are considered based on geography and subscription. Either a country or zone associated with the tax regime definition must be the same as the country or zone identified through the location that evaluates to true on the regime determination set of the first party of the transaction. In addition, the tax regime must have a subscription to the applicable configuration owner. Once the tax determination process identifies the tax regimes the list of candidate taxes can be evaluated based on the configuration option setting of the first party in the tax regime subscription definition:

  • Common Configuration: Consider all taxes with the configuration owner of global configuration owner.

  • Party Specific Configuration: Consider all taxes with the first party as configuration owner.

  • Common Configuration with Party Overrides: Consider all taxes with the first party and the global configuration owner as configuration owner. If a tax is defined by both the first party and the global configuration owner, the application only uses the tax defined by the first party.

  • Parent First-Party Configuration with Party Overrides: Consider all taxes with the first party and the parent first party as configuration owner. If a tax is defined by the first party and the parent first party, the application only uses the tax defined by the first party.

Determine Tax Applicability and Place of Supply and Tax Jurisdiction

This process determines the tax applicability of each candidate tax based on direct rate determination, place of supply, tax applicability, and tax jurisdiction. The first step in tax applicability is to process any direct rate rules defined for a tax regime, configuration owner, and candidate taxes. If a direct rate rule evaluates to true then place of supply is processed for this transaction tax. If successful the tax is applicable and the tax status and tax rate defined for the direct rate rule are used in the tax calculation. If a direct rate rule doesn't evaluate to true for this tax regime, configuration owner, and tax the tax applicability rules are processed next. After a tax is found applicable based on an applicability rule or a default value the process verifies the place of supply and associated tax jurisdiction. This is required except in the cases of migrated taxes.

The place of supply process identifies the applicable location type and associated tax jurisdiction where the supply of goods or services is deemed to have taken place for a specific tax. If the tax determination process can't find a tax jurisdiction for the location that corresponds to the place of supply location type, the tax doesn't apply. It is removed as a candidate tax for the transaction.

For example, the place of supply for UK value-added tax (VAT) on goods is generally the ship-from country. Thus, the place of supply of a sale or purchase within the UK is the UK itself. However, if a UK legal entity supplies goods from its French warehouse to a German customer, then the place of supply won't find a jurisdiction for UK VAT in France, and therefore UK VAT doesn't apply.

Determine Tax Registration

This process determines the party whose tax registration is used for each tax on the transaction, and, if available, derives the tax registration number.

Determine Tax Status

This process determines the tax status of each applicable tax on the transaction. If the process can't find a tax status for an applicable tax, then Tax raises an error.

Determine Tax Rate

This process determines the tax rate code for each tax and tax status derived from the previous process. First the application looks for a rate based on rate code and tax jurisdiction. If this isn't found then the application looks for a rate with no tax jurisdiction. If applicable, the tax rate is then modified by any exception rate or tax exemption that applies. The result of this process is a tax rate code and tax rate for each applicable tax.

Determine Taxable Basis

This process determines the taxable base for each tax rate code. Depending on the tax rate type the taxable basis is amount based or quantity based. The tax determination process typically determines the tax by applying the tax rate to the taxable base amount. In some cases, the taxable basis either can include another tax or is based on the tax amount of another tax. Define taxable basis formulas to manage these requirements.

Determine Tax Calculation

This process calculates the tax amount on the transaction. In most cases, the tax amount is computed by applying the derived tax rate to the derived taxable basis. In some exceptional cases, the tax amount is altered by adding or subtracting another tax. Define tax calculation formulas to manage these requirements.

Determine Tax Recovery

This process determines the recovery rate to use on procure-to-pay transactions when the tax allows for full or partial recovery of the tax amount. For example, for UK manufacturing companies VAT on normal purchases used for company business is 100% recoverable. However, if you're a financial institution which only makes VAT exempt on sales then you aren't allowed to recover any taxes and your recovery rate is zero percent on all purchases. The recovery process impacts the distribution level, tax amounts, and inclusiveness of taxes. The resulting distribution amounts are adjusted as a result of the recovery process. The recovery type is defined on the tax and identifies whether there are one or two recovery types; primary and secondary. For each tax and recovery type the application determines the recovery rate based on a tax rule or default value defined on the tax.

The tax determination process uses your tax configuration setup and the details on the transactions to determine which taxes apply to the transaction and how to calculate the tax amount.

How Tax Is Calculated Using Tax Setup Components

You must complete a certain number of setup tasks for each step of the tax determination and tax calculation process. The number and complexity of your setups depends upon the requirements of the tax authorities where you do business.

This table describes the order in which Oracle Fusion Tax calculates taxes on transactions. You can use this table to:

  • Review the details of each process.

  • Identify the setups that you need to complete in each step of tax determination and calculate process.

Order Process Name Activities Components Used and Rule Type (if Applicable)

1

Determine Applicable Tax Regimes and Candidate Taxes (preliminary step)

  • Determine the first party of the transaction.

  • Identify location types to derive candidate tax regimes.

  • Identify tax regimes.

  • Identify taxes using subscriber configuration option.

  • Party tax profile

  • Regime determination set

  • Configuration options

2

Determine Place of Supply and Tax Jurisdiction

  • Identify location type.

  • Identify tax jurisdiction.

  • Tax rule: Determine Place of Supply, or the default value for Place of Supply for the tax.

  • Tax jurisdictions

3

Determine Tax Applicability

  • Consider candidate taxes from the previous process.

  • Eliminate taxes based on tax applicability rule for each tax.

Tax rule: Determine Tax Applicability and the default value for applicability for the tax.

4

Determine Tax Registration

Determine the party type to use to derive the tax registration for each applicable tax.

  • Tax rule: Determine Tax Registration, or the default value for the tax.

  • Party tax profile

  • Tax registration

5

Determine Tax Status

  • Consider tax statuses of applicable taxes.

  • Consider tax status rules or use default tax status.

Tax rule: Determine Tax Status, or the default value defined for the tax.

6

Determine Tax Rate

  • Consider tax rates of each applicable tax status of each applicable tax.

  • Determine the tax rate code to use for the tax status, for each applicable tax.

  • Determine the tax rate percentage or per-unit tax amount for a quantity based tax.

  • If a tax exception applies, update the tax rate for each applicable tax.

  • If a tax exemption applies, update the tax rate.

  • Tax rule: Determine Tax Rate, or the default value defined for the tax status derived in the previous process.

  • Tax rates

  • Product tax exceptions

  • Customer tax exemptions

7

Determine Taxable Basis

  • Identify the taxable basis formula for each applicable tax.

  • Determine the taxable basis and compounding details based on the taxable basis formula.

  • Consider the tax inclusive settings of the applicable taxes.

  • Tax rule: Determine Taxable Basis, or the default value for the tax.

  • Taxable basis formula

  • Tax inclusive settings at the tax rate level

8

Calculate Taxes

  • Identify the tax calculation formula.

  • Calculate taxes using the tax calculation formula.

  • Perform applicable tax rounding.

  • Tax rule: Calculate Tax Amounts

  • Calculate tax formula, if applicable

  • Tax rounding rule from tax registration, party tax profile, or tax

  • Configuration owner tax options

If tax recovery is applicable

Determine Recovery Rate

  • Allocate tax amount per item distributions.

  • Determine tax recovery types.

  • Determine tax recovery rates.

  • Determine the tax recoverable amounts.

  • Determine the nonrecoverable amount.

  • Tax rule: Determine Recovery Rate, or the default value defined for the tax.

  • Tax recovery rates

At transaction time, the owner of the transaction derives the configuration options that are used.

When you enter a transaction for a given first-party organization, the tax data applied to that transaction is determined by the:

  • Configurations defined for the combination of that first-party organization (business unit or first-party legal entity)

  • Tax regime derived from the addresses or from the tax classification codes used on the transaction

Settings That Affect the Application of Tax Data on Transactions

Use tax content subscriptions to define which configuration owner's setup is used for transactions for a specific first-party legal entity or business unit for a specific tax regime. Also, use tax content subscriptions to specify whether any shared content can be overridden by the subscribing party to allow unique, separate setup for certain tax content.

Tax content subscription options are:

  • Common configuration

  • Party-specific configuration

  • Common configuration with party overrides

  • Parent first-party organization with party overrides

How Tax Data Is Determined

Based on the defaults and tax rules you have defined, tax data is applied to transactions as follows:

Configuration for Taxes and Rules Option Tax Content Available

Common configuration

  • The tax determination process uses only the tax content owned by the global configuration owner.

  • If you manually override tax information on the transaction, only the tax content owned by the global configuration owner is displayed in the list of valid values available.

Party-specific configuration

  • The tax determination process uses only the tax content owned by the first-party organization, business unit or fist party legal entity, for whom the transaction is being entered.

  • If you manually override tax information on the transaction, only the tax content owned by the first-party organization is displayed in the list of valid values available.

Note: For the first-party organization it can be the business unit owning the tax content or the first-party legal entity-owned setup depending on the specific subscription being used.

Common configuration with party overrides

  • The tax determination process uses any tax content owned by the first party for whom the transaction is being entered. In the absence of tax content owned by that first-party organization, the tax determination process uses tax content owned by the global configuration owner.

  • If you manually override tax information on the transaction, both the override tax content owned by the specific first party and the tax content owned by the global configuration owner that you haven't overridden are displayed in the list of valid values available.

Parent first-party organization with party overrides

  • The tax determination process uses any tax content owned by the first party for whom the transaction is being entered. In the absence of tax content owned by the first-party organization, the tax determination process uses tax content owned by the parent first-party organization.

  • If you manually override tax information on the transaction, both the override tax content owned by the specific first party and the tax content owned by the designated parent first-party organization that you haven't overridden are displayed in the list of valid values available.

If you are using product exceptions, those exceptions are applied to the transactions as shown in the following table:

Configuration for Product Exceptions Tax Exceptions Available

Common configuration

The tax determination process uses only the tax exceptions defined and maintained by the global configuration owner.

Party-specific configuration

The tax determination process uses only the tax exceptions owned by the specific first-party organization

Manage Transaction Tax Lines

Enter and update detail and summary tax lines according to the requirements of your transactions. Depending on your security settings and options specified during tax setup, you can:

  • Enter manual tax lines

  • Enter tax only tax lines

  • Change existing tax line information

  • Cancel tax lines

Note: The Summary Tax Lines component is applicable only to Oracle Fusion Payables.

Entering Manual Tax Lines

These requirements apply to entering a manual detail or summary tax line:

  1. Enable the Allow entry of manual tax lines option for the:

    • Configuration owner and application event class

    • Tax

  2. Ensure that the Manual Tax Line Entry profile option is enabled. It is enabled by default.

  3. Enter a unique combination for a tax regime and tax. You can't enter a manual tax line for a tax that already exists for the transaction line.

  4. Enter a tax status to enter a tax rate.

  5. Enter a tax regime, tax, tax status, and tax rate to enter a tax amount.

The tax calculation on a manual tax line is a standard formula of Tax Amount = Taxable Basis * Tax Rate. The tax determination process doesn't evaluate tax rules defined for the tax of any tax rule type.

Entering Tax Only Tax Lines

You can enter a tax-only invoice in Payables to record tax lines that aren't linked to a transaction. A tax-only invoice is used, for example, to record tax lines on purchases that are assessed and invoiced separately or to enter tax-only invoices from tax authorities or import agents that record import taxes.

These requirements apply to entering a tax only tax line:

  1. Enable the Allow manual tax only lines option for the configuration owner and application event class.

  2. Select a tax regime from the tax regimes belonging to the configuration option of the applicable legal entity or business unit.

  3. Select a tax, tax status, and tax rate and enter a tax amount.

Note: When you select or deselect the Tax Only Line option on a tax line for the first time, the update doesn't take effect. You must select the specific tax line, click the row header or a noneditable area, and then select the Tax Only Line option.

Editing Tax Line Information

These requirements apply to changing an existing detail or summary tax line:

  1. Enable the Allow override for calculated tax lines option for the:

    • Configuration owner and application event class

    • Tax

  2. Ensure that the Manual Tax Line Entry profile option is enabled. It is enabled by default.

  3. Optionally, enable the following options for the configuration owner and application event class:

    • Allow recalculation for manual tax lines option. The tax determination process recalculates the manual tax lines when there is an update to automatically calculated tax lines.

    • Tax line override impacts other tax lines option. The tax determination process recalculates the taxes on all other tax lines on the same transaction when there is an override of automatically calculated tax lines on transactions.

  4. Save any changes to summary tax lines before you enter or change Payables summary tax lines.

  5. Change the tax status if necessary. These requirements apply to changing tax statuses:

    • You can't update the tax status if the tax on the detail tax line is enforced from the natural account.

    • If you edit a tax only tax line and change the tax status, you must re-enter the tax rate code.

  6. Change the tax rate if necessary. These requirements apply to changing tax rates:

    • The Allow tax rate override option is enabled for the applicable tax status.

    • The Allow ad hoc rate option is enabled for the applicable tax rate.

    • You may need to change the tax status to change to the appropriate tax rate.

    • You can change the calculated tax rate derived from the tax status by selecting another tax rate defined for the same tax regime, tax, and tax status.

  7. Change the tax rate percentage or quantity rate if necessary. These requirements apply to changing tax rate percentages or quantity rates:

    • You cannot update the tax rate code and rate fields if the tax on the detail tax line is enforced from the natural account.

    • You can only update the tax rate percentage if the tax rate code has the Allow ad hoc rate option enabled.

  8. Change the tax amount if necessary. These requirements apply to changing tax amounts:

    • When you change the tax amount the setting for the Adjustment for ad hoc amounts option of the tax rate determines which value is adjusted, the taxable amount or the tax rate.

    • You can only edit the tax amount if a detail tax line belongs to an historic transaction.

    • You can change the tax amount independent of the tax inclusive and compound tax settings.

    • If you defined tax tolerances for Payables transactions, then if you edit the tax amount and it exceeds the specified tolerance, Oracle Fusion Tax places the invoice on hold.

    • You can only enter 0 as the tax amount if the tax rate is 0.

  9. Update the Inclusive option setting if necessary. The tax determination process recalculates the taxable amount and transaction amount.

For tax calculation, a limited evaluation of tax rules on certain updates to a tax line is performed.

Canceling Tax Lines

These requirements apply to canceling an existing detail or summary tax line:

  1. Cancel tax lines on Payables transactions only.

  2. Enter a new manual tax line to reverse a canceled tax line if necessary.

Note: On canceling the invoice or invoice lines, tax lines are automatically canceled.

When you cancel a tax line both the associated tax line and any distributions that were previously accounted are reversed. If the distributions weren't accounted, then the amounts are set to zero.

Note: When you select or deselect the Cancel option on a tax line for the first time, the update doesn't take effect. You must select the specific tax line, click the row header or a noneditable area, and then select the Cancel option.

Set up tax exceptions to apply special tax rates to products. At transaction time, Oracle Fusion Tax determines whether the tax exception applies to the transaction line for the product, and if so, uses the applicable exception rate.

Settings That Affect Tax Exceptions

A tax exception must belong to a combination of tax regime, configuration owner, and tax. You can also assign tax exceptions to a tax status or tax rate belonging to the tax or to a tax jurisdiction.

You can define Oracle Fusion Inventory organization tax exceptions for items, or you can define tax exceptions for Inventory-based product fiscal classifications or noninventory-based product categories. If you are using Inventory-based product fiscal classifications then generally, the application classifies the transaction line based on the item. If you are using noninventory-based product category fiscal classifications, you enter the appropriate product category on all applicable lines to influence the tax result.

Product categories and product fiscal classifications are defined in a hierarchical structure. It is important that you select the appropriate level where the tax exception is applicable. For product fiscal classifications to be used in item exceptions, you must indicate that it is used in item exceptions at the tax regime association to the product fiscal classification. You can set up only one product fiscal classification for any specific tax regime with the Used in Item Exceptions option selected.

When you set up configuration options for first-party legal entities and business units, you can set a separate configuration option for the owning and sharing of product tax exceptions for a combination of party and tax regime.

The Allow tax exceptions option is set at the tax regime level and you can override it at the tax and tax status levels. However, the setup you define for the tax rate is what is evaluated during tax rate determination.

At transaction time, the tax exception is used if the details of the transaction and the tax match all of the entities assigned to the tax exception. Only one tax exception can apply to a transaction line for a specific tax.

Note: Tax exemptions are specific to the order-to-cash event class while tax exceptions are applicable across event classes.

How Tax Exceptions Are Calculated

The tax determination process determines tax applicability, tax status, and the tax rate for the transaction line. If tax exceptions are allowed, the application looks at the item entered on the transaction line to determine if an exception is defined at the tax, tax status, tax rate, tax jurisdiction, Inventory organization, or Inventory level and uses the exception at the most specific level.

If the application doesn't find any tax exception for the item, it looks for a product fiscal classification associated with the transaction line. If one exists, the application determines if an exception is defined at the tax, tax status, tax rate, tax jurisdiction, and product fiscal classification level and uses the exception at the most specific level with the highest precedence.

The tax rate is then based on the exception type and calculated as follows:

  • Discount: A reduction of the base tax rate. For example, if the discount is 15% off the standard rate and the standard rate is 10%, then the discount rate is 85% of the original 10%, or 8.5%.

  • Surcharge: An increase to the base tax rate. For example, if the surcharge is 10% and the standard rate is 10%, then the surcharge rate is 110% of the original 10%, or 11%.

  • Special Rate: A rate that replaces the base tax rate. For example, if the special rate is 5% and the standard rate is 10%, the tax rate is the special rate of 5%.

Finally, the new tax rate is applied to the taxable basis and the tax amount is calculated.

For manual tax lines, no additional processing is performed and exceptions aren't considered. A manual tax lines suggests that you have specific business requirements for a particular transaction to apply a manual tax. No additional processing is performed for manual tax lines to avoid any applying conflicting or inconsistent values to the user-entered tax line. The tax calculation on a manual tax line is the standard formula of: tax amount is equal to the taxable basis multiplied by the tax rate.

During transaction tax calculation, use threshold controls to apply minimum or maximum limits to tax rates, taxable amounts, or tax amounts if these limits are enforced by tax authorities.

Define thresholds for a:

  • Tax if these limits are evaluated for all transactions to which that tax applies

  • Tax jurisdiction if these limits are applied to all purchases and sales that occur in that tax jurisdiction

  • Tax rule if these limits are only applicable in certain circumstances

Threshold attributes and processing include:

  • Threshold type

  • Threshold basis

  • Threshold range

  • Evaluation order

Threshold Type

Specify the minimum or maximum limit for a tax rate, taxable amount, and tax amount to meet the needs of the tax regulation. You can create multiple threshold types for a date period.

Threshold Basis

Select the threshold basis to comply with tax authority requirements of imposing limits for taxable or tax amounts either for the entire document or for each item line of the document. You can't define the same threshold type for both line and document in the same period.

Threshold Range

Specify the minimum, maximum, or both minimum and maximum values for the threshold type. Enter the values in the tax currency. If the transaction currency is different from the tax currency then the thresholds are converted to transaction currency for evaluation.

If the tax rate determined for a tax line is:

  • Within the range of the minimum and maximum rate threshold, then the tax rate is retained

  • Lower than the minimum value, then the tax rate is replaced with zero

  • More than the maximum threshold value, then the tax rate is replaced with the maximum threshold value

The same approach applies to the taxable and tax amount thresholds.

Evaluation Order

If you define more than one threshold type for a tax, the evaluation order is:

  • Tax rate thresholds

  • Taxable basis

  • Tax amount

If a tax rate rule is successfully evaluated for a tax line, then:

  • If there are tax rate thresholds values defined for the tax rule, they are considered for tax rate threshold evaluation.

  • If there are no threshold values defined for the tax rule, the application determines if there are threshold values defined for the tax jurisdiction. If so, they are considered for tax rate threshold evaluation.

  • If there are no threshold values defined for the tax jurisdiction, the application considers the threshold values defined for the tax for tax rate threshold evaluation.

If the threshold basis is Document, then the threshold values defined for the tax rules aren't considered

The same approach applies to taxable basis and tax amount thresholds. The only difference is the tax rule considered, which are the taxable basis rules and tax calculation rules, respectively.

Other considerations in threshold evaluation are if the:

  • Line amount is inclusive of tax, then the taxable basis and tax amount thresholds aren't considered for the inclusive tax lines.

  • Tax line is updated, then the updated values are considered and the thresholds values aren't applied.

  • Tax amount is overridden, then the updated amount is considered and the threshold values aren't applied.

Tax Point Basis

Comply with tax regulations by assigning the correct tax point basis for a tax. The value you select determines the event at which the taxes for an invoice are reported.

The following table describes the tax point basis values:

Tax Point Basis Result

Payment

If a tax on a purchase invoice has Payment as the tax point basis, then the recoverable tax is debited to an interim account on invoice accounting. On accounting for the corresponding payment, a proportionate tax amount is recovered and the same is reported as of that payment date.

The approach is the same for the tax liability on a sales invoice.

Invoice

A tax point basis of Invoice is the default where the tax recovery and liability are reported as of the invoice date.

Accounting

Specify the tax point basis as Accounting for a tax when the tax authorities mandate that tax recovery and liability occur on accounting for an invoice. You must report on the accounting date for the invoice.

Delivery

For taxes you can claim tax recovery on receipt of corresponding goods, specify the tax point basis as Delivery. Taxes on the invoice are calculated with the tax rate as of the receipt date. These tax lines are reported as of the receipt date.

For the sales transactions, the shipment date is be used as a basis for tax rate determination and accounting.

If the tax authorities mandate that the recovery is accounted on the goods receipt event, then:

  • Enable the Allow delivery-based tax calculation option for the configuration owner tax options that you created for the relevant business unit or legal entity.

  • Specify the Report Delivery-Based Taxes on option as Receipt.

This configuration enables recoverable taxes with tax point basis of Delivery to be accounted on receipt accounting.

For consigned purchases, consumption of goods is the event at which ownership changes. Consumption of goods is the event at which recoverable delivery-based taxes is accounted.

Exception Configuration for Tax Point Basis

If tax regulations require tax point basis to vary based on party registration, then specify tax point basis at the tax registration or a tax registration rule. You can also specify tax point basis at tax rate to meet specific needs. When these exceptions are configured, then the tax calculation process considers the following order of evaluation, with tax being the most generic option when the prior specific options aren't configured.

  • Tax registration rule

  • Tax rate

  • Party tax registration

  • Tax

Tax Point Basis Determination on Transactions

The tax determination process uses the type of transaction to adjust the tax point basis assigned by your tax configuration.

The following table illustrates how the type of transaction determines the tax point basis:

Original Tax Point Basis Transaction Adjusted Tax Point Basis Reason

Delivery

Unmatched payables transactions:

  • Standard invoice

  • Debit memo

  • Credit memo

  • Prepayment

Payables transactions matched to a purchase order:

  • Standard invoice

  • Debit memo

  • Credit memo

  • Prepayment

Receivables transactions:

  • Invoice

  • Debit memo

  • Credit memo

Invoice

Delivery is not a valid event for these transactions.

Delivery

  • Debit memo to correct a matched invoice

  • Receivables credit memo for an invoice

Invoice

Invoice date reflects the date the new debit memo or credit memo adjusts the tax amount.

Delivery

Goods receipt

Invoice

Delivery-based taxes that are self-assessed use the invoice date for better visibility and compliance.

One of the following:

  • Delivery

  • Invoice

  • Payment

  • Adjustment on receivables invoice

  • Tax on miscellaneous cash receipt

Accounting

Tax point basis of invoice, delivery or payment is not applicable.

Tax Point Basis Hierarchy

The tax point basis is used to identify the appropriate date to account and report your transaction taxes to the tax authorities. During tax calculation, the application determines the tax point basis based on what level you defined the tax point options.

The following table describes the order used for processing the tax point basis on a tax line. The application considers the tax point basis at the first level and if the tax point basis is blank, the process moves to the next level in the hierarchy.

Level Action

Tax registration rule

The rule conditions based on various transaction attributes are considered in determining the required tax point basis value for the tax.

Tax rate

The tax rate period processed for a tax from the tax rate rule is considered in determining the tax point basis value for the tax.

The tax point basis is driven by the legal requirements specified for different tax rate types.

Tax registration

The tax registration of the registration party is considered in determining the required tax point basis value for the tax. The registration party is derived from the tax registration rules. However, first the application determines:

  • The corresponding tax registration based on the registration number on the transaction header.

  • If no registration number exists, then uses the available registration records for that party.

The tax point basis is dependent on specific requirements driven by the registration number provided by the tax authorities.

Tax

The tax point basis value specified for the tax is considered. All tax rate codes you define for this tax use this tax point basis value.

To apply a tax point basis across all transactions within an event class and for a specific business unit or legal entity, define the tax point basis as part of the configuration owner tax options.

Calculate Taxes on Payables Transactions

Examples of Tax Handling on Payables Transactions

The tax determination process uses your tax configuration setup and the details on the Oracle Fusion Payables transaction to determine which taxes apply to the transaction and how to calculate the tax amount for each tax that applies to the transaction. Oracle Fusion Tax provides tax calculation for Payables event classes of standard invoices, prepayment invoices, credit memos, debit memos, and expense reports. Tax determinants are a part of the transaction header and line. You can review the defaulted values and override them as necessary. Taxes are calculated automatically on validation when you access the tax lines or by the Calculate Taxes action.

Examples of tax handling on Payables transactions are discussed in the following sections:

  • Standard invoices

  • Invoices matched to purchase orders

  • Prepayment and applied prepayment invoices

  • Price corrections

  • Self-assessed tax lines

Standard Invoices

Oracle Fusion Tax automatically calculates transaction taxes based on the document details and the relevant tax configuration. Depending on your security settings and options specified during tax setup you can:

  • Override the tax attributes to change the tax calculated

  • Enter manual tax lines

Invoices Matched to Purchase Orders

Oracle Fusion Purchasing integrates with Oracle Fusion Tax to automatically determine the applicable taxes on a purchase order. You provide key tax-related information, known as tax determinants, on the purchase order header and lines. Oracle Fusion Tax uses this information, along with other transaction information and defined tax setup, and calculates the taxes that are applicable on the purchase order.

Taxes are calculated on a purchase order in view-only, for example, you cannot directly update or override any tax details. However, you can modify the tax determinants on the purchase order so that the taxes are recalculated based on the revised information.

Taxes are also calculated on a purchase requisition in a quote mode. The calculated taxes are available for reference purpose only. The nonrecoverable portion of the total calculated tax amount applicable on a requisition is displayed as part of the requisition approval amount. When you create a purchase order from a requisition, the tax determinants available on the requisition are copied to the purchase order and the taxes are recalculated based on the tax setup available as of the date of the purchase order.

When you create an invoice in Payables by matching it to a purchase order, the purchase order tax lines and tax-related information is copied to the invoice and tax is recalculated. The tax rate that is used in tax calculation is always derived from the invoice date.

If the tax rate has not changed between the purchase order date and the invoice date, then the tax calculation results in the same tax lines on the invoice as on the purchase order shipment line. If the tax rate has changed between the purchase order date and the invoice date, then the tax calculation results in the same tax lines (but the tax rate used corresponds to the invoice date).

While creating the distributions on the invoice, Oracle Fusion Tax compares the taxes applicable on the invoice to the taxes calculated on the purchase order and generates variances for the difference between the two. The possible deviations in the taxes between the invoice and purchase order can be due to:

  1. Tax applies to the purchase order but not to the invoice: The tax line appears on the invoice with a zero amount. The tax distribution displays two tax lines, one with a positive amount and the other with same negative amount.

  2. Tax applies to both the purchase order and the invoice but with different amounts: The tax line appears with the tax amount as calculated by the invoice. The tax distribution displays two tax lines, one line with the tax amount equal to the purchase order tax amount and one line with the tax amount equal to the difference between the purchase order tax amount and the invoice tax amount.

    The difference in the tax amounts between a purchase order and the invoice matched can be caused by changes in the invoice price, changes in the applicable tax rates, or changes in the conversion rates (in case of foreign currency invoices). Different distribution types are used to capture these variances. They are:

    • Tax invoice price variance: For changes to the invoice price

    • Tax rate variance: For changes to the applicable tax rates

    • Tax conversion rate variance: For changes in the conversion rates

    If the Enforce tax from reference document tax option is enabled for the applicable configuration owner and event class, the tax line for the invoice inherits the corresponding tax rate code and recovery rate code (if applicable) from the purchase order, but the actual tax rate and recovery rate used in the tax calculation are the rates defined for the rate period that corresponds to the invoice date.

Note: Self-assessed taxes and inclusive taxes are not handled as part of the purchase order tax functionality.

The following table is an example of three invoices matched to a purchase order and resulting variance types:

Document Quantity Price Invoice Currency Tax Currency Conversion Rate Tax Rate Tax Amount Variance Type Variance Amount

Purchase Order

10

100

CAD

USD

1

10%

100

 

 

Invoice-A

10

90

CAD

USD

1

10%

90

Tax invoice price variance

10 CAD

Invoice-B

10

100

CAD

USD

1

12%

120

Tax rate variance

20 CAD

Invoice-C

10

100

CAD

USD

1.5

10%

100

Tax conversion rate variance

50 USD

Prepayment and Applied Prepayment Invoices

When you apply a prepayment to an invoice, the tax rate at the time of prepayment may differ from the tax rate at the time that the prepayment is applied to an invoice. Oracle Fusion Tax considers the tax calculated on the prepayment according to the value assigned to the Applied Amount Handling option in the tax record. The values are Recalculated and Prorated.

For example, you apply a prepayment amount of 5,000 USD to an invoice with a total amount of 10,000 USD. At the time of prepayment, the applicable tax rate was 5% (250 USD tax on the prepayment); at the time of invoice creation, the applicable tax rate is 10%. Tax is calculated in this way:

  • Recalculated: The tax is recalculated on the prepayment using the invoice tax rate and the same tax rate is applied to the invoice line amount. The tax calculation creates two tax lines: one for the invoice line amount and one for the prepayment with a negative amount. In the invoice example, the calculation creates an invoice line amount tax line of 1,000 USD (10% * 10,000 USD) and a prepayment tax line of -500 USD (10% * -5000 USD). This reverses tax calculated on the invoice for the prepayment amount applied. The tax calculated on the prepayment is retained.

  • Prorated: The tax calculated on the prepayment is reversed and the tax rate applied to the invoice line is retained. The tax calculation creates two tax lines: one for the invoice line amount and one for the prepayment with a negative amount. In the invoice example, the calculation creates an invoice line amount tax line of 1,000 USD (10% * 10,000 USD) and a prepayment tax line of -250 USD (5% * -5000 USD). The total tax is 750 USD.

Price Corrections

In Payables, you can create a new invoice to correct the quantity or amount of an existing invoice. The correction results in a change in the line amount, either positive or negative. Tax is calculated on the new invoice created as a result of the price correction in proportion to the taxes on the original corrected invoice. For example, an original invoice has a line amount of 100 USD and two tax lines: 5 USD and 10 USD. If the price correction reduces the line amount by 20 USD, then the new invoice creates two tax lines: -1 USD and -2 USD.

Note: In many countries you must record the value that appears on the invoice or reject the invoice. Ask for a new invoice with the correct amount and a credit for the original invoice amount if you have already paid it.

Self-Assessed Tax Lines

Where a tax was not levied by the supplier, but is deemed as due by the purchaser, you can self-assess the taxes calculated on the invoices that you receive. When self-assessment applies to an invoice no transaction line is created for the tax since the self-assessed tax is not included in the invoice total. However, when you access the detail tax lines region you see the self-assessed tax calculated. In addition, offsetting distributions are created in the Payables subledger to negate the self-assessed tax impact as an open invoice balance. You can also self assess taxes using offset taxes and reporting only taxes. An offset tax record is a matching, duplicate record with negative amounts that reduces or completely offsets the tax liability recorded in the tax transactions. Reporting only taxes do not create invoice distributions, but you can use them to capture additional tax information on transactions for your tax reports.

For example using self-assessed taxes, you enter an invoice from a supplier for 1000 USD. The supplier did not charge tax on the invoice, however, according to tax rules, as the purchaser you are liable to pay a 5% tax on the item to your tax authority. The self-assessed tax amount is 50 USD. Provided the tax setup allows self-assessed taxes, 50 USD is applied to the invoice as a self-assessed tax amount. The amount of the self-assessed tax does not impact the amount due to the supplier. With regard to self-assessed taxes, the accounting debit entry in the Payables subledger captures the self-assessed tax expense, and the corresponding accounting credit entry in the Payables subledger captures the self-assessed tax liability.

Example of Allocation of Payables Summary Tax Lines

After you create summary tax lines, you can allocate your manual summary tax lines to specific transaction lines. To allocate summary tax lines:

  • You must select at least one transaction line for allocation.

  • You can't allocate a tax only summary tax line.

  • You can't update or delete a transaction line that's to be allocated.

Note: The Summary Tax Lines component applies only to Oracle Fusion Payables.

The following scenario illustrates allocating a summary tax line and the resulting line amounts.

Scenario

Enter a manual summary tax line for 100.00 USD. The existing item lines are as follows:

  • Line 1: 100.00 USD

  • Line 2: 500.00 USD

  • Line 3: 1000.00 USD

You choose to allocate the 100.00 USD tax line to line 2 and line 3. The total amount for these lines is 1500.00 USD. The allocated tax amount is prorated to line 2 and line 3 based on their ratio of the total line amount. Allocation results are:

  • Line 2: 500/1500 * 100 = 33.33.

    Line 2 now has a detail tax line for 33.33 USD.

  • Line 3: 1000/1500 * 100 = 66.67.

    Line 3 now has a detail tax line for 66.67 USD.

Tax Recovery Distributions

A recoverable tax allows full or partial recovery of taxes paid on purchases, either as a recoverable payment or as a balance against taxes owed. A tax recovery rate identifies the percentage of recovery for a tax designated by the tax authority for a specific transaction line. You can review Oracle Fusion Payables tax distributions and, if applicable, update the tax recovery rate on a tax distribution depending on your tax setup and security access. The component in Oracle Fusion Purchasing is view-only.

Managing Tax Recovery Distributions

Oracle Fusion Tax creates recoverable distributions and calculates tax recovery rates when you save the line distribution. The recoverable distributions and tax recovery rates are created according to the Determine Recovery Rate tax rule process or the default recovery rate. If self-assessment is enabled for the applicable party, two distributions for each tax are created, one with a positive amount and the other with a negative amount.

One recoverable distribution for the primary recovery type and, if applicable, the secondary recovery type is created, for each tax line for each of the item distributions into which the item line or expense line is distributed. The tax distributions are displayed in this way:

  • If the tax is nonrecoverable, one nonrecoverable tax distribution line for the tax is created, with the nonrecoverable amount equal to the tax amount. You cannot update a nonrecoverable tax distribution nor create a manual recoverable distribution.

  • If the tax is recoverable, two or three distribution lines are displayed, one for the primary recoverable amount, one for the secondary recoverable amount, if applicable, and another for the nonrecoverable amount.

    If the tax is fully recoverable, then the recoverable distribution amount is equal to the tax amount and the nonrecoverable distribution amount is equal to zero.

    If the tax is recoverable and the recovery rate is zero, then the nonrecoverable distribution amount is equal to the tax amount and the recoverable distribution amount is equal to zero.

  • If self-assessment is enabled for the applicable party, the application creates two distributions for each tax, one with a positive amount and the other with a negative amount.

    If the tax applied on the transaction is self-assessed, then the corresponding recoverable and nonrecoverable tax distributions are not visible in the distributions window, but the application does generate them at the time of accounting for the invoice

  • If the tax applied on the transaction is of the offset type, then the application creates two distributions for the recovery and nonrecovery portions of the tax. Since they are intended to offset each other, they are created for the same amount, but one with a positive value and the other with a negative value.

You can update the recovery rate code in a Payables transaction if the Allow tax recovery rate override option is enabled for the tax. You can update the recovery rate if the Allow ad hoc tax rate option is enabled for the recovery rate.

If you update the recovery rate on a tax distribution, Oracle Fusion Tax also updates the related nonrecoverable rate and amount, and the distribution for the tax line. If the distribution status is frozen, you cannot update the tax distribution. To change the distribution, you must reverse the tax distribution and enter a new distribution.

If applicable, accounting-related setups may affect tax calculation:

  • If there are tax rules defined based on the Accounting determining factor class, then changing or creating a distribution may affect tax calculation.

  • If the Enforce tax from account option is enabled for the configuration owner and event class, this may affect the tax calculation based on the distribution.

Example of Tax Recovery Distributions

Recoverable distributions are created and tax recovery rates are calculated when you save the line distribution, according to the Determine Recovery Rate tax rule process or the default recovery rate. You can review tax distributions and, if applicable, update the tax recovery rate on a tax distribution.

Note: Only the authorized user can update the tax recovery rate on the distribution in Oracle Fusion Payables. The component in Oracle Fusion Purchasing is view-only.

Scenario

Your company is located in a Canadian province that has combined the provincial sales tax with the federal goods and services tax (GST) into a harmonized sales tax (HST). They recently purchased books to sell in their stores. They also purchased some computers to use in kiosks within the stores for customers to use to locate books.

Transaction Details

The transaction details are as follows:

  • Total cost of books is 10,000 CAD

    The invoice indicates the intended use as Resale.

  • Total cost of computers is 5,000 CAD

    The computers will be expensed as they don't meet the capitalization threshold.

  • Tax rate applicable to each item is 13%

Analysis

In most tax regimes, a tax that is paid by a registered establishment can claim back 100% of taxes due from the tax authority, except for specific designated purchases. Depending upon the details of a company's business purchases and tax authority regulations, a number of exception regulations may accompany the details of tax recovery. Tax implications are:

  • The HST associated with the cost of books to be sold in stores is 100% recoverable. Therefore, 1,300 CAD is recoverable (10,000 CAD * 13%).

  • The HST associated with the cost of the computers to be used in kiosks within the stores is not recoverable. Therefore, 650 CAD is nonrecoverable (5,000 CAD * 13%).

The HST tax configuration specifies that the recovery tax rate for zero 0% recoverable is used as a default. A tax rule is defined to apply a 100% recoverable rate for products with an intended use of Resale.

Tax Recovery Distributions

Based on the analysis, the following distributions are created for the transaction:

Accounting Class Debit Credit

Item Expense

10,000

Item Expense

5,000

 

Recoverable Tax

1,300

Nonrecoverable Tax

650

Liability

10,000

Liability

 

5,000

Liability

1,300

Liability

650

Tax Overrides and Tolerances on Payables Transactions

You can override taxes calculated on a transaction depending on the controls you configure within the tax setup. You can place certain restrictions on the maximum override amount for a Payables event class transaction belonging to a configuration owner.

Define these tolerances at the configuration owner tax options level and specify the maximum tax override amount or the maximum allowed percentage deviation between the originally calculated tax amount and the overridden amount.

When you override the automatically calculated taxes on a transaction and if the variance between them exceeds the specified tolerance limits, the Oracle Fusion Payables invoice is placed on hold. The logic for placing the invoice on hold evaluates the overridden amount compared against both the tax tolerance percentage and the tax tolerance amount and the lower of the two values is considered.

For example, if you define the tolerances as maximum allowed amount 15 USD and the maximum allowed percentage 10%, then the application of invoice hold based on the tax override tolerances is as follows. All dollars are in USD currency.

Calculated Tax Amount Overridden Tax Amount Net Overridden Amount Maximum Tolerance Amount Maximum Tolerance Percentage (10% of the tax amount) Invoice Hold Status

100

112

12

15

10

Invoice is placed on hold as the variation exceeds the maximum tolerance percentage, though it is below the maximum tolerance amount.

200

218

18

15

20

Invoice is placed on hold as the variation exceeds the maximum tolerance amount, though it is below the maximum tolerance percentage.

300

314

14

15

30

No hold is placed on the invoice as the variance is within the maximum tolerance amount and maximum tolerance percentage.

Examples of Impact of Control Amount on Tax Calculations for Payables Transactions

The tax control amount is one of the key tax determinants available on the invoice header and lines that influences the calculated tax amount. Use the tax control amount to match the total calculated tax amount on the invoice with the tax amount given on the supplier invoice. Oracle Fusion Tax adjusts the calculated taxes based on the specified tax control amount in proportion to the tax amounts determined for the applicable taxes.

For example, you have an invoice with two item lines, and taxes are applicable on both lines. All amounts are reflected in USD currency.

Description Line Tax Amount Total Tax Amount

Total invoice tax amount

 

600

Taxes applicable on Line-1:

  • Tax-A

  • 400

400

Taxes applicable on Line-2:

  • Tax-A

  • Tax-B

  • 150

  • 50

200

The impact of the tax control amounts specified at the header and line levels is illustrated in the following scenarios.

Tax Control Amount Is Specified at the Header Level

The invoice header control amount is 400 USD. The impact is as follows:

Description Line Tax Amount Total Tax Amount

Total invoice tax amount

 

400

Taxes applicable on Line-1:

  • Tax-A

  • 266.67

266.67

Taxes applicable on Line-2:

  • Tax-A

  • Tax-B

  • 100.00

  • 33.33

133.33

In this scenario, the line level total tax amounts are first adjusted in the proportion to their calculated tax amounts. For example, line 1 tax amount total is 400 USD which equates to 66.667% of the total tax amount (400/600 = 66.667%). The individual taxes for a line are then aligned with the line total amount in proportion to the calculated taxes. For example, line 1 adjusted tax amount is the header control amount of 400 USD multiplied by 66.667% (400 * 66.667% = 266.67).

Similarly, line 2 adjusted tax amount is 133.33 USD. The individual taxes involved are further apportioned in the ratio of their earlier tax amounts, for example, 75% and 25% (150/200 and 50/200, respectively).

Tax Control Amount Is Specified at the Header and Line Levels

The invoice header control amount is 400 USD and the Line-2 control amount is 100 USD. The impact is as follows:

Description Line Tax Amount Total Tax Amount

Total invoice tax amount

 

400

Taxes applicable on Line-1:

  • Tax-A

  • 300

300

Taxes applicable on Line-2:

  • Tax-A

  • Tax-B

  • 75

  • 25

100

In this scenario, the line level total tax amounts are first adjusted based on the line control amount specified. The individual taxes for a line are then aligned with the line total amount in the proportion to their calculated taxes. For example, line 2 adjusted tax amount for Tax-A is the line 2 control amount of 100 USD multiplied by 150/200 (100 * 75% = 75).

Tax Control Amounts and Manual Tax Lines

You can manually enter additional tax lines with the calculated tax lines. The tax adjustments based on the given tax control amounts are then further influenced by the option Allow recalculation of manual tax lines set. You can find the option at the configuration owner tax options level.

Continuing with the previous example, the following scenario represents the tax control amounts specified at the header and line levels when the option for Allow recalculation of manual tax lines isn't selected. The invoice header control amount is 400 USD, the Line-2 control amount is 100 USD, and the manual tax inserted on Line-2 is 20 USD. The impact is as follows:

Description Line Tax Amount Total Tax Amount

Total invoice tax amount

 

400

Taxes applicable on Line-1:

  • Tax-A

  • 300

300

Taxes applicable on Line-2:

  • Tax-A

  • Tax-B

  • Manual tax

  • 60

  • 20

  • 20

100

In this scenario, the line level total tax amounts are first adjusted based on the header and line control amounts. The applicable line taxes are then aligned with the total line tax amount. Since the option for the recalculation of manual tax line isn't selected, the manual tax amount is retained. The other taxes are also adjusted toward the line control amount, in the proportion to their calculated tax amounts. For example, line 2 adjusted tax amount for Tax-A is the line 2 control amount of 100 USD less the manual tax amount of 20 USD multiplied by 150/200 ((100 - 20) * 75% = 60).

The following example represents the tax control amounts at the header and line levels. The option for Allow recalculation of manual tax lines is selected. The invoice header control amount is 400 USD, the Line-2 control amount is 100 USD, and the manual tax inserted on Line-2 is 20 USD. The impact is as follows:

Description Line Tax Amount Total Tax Amount

Total invoice tax amount

 

400

Taxes applicable on Line-1:

  • Tax-A

  • 300

300

Taxes applicable on Line-2:

  • Tax-A

  • Tax-B

  • Manual tax

  • 68

  • 23

  • 9

100

In this scenario, the line level total tax amounts are first adjusted based on the header and line control amounts. The applicable line taxes are then aligned with the total line tax amount. Since the option for recalculation of manual tax lines is selected, all the tax lines including the manual tax line get adjusted toward the line control amount, in the proportion to their tax amounts. For example, line 2 adjusted tax amount for Tax-A is the line 2 control amount of 100 USD multiplied by 150/220 (100 * 68% = 68).

Examples of Impact on Summary and Detail Tax Lines for Tax Detail Changes

Any changes you make to the tax details at the line level apply to the summary tax line details. Similarly, any changes you make to the tax details at the summary tax level apply to the line level taxes. The tax amounts are revised according to the taxes calculated on each item line, except in the following scenarios:

  • When a manual summary tax line amount is specifically allocated to the item lines with the amounts different from the default allocation.

  • When a manual summary tax line is marked as a tax only line. In this case, the summary tax line is considered as an ad hoc tax line not related to the transaction, and isn't allocated to the item lines.

Note: The Summary Tax Lines component is applicable only to Oracle Fusion Payables.

Assume that you create an invoice with two item lines with taxes applied on them and reflected in the detail and summary tax lines as follows:

Tax Details Amount

Invoice Line-1

100

Invoice Line-2

200

Summary tax

300

The following scenarios illustrate the alignment between the detail and summary tax lines when changes occur at either level. All example amounts are in USD currency.

Aligning Detail and Summary Tax Lines

The following scenarios illustrate the alignment between the detail and summary tax lines when changes occur at either level. All example amounts are in USD currency.

Example 1

The first example illustrates the impact on the summary tax line when you change Line-2 tax from 200 to 300:

Tax Details Amount

Invoice Line-1

100

Invoice Line-2

300

Summary tax

400

The application revises the summary tax line from 300 to 400.

Example 2

The second example illustrates the impact on the detail tax lines when you change the summary tax line from 300 to 600:

Tax Details Amount

Invoice Line-1

200

Invoice Line-2

400

Summary tax

600

The application adjusts the detail tax lines according to their calculated taxes. For example, Line-2 tax amount is the summary tax amount of 600 USD multiplied by 100/300 (600 * 33.333% = 200).

Example 3

The third example illustrates the impact on the detail tax lines when you create a manual summary tax line and it's specifically allocated to the item lines as 150 and 400:

Tax Details Amount

Invoice Line-1

150

Invoice Line-2

400

Summary tax

550

The detail tax lines determine the allocation amounts.

Example 4

The next example illustrates the impact on the detail tax lines when you specify a manual summary tax line as a tax only line:

Tax Details Amount

Invoice Line-1

 

Invoice Line-2

 

Summary tax

100

The application creates a manual detail tax line with a negative transaction line number and the summary tax line amount and is displayed in the detail tax lines region. The reason for the negative transaction line number is that the detail tax line generated isn't associated with an existing transaction line.

Example 5

The next example illustrates the impact on the detail tax lines when one of the taxes is specified as inclusive:

Tax Details Amount

Invoice Line-1

91.91

Invoice Line-2

200

Summary tax

  • The Inclusive option is selected

  • The Inclusive option is not selected

  • 91.91

  • 200

The application generates two summary tax lines to reflect the status of each of the detail tax lines.

Note: Taxes calculated on a transaction are displayed as invoice lines with the type of Tax. They match the details provided in the Edit Tax Line Details page. However, when taxes are specified as self-assessed, the application doesn't generate the corresponding tax invoice lines. The details are available only in the Edit Tax Line Details page.

Tax Treatment on Imported Documents for Payables Transactions

You can import transactions into Oracle Fusion Payables from any external source, such as Oracle Fusion Assets, Oracle Fusion Property Manager, Oracle Fusion Project Management, Oracle Fusion Intercompany, or a legacy system. You can import a document into the Payables application:

  • With tax lines already created

  • Without tax lines

If the tax lines are already available on an imported invoice, the application validates it against the existing tax setup, before successfully completing the import program.

Along with the validation of the available tax details, you can also determine additional tax applicability on the imported document based on the tax determinants on the document header and lines Use the Perform additional applicability for imported documents option available in the configuration owner tax options to select whether Oracle Fusion Tax runs the tax applicability process to identify missing taxes on an imported document.

Taxes not included in the imported document are marked as self-assessed, if self-assessment applies to the transaction. This approach also applies to imported documents that don't have any tax detail lines, but have tax determinants to calculate tax.

Tax Calculation on Payables Transactions Using Tax Point Basis

Taxes are calculated on payables transactions using the tax point basis, the type of transaction and matching criteria.

Following are the payables transactions with varying matching scenarios that are subject to tax determination:

  • Unmatched invoice

  • Invoice matched with a purchase order

  • Invoice matched with a receipt

  • Invoice matched with a consumption advice

  • Correction invoice

Unmatched Invoice

Taxes are calculated on the invoice based on the tax attributes.

Invoice Matched with a Purchase Order

Taxes are calculated on the invoice based on the tax attributes. If the option Enforce tax from reference document is enabled, the invoice uses the tax rate code on the purchase order and the corresponding rate period on the invoice date. The difference between purchase order taxes and invoice taxes is recorded using tax variance distributions.

Invoice Matched with a Receipt

Taxes are initially calculated on the invoice based on the tax attributes. When the tax point basis is Invoice, Accounting, or Payment, no further processing is required. When the tax point basis is Delivery, the delivery-based tax is reprocessed based on the configuration owner tax options and the receipt accounting status, as follows.

Allow Delivery-Based Tax Calculation Report Delivery-Based Taxes on Tax Point Date Result

Not enabled

 

 

New tax point basis is Invoice.

Enabled

Receipt

Receipt date

If receipt accounting is:

  • Complete, and the corresponding tax line is available, then tax is prorated on the invoice based on quantity matched. If a corresponding tax line is not available, then the tax point basis is set to Invoice.

  • Not complete, then tax is recalculated using the receipt date as the transaction date, and the tax rate percentage on this date is used.

Enabled

Invoice

Receipt date

Tax is recalculated using the receipt date as the transaction date and marked as reportable on the invoice.

Enabled

Invoice

Invoice date

Tax is marked as reportable on the invoice.

The difference between receipt taxes and invoice taxes is recorded using tax variance distributions. If taxes are not configured for receipts, then the corresponding purchase order taxes are used for calculating the tax variance distributions.

Invoice Matched with a Consumption Advice

Taxes are calculated on the transaction line based on tax attributes. All delivery-based taxes on the consumption transaction are prorated on the invoice.

Correction Invoice

The tax determination process copies the taxes from the original invoice. The tax point basis of Delivery on the tax is updated to Invoice, and marked as reportable.

Examples of Tax Point Handling on Procure-to-Pay Transactions

Specify the events for the tax point basis to identify the appropriate date to account and report your transaction taxes to the tax authorities. You can define the event for reporting of taxes at various levels within tax setup for determining the tax point date. The following scenarios illustrate tax calculation using the tax point basis and tax point date on procure-to-pay transactions.

Transaction dates for the scenarios are:

Transaction Date

Purchase order

01-Mar-yy

Goods receipt

08-Mar-yy

Invoice capture

15-Mar-yy

Invoice accounting

18-Mar-yy

Invoice payment

16-Apr-yy

Scenario 1

Assumptions in this scenario are:

  • A delivery-based tax is mandated to be reported to the tax authority on its delivery date.

  • The delivery document is considered as an official document for reporting and compliance purposes.

  • Other taxes with a different tax point basis are assessed at this point for accruing and tracking the possible transaction liability.

The following table describes the tax point details when the configuration owner tax options for a payables invoice are defined as:

  • Allow delivery based tax calculation: Selected

  • Report Delivery-Based Taxes on: Receipt

  • Tax Point Date: Receipt date

Tax Point Basis Basis Transaction Tax Point Date Details Available on

Invoice

Invoice capture

15-Mar-yy

Invoice tax lines

Delivery

Good receipt

08-Mar-yy

Goods receipt tax lines

Accounting

Invoice accounting

18-Mar-yy

Invoice distributions in General Ledger

Payment

Invoice payment

16-Apr-yy

Invoice payment distributions in General Ledger

When the tax point basis is Delivery, taxes are calculated using the receipt accounting process based on the tax attributes on the receipt. The receipt date is considered as the tax point date and the recoverable portion of the tax is also accounted as part of receipt accounting.

Scenario 2

Assumptions in this scenario are:

  • A delivery-based tax is mandated to be reported to the tax authority on its delivery date.

  • The invoice is considered as an official document for reporting and compliance purposes.

  • Tax information is captured and reported directly on the invoice, although the delivery date becomes the basis for tax calculation.

  • On the delivery event, taxes available on the purchase order are used for accruing the transaction liability.

The following table describes the tax point details when the configuration owner tax options for a payables invoice are defined as:

  • Allow delivery based tax calculation: Selected

  • Report Delivery-Based Taxes on: Invoice

  • Tax Point Date: Receipt date

Tax Point Basis Basis Transaction Tax Point Date Details Available on

Invoice

Invoice capture

15-Mar-yy

Invoice tax lines

Delivery

Good receipt

08-Mar-yy

Invoice tax lines

Accounting

Invoice accounting

18-Mar-yy

Invoice distributions in General Ledger

Payment

Invoice payment

16-Apr-yy

Invoice payment distributions in General Ledger

When the tax point basis is Delivery, taxes are calculated on the invoice based on the tax attributes on the receipt. The receipt date is considered as the tax point date and the recoverable portion of the tax is also accounted as part of invoice accounting.

Scenario 3

Assumptions in this scenario are:

  • A delivery-based tax is mandated to be reported to the tax authority on its delivery date.

  • The invoice is considered as an official document for reporting and compliance purposes.

  • The invoice accompanies the goods and it is registered along with its receipt. Therefore, the delivery date is always the same as the invoice date.

  • Tax information is captured and reported directly on the invoice using the invoice date as the basis for tax calculation.

The following table describes the tax point details when the configuration owner tax options for a payables invoice are defined as:

  • Allow delivery based tax calculation: Selected

  • Report Delivery-Based Taxes on: Invoice

  • Tax Point Date: Invoice date

Tax Point Basis Basis Transaction Tax Point Date Details Available on

Invoice

Invoice capture

15-Mar-yy

Invoice tax lines

Delivery

Good receipt

08-Mar-yy

Invoice tax lines

Accounting

Invoice accounting

18-Mar-yy

Invoice distributions in General Ledger

Payment

Invoice payment

16-Apr-yy

Invoice payment distributions in General Ledger

When the tax point basis is Delivery, taxes are calculated on the invoice based on the tax attributes on the invoice. The invoice date is considered as the tax point date and the recoverable portion of the tax is also accounted as part of invoice accounting.

Tax Calculation on Delivery Transactions Using Tax Point Basis

Tax calculation can be configured for your delivery transactions using the tax point basis to meet your legal and business requirements.

Following are the delivery transactions that are subject to tax determination:

  • Goods receipt

  • Receipt corrections

  • Return to supplier

  • Consumption

  • Goods shipment

Goods Receipt

Use the configuration owner tax options for payables standard invoices to determine how taxes are calculated on a goods receipt. If taxes are not configured for receipts, the receipt accounting process references the corresponding purchase order taxes to create accrual distributions for the nonrecoverable taxes.

The setup options are as follows:

  • If the Allow delivery-based tax calculation option is enabled, taxes are not calculated on the receipt.

  • If the Allow delivery-based tax calculation option is enabled, and the Report Delivery-Based Taxes on option is set to Receipt, taxes are calculated on the receipt based on the tax attributes. Taxes are reported with a tax point basis of Delivery except for receipts against a consignment purchase.

Note: If either of the following two options is set on the purchase order, taxes are not calculated on the receipt under any conditions:
  • The Invoice Match option is set to Order.

  • The Accrue at Receipt option is set to No.

Receipt Corrections

Taxes are recalculated based on the corrected quantity using the transaction date of the original receipt.

Return to Supplier

Taxes are prorated based on the original receipt, and they are reported with a tax point basis of Delivery. The original receipt shows the adjusted values.

Consumption

Taxes are prorated based on the receipt transaction of the consigned goods. Since this transaction reflects transfer of ownership of consigned goods that are already received and registered, taxes with a tax point basis of Delivery are reported.

Goods Shipment

Taxes are not calculated for a goods shipment transaction, including return shipments using return material authorizations. Taxes are calculated based on the corresponding receivables invoice.

Calculate Taxes on Receivables Transactions

Examples of Tax Handling on Receivables Transactions

The tax determination process uses your tax configuration setup and the details on the Oracle Fusion Receivable transaction to determine which taxes apply to the transaction and how to calculate the tax amount for each tax that applies to the transaction.

Oracle Fusion Tax determines taxes on these transactions based on the transaction information and the tax configuration. Receivables captures tax determinants as a part of the transaction and line information. View tax lines on entering transaction header and line information.

Set up Receivables nonrecoverable tax accounts to record:

  • Tax amounts on earned and unearned discounts

  • Adjustments that you cannot claim as a deduction against your tax liability

Also, set up finance charge tax accounts to record tax amounts on finance charges that are used as a deduction against overall tax liability.

Examples of tax handling on Receivables transactions are discussed in the following sections:

  • Standard Receivables transactions

  • Credit memos

Standard Receivables Transactions

Oracle Fusion Tax automatically calculates transaction taxes based on the document details and the relevant tax configuration. You can override the tax attributes to change the tax calculated or enter manual tax lines. However, this depends on your security settings and the options specified during tax setup.

Credit Memos

Receivables calculates taxes on both On Account credit memos and Applied credit memos.

Tax calculation for On Account credit memos is identical to Receivables invoices. The only difference is that if your credit memo lines are a negative amount, calculated tax amounts are also negative.

Create an Applied credit memo at the transaction header level or at the transaction line level. At the header level, your entry is controlled by the Automatically derive tax from lines option. If this option is selected, you can only enter a line credit percentage or a line amount. The tax credit percentage is populated automatically, which is same as the line credit percentage.

When the Automatically derive tax from lines option isn't selected, there are three options available to you for crediting transactions:

  • Line Only: You enter only the line credit percentage or amount. Only transaction lines are credited. Tax isn't credited.

  • Line and Tax: You must enter the same credit percentage for both the line and tax. The line amount and tax amount are credited proportionately to each transaction line and tax line of the transaction.

  • Tax Only: You enter tax credit percentage or amount. The tax amount is credited proportionately to each tax line of the transaction.

For example, you have a transaction with two transaction lines each having two calculated taxes:

  • Transaction Line 1: 1000 CAD

    • Tax A: 100 CAD

    • Tax B: 50 CAD

  • Transaction Line 2: 2000 CAD

    • Tax A: 0 CAD

    • Tax B: 100 CAD

If you do a tax only credit of 50%, the taxes are credited as follows:

  • Transaction Line 1:

    • Tax A: -50 CAD

    • Tax B: -25 CAD

  • Transaction Line 2:

    • Tax A: 0 CAD

    • Tax B: -50 CAD

If you already created a line only or tax only credit, your remaining line percentage and tax percentage isn't the same. If you want to credit the entire balance, click the Credit Entire Balance button. Even though the line and tax percentages are different, you can save and complete your applied credit memo.

For a line level credit, select and credit individual transaction lines. The tax amounts are credited in proportion to the transaction line amount being credited. In the previous example, if you credit transaction Line 1 by -100 CAD, the taxes are credited in proportion:

  • Transaction Line 1: -100 CAD

    • Tax A: -10 CAD

    • Tax B: -5 CAD

How Receivables Transaction Attributes are Used in the Tax Determination Process

Transaction header and transaction lines capture the information that's used to determine the taxes on a transaction line.

Attributes That Affect Tax Determination

The attributes influencing the tax calculation are:

  • Transaction header attributes:

    • Transaction date

    • Legal entity

    • Business unit

    • Taxation country

    • Document fiscal classification

    • Ship-to customer

    • Ship-to customer site

    • Ship-to customer address

    • Bill-to customer

    • Bill-to customer site

    • Bill-to customer address

  • Transaction line attributes:

    • Line amount

    • Quantity

    • Warehouse

    • Product fiscal classification

    • Product category

    • Product type

    • Tax classification code

    • Transaction business category

    • Intended use

    • User-defined fiscal classification

    • Exemption handling

    • Exemption certificate

    • Exemption reason

How Tax Is Determined

Oracle Fusion tax uses the transaction header and line attributes, in conjunction with the tax setup, to determine taxes applicable to your Receivable transaction lines. If your calculated tax amount is incorrect, check the values of transaction header and line attributes.

Your warehouse location, bill-to and ship-to address, product type, product fiscal classification, and intended use are most commonly used attributes in tax calculation. This is when you haven't configured the regime determination set as STCC (standard tax classification code) in the configuration owner tax options. If you have configured STCC as the regime determination set, check the value of the tax classification code on the transaction lines. If calculated taxes are still incorrect, there may be:

  • Incorrect or missing association of product fiscal classification or intended use for the inventory item you entered on the transaction line

  • Incorrect or missing party fiscal classification for customer party or party site

  • A problem with the tax configuration

Example of Additional Tax Determining Factors on a Receivables Transaction Line

Enter additional tax determining factor information on Oracle Fusion Receivables transaction lines. Tax is calculated on the transaction based on the tax configuration and tax rules setup, as well as any additional tax information that you enter. You can only enter additional information for imported lines. You can't apply additional tax information to manually entered lines.

Scenario

After reviewing the tax calculated on a sales invoice, you determine that the tax calculation isn't as expected. You expected to see a reduced rate applied to line 2, but the full tax amount was calculated. You evaluate the additional tax determining factors and identify changes that are needed to correct the tax calculation.

Transaction Details

The transaction details are as follows:

  • Transaction total: 3240 CAD

  • Tax total for the PST tax regime: 240 CAD

    • Line 1: 1000 CAD Facilities Rental

    • Line 2: 2000 CAD Hotel Room

Analysis

The tax total amount was more than you expected to be calculated, 8% on the transaction total. You review the detail tax lines and determined that tax was calculated for both lines for the PST tax regime. The tax was correct for line 1, but the tax for line 2 should have been calculated at a reduced rate.

Line 2 is for the hotel room, which is under the PST tax regime, but should have a reduced rate of 5%. The rate is driven by product fiscal classification and you determine that this attribute is currently not populated for this transaction line. To correct this, override the product fiscal classification with the hotel classification in the Additional Tax Determining Factors region.

Resulting Transaction Tax Amount

The product fiscal classification you entered satisfies a condition in a Determine Tax Rate rule for the applicable tax regime and tax, and therefore the tax determination process applied a reduced rate of 5% to line 2. The total tax amount for the transaction is 180 CAD ((1000*.08)+(2000*.05)). This is what you expected.

A tax exemption applies to a specific customer or to a combination of customer and specific product. For example, in the United States, the Federal Government acting as a customer is exempt from tax on direct sales. Many states provide exemptions on sales of necessities such as food and clothing.

To set up tax exemptions for a third party, you must complete the appropriate tax exemption setup for the tax regimes and taxes concerned. Create a separate record for each tax exemption that applies to the third-party customer or customer site. The tax determination process applies the tax exemption to the transaction line based on the tax exemption setup and tax handling specified on the transaction line.

Tax Exemption Setup

Before you can create a tax exemption record, you must enable the tax exemption options at the appropriate levels:

  • Set the Tax Exemption Override Control profile option. It controls the display of tax handling on the transaction line to apply and update customer tax exemptions to transactions.

  • Set the Allow tax exemptions option at the levels that correspond to the tax exemption. For example, if the tax exemption refers to the tax status of a particular tax, then you must set this option at the tax regime, tax, and tax status levels.

  • Set the Allow exemptions option in the configuration owner tax option for each event class for which calculation based on tax exemption is to be enabled. For the exemptions party basis select whether the bill-to party tax exemption records are to be considered or the sold-to party tax exemption records. In some cases the sold-to party could be different from the bill-to party.

Tax Exemption Record

A tax exemption record identifies the nature of the tax exemption, the configuration owner, and tax regime, and, where applicable, the related tax, tax status, tax rate, and tax jurisdictions to which the tax exemption belongs.

During the life of a tax exemption, the tax exemption status can often change. The possible statuses are: Primary, Manual, Unapproved, Discontinued, and Rejected. Because the status of the tax exemption affects its applicability on the transaction line, you must update the tax exemption record each time the status changes. These rules apply to the status of the tax exemption:

  • Tax exemptions with a status of Primary apply to all transactions of the customer or customer site.

  • Tax exemptions with a status of Manual or Unapproved apply to specific transactions of the customer or customer site.

  • Tax exemptions with a status of Discontinued or Rejected are not considered during tax calculation.

You also specify the method of calculating the tax exemption percentage on the tax exemption record:

  • The Discount or surcharge type decreases or increases the original rate by the percentage you enter.

    If the discount is 15% off the standard rate and the standard rate is 10%, enter 85 as the tax exemption percentage. This defines a discount rate that is 85% of the original 10%, or 8.5%.

    If the surcharge is 10%, enter 110 as the tax exemption percentage. This defines a surcharge rate that is 110% of the original 10%, or 11%.

  • The Special rate type replaces the original rate with the percentage you enter.

    Enter the special rate percentage that replaces the standard rate. If the original rate is 10%, and the special rate is 5%, enter 5 as the tax exemption percentage.

Tax Exemption Applied to the Transaction Line

You use the Tax Handling field on the transaction line to select the applicable tax exemption value. Tax exemptions are processed in different ways depending upon the value you select:

  • Require: The customer is required to pay the tax. Tax exemptions do not apply to the transaction line, even if defined.

  • Exempt: Enter the tax exemption certificate number and the customer tax exemption reason. Tax exemptions are processed in this way:

    1. Consider tax exemptions with a status of Primary, Manual, or Unapproved.

    2. Verify that the transaction date is within the tax exemption effective date range.

    3. Verify that the transaction tax exemption reason and tax exemption certificate number match the tax exemption reason and certificate number. If you do not enter a certificate number, the tax determination process still looks for a matching tax exemption.

    4. If the tax determination process doesn't find a tax exemption matching these conditions, it creates a tax exemption with the status Unapproved and 100% discount.

  • Standard: This tax handling is for exemptions of the Primary status only. You do not have to enter the tax exemption certificate number or customer tax exemption reason.

    The tax determination process looks for a tax exemption with the Primary status and an effective date range that includes the transaction date. If more than one tax exemption applies, the most specific tax exemption is used, in this order:

    1. Customer and product tax exemption for tax rate and tax jurisdiction.

    2. Customer and product tax exemption for tax rate.

    3. Customer and product tax exemption for tax status and tax jurisdiction.

    4. Customer and product tax exemption for tax status.

    5. Customer and product tax exemption for tax.

    6. Customer only tax exemption for tax rate and tax jurisdiction.

    7. Customer only tax exemption for tax rate.

    8. Customer only tax exemption for tax status and tax jurisdiction.

    9. Customer only tax exemption for tax status.

    10. Customer only tax exemption for tax.

  • Exempt, manual: You manually enter a certificate number and exemption reason. The application process creates a tax exemption with a status of Unapproved and a 100% discount is applied.

Note: The application first checks the customer site party tax profile for the exemption records. If there is no exemption record defined within the site, then it checks the customer party tax profile.

After applying tax exemption to a transaction line, the tax determination process calculates the tax rate using the tax exemption type. The tax exemption type is defined in the tax exemption record. The sequence of the tax rate value determination is:

  1. Determine the basic tax rate through the Determine Tax Rate rule type or by the default specified for the tax.

  2. Apply exception which is based on the product.

  3. Apply tax exemption which is based on the party (customer) and its relationship with the transacting organization (legal entity or business unit). Optionally, it can be based on a specific product.

For example, the tax rate determined is 6%, the special rate for a tax exception is 5%, and the tax exemption defined is a 2% discount. The tax exemption discount is applicable to the tax rate after the tax exception. Therefore, the 5% tax rate is modified by a 2% discount (5% * (100%-2%) = 4.9%). If the tax exemption defined is of the rate type of Special rate then the special rate is substituted and the applicable tax exception has no impact.

For manual tax lines, no additional processing is performed and tax exemptions are not considered. A manual tax line suggests that you have specific business requirements for a particular transaction to apply a manual tax. No additional processing is performed for manual tax lines to avoid any applying conflicting or inconsistent values to the user-entered tax line. The tax calculation on a manual tax line is the standard formula of tax amount is equal to the taxable basis multiplied by the tax rate.

Examples of Impact on Tax Lines for Receivables Transaction Changes

You can change one or more transaction header or line attributes after tax calculation is performed and when the transaction isn't in the complete state. The change in the value of a tax determining attribute may result in altogether different taxes.

Changes to Transaction Information Examples

The following scenarios illustrate the impact of certain changes to the transaction header or line attributes.

  • When you change your ship-to location from an address in Nevada to California, both states in the US, the California sales taxes applicable to the California address calculates instead of Nevada. In this example, Oracle Fusion Tax deletes the Nevada sales tax lines and creates the California sales tax lines. Similarly, on changing your warehouse in the UK to another warehouse in France, you see French VAT on your transaction instead of Great Britain VAT.

  • When taxes are charged based on quantity sold, a change in quantity impacts the tax amount. In this case, Oracle Fusion Tax updates the tax amount on an existing tax line.

    Note: You can delete an entire transaction or a transaction line in Oracle Fusion Receivables. If you do so, the corresponding tax lines are also deleted.
  • When your customer provides you with an exemption certificate and expects tax exemption, you review the tax line and notice that the exemption isn't applied. In this situation, instead of configuring the exemption certificate number in Oracle Fusion Tax for which you may not have privileges, enter the exemption certificate number and exemption reason on a transaction line and select Exempt, manual as the tax handling option. In this case, the application applies 100% exemption.

  • When all the tax determinants have correct values and taxes are incorrect, review and correct your tax configuration. If you must process the transaction immediately and you have the necessary privileges, update the calculated tax line. You can change the tax jurisdiction, tax status, tax rate name, tax rate, tax amount, or the inclusive option. Oracle Fusion Tax derives the dependent tax line attribute defaults to expedite your tax line updates. For example, if you update the tax jurisdiction on a tax line, the tax rate name, tax rate, and tax amount are updated based on the default tax rate code for the tax jurisdiction you entered. If you update tax rate, Oracle Fusion Tax recalculates the tax amount based on the new tax rate you entered.

    Note: You aren't allowed to delete a tax line. Instead of deleting a tax line, you can update the tax amount to zero. When you update the tax amount, depending upon the tax configuration, either the tax rate or taxable amount is recalculated.
  • When you complete a transaction and notice the taxes are incorrect on the transaction, Oracle Fusion Receivables allows changing the transaction provided no activity exists. You can change the status on the transaction to incomplete and update the transaction header, transaction line, or tax line attributes. If your transaction has activity against it, the Incomplete button is disabled. Create a credit memo for a tax credit or make a tax adjustment for your transaction.

Example of Tax Treatment on Receivables Adjustments

Your Receivables activity on the adjustment determines if your adjustment is stored in the Oracle Fusion Tax repository. Adjustments you create using the Receivables activity with the Recoverable option not selected are only stored in Oracle Fusion Receivables. The concept behind nonrecoverable adjustments is that even though you adjust tax, you still pay the calculated tax on your invoice to the tax authority. If you select the Recoverable option for your Receivables activity, adjustments are also recorded in the Oracle Fusion Tax repository, which is the foundation for tax reporting.

Only invoice adjustments, line adjustments, and tax adjustments are stored in the Oracle Fusion Tax repository depending upon the Receivables activity you entered on your adjustments.

The tax calculation for tax adjustments is similar to header level tax only Applied credit memos. The adjusted tax amount is proportionately adjusted to each tax line of the transaction.

Scenario

For example, you have a transaction with two transaction lines each having two calculated taxes:

  • Transaction Line 1: 1000 CAD

    • Tax A: 100 CAD

    • Tax B: 50 CAD

  • Transaction Line 2: 2000 CAD

    • Tax A: 0 CAD

    • Tax B: 100 CAD

When you create a tax adjustment of -125 CAD, the taxes are adjusted as follows:

  • Transaction Line 1:

    • Tax A: -50 CAD

    • Tax B: -25 CAD

  • Transaction Line 2:

    • Tax A: 0 CAD

    • Tax B: -50 CAD

In this case, the adjustment transaction stored in Oracle Fusion Tax has line amounts as zero and taxes as shown in the example.

Line adjustments adjust transaction line amounts only. Tax amounts aren't adjusted. The adjusted invoice lines amounts are stored as an adjustment transaction in Oracle Fusion Tax.

You can also create an invoice adjustment. It adjusts the entire invoice by making the balance due of zero. The adjusted amounts of the invoice lines and corresponding tax lines are stored as an adjustment transaction in Oracle Fusion Tax.

Tax Treatment on Imported Documents for Receivables Transactions

You can import transactions into Oracle Fusion Receivables from another Oracle Fusion application, such as Oracle Fusion Project Management, Oracle Fusion Intercompany, and Oracle Fusion Order Orchestration Management, or from a legacy system. Import transactions with tax lines if you don't want to recalculate taxes that have been calculated in the external application. Oracle Fusion Tax doesn't calculate any additional taxes when you import a transaction with tax lines.

Oracle Fusion Tax validates the imported tax lines and raises an error if a tax line isn't correct. Most common errors with imported tax lines are:

  • Your business unit has not subscribed to the tax regime.

  • There is an invalid tax code (tax classification code), tax, tax status code, tax jurisdiction code, or tax rate code.

You can import a transaction without tax lines as well. Oracle Fusion Tax calculates all applicable taxes on each transaction line. If you don't need to apply any tax on a specific imported transaction line, populate the Taxable indicator (TAXABLE_FLAG) with N in the AutoInvoice interface for that transaction line. Use the Amount Includes Tax indicator (AMOUNT_INCLUDES_TAX_FLAG) to determine inclusive and exclusive taxes. You can specify one of the following values:

  • Leave blank: Taxes are marked inclusive or exclusive based on the tax configuration.

  • Y: All taxes are included in the line amount. Oracle Fusion Tax calculates all taxes as inclusive taxes overriding the tax configuration.

  • N: No tax is included in the line amount. Oracle Fusion Tax calculates all taxes as exclusive taxes overriding the tax configuration.

Tax Calculation on Receivables Transactions Using Tax Point Basis

Taxes are calculated on a receivables invoice, debit memo, or credit memo based on the type of transaction and its source.

Following are the receivables transactions that are subject to tax determination:

  • Stand-alone invoice

  • Invoice created in Oracle Fusion Distributed Order Orchestration

  • Invoice adjustment

  • Credit transaction based on an invoice

Stand-Alone Invoice

Taxes are calculated based on the tax attributes on the invoice. The tax point basis of Delivery for a tax is changed to Invoice as no shipment reference is available.

Invoice Created in Distributed Order Orchestration

Taxes are calculated based on the tax attributes on the invoice. For a tax with the tax point basis of Delivery, recalculation is done using the shipment date as the transaction date. The tax is then marked as reportable to the tax authorities.

Invoice Adjustment

All taxes calculated as part of invoice adjustments have the tax point basis of Accounting. They are reported at accounting time, regardless of the source transaction status.

Credit Transaction Based on an Invoice

Taxes available on the original invoice are copied. The tax point basis of Delivery for a tax is changed to Invoice. The tax is then marked as reportable to the tax authorities.

Note: If you do not expect to correct or report a delivery-based tax to the tax authorities using a credit transaction, then cancel the copy of the tax line.

Example of Tax Point Handling on Order-to-Cash Transactions

Specify the events for the tax point basis to identify the appropriate date to account and report your transaction taxes to the tax authorities. You can define the event for reporting of taxes at various levels within tax setup for determining the tax point date. The following scenario illustrates tax calculation using the tax point basis and tax point date on order-to-cash transactions.

Transaction dates for the scenario are:

Transaction Date

Sales order

01-Mar-yy

Goods shipment

08-Mar-yy

Customer billing

15-Mar-yy

Bill accounting

18-Mar-yy

Payment receipt

16-Apr-yy

Scenario

Assumptions in this scenario are:

  • A delivery-based tax is mandated to be reported to the tax authority on its shipment date.

  • The invoice document is considered as an official document for reporting and compliance purposes.

  • Tax information is captured and reported directly on the invoice, although the shipment date becomes the basis for tax calculation.

The following table describes the tax point details for a sales invoice:

Tax Point Basis Basis Transaction Tax Point Date Details Available on

Invoice

Customer billing

15-Mar-yy

Invoice tax lines

Delivery

Goods shipment

08-Mar-yy

Invoice tax lines

Accounting

Bill accounting

18-Mar-yy

Invoice distributions in General Ledger

Payment

Payment receipt

16-Apr-yy

Invoice payment distributions in General Ledger

When the tax point basis is Delivery, taxes are calculated on the invoice based on the tax attributes on the shipment, through Oracle Fusion Distributed Order Orchestration. The shipment date is considered as the tax point date and the tax liability is accounted as part of invoice accounting.

Calculate Taxes on Intercompany Transactions

Tax Calculation on Intercompany Transactions

Intercompany transactions occur between two related legal entities in an enterprise or between business units in the same legal entity. Transactions occurring between two legal entities are called intercompany transactions, and transactions occurring between two groups within one legal entity are called intracompany transactions.

It's a legal requirement in some countries to generate Receivables and Payables invoices and credit memos between the transacting entities during intercompany transactions. In certain scenarios taxes are applicable on these transactions. Oracle Fusion Tax interfaces with the intercompany Oracle Fusion Receivables and Oracle Fusion Payables transactions and calculates taxes on them, as applicable.

Intercompany transactions are generated through:

  • Oracle Fusion Intercompany: Handles noninventory-linked transactions

  • Oracle Fusion Inventory: Handles inventory-linked transactions involving multiple entity processes, such as global procurement and drop shipment

Oracle Fusion Tax supports the calculation of taxes on the Receivables and Payables transactions generated through both inventory and noninventory processes.

How Tax on Intercompany Transactions is Calculated

Oracle Fusion Tax enables you to calculate taxes on the intercompany Oracle Fusion Receivables and Oracle Fusion Payables transactions. You can use both standard tax classification code and regime-based determination methods.

In intercompany transactions, a Receivables transaction is first generated and then the applicable taxes get calculated. The Receivables transaction information, including the tax determinants, is then populated into the Payables interface tables. While creating and importing the Payables transaction from the interface tables, you can validate the taxes calculated on the Receivables transaction for their applicability on the Payables transaction. If applicable, the application applies them to the Payables transaction.

If you use the regime-based tax determination method, applicability for any additional taxes is also determined, with reference to the available tax determinants and the tax rules configured in the tax setup.

How Taxes on Intercompany Transactions Are Calculated

Some of the key process and setup considerations that you must note to ensure smooth calculation of taxes on the intercompany transactions are:

  • When a Receivables transaction is generated through the intercompany process, the tax determinants appear as defaults. This is based on the information defined in the country defaults and the application tax options. Oracle Fusion Tax calculates the corresponding taxes accordingly. If you need to revise the taxes, make the Receivables transaction incomplete and revise the tax determinants to recalculate taxes based on your revised values.

  • While copying the Receivable transaction information to the Payables interface tables, the transaction business category of SALES_TRANSACTION available on the Receivables transaction is replaced with PURCHASE_TRANSACTION. If there are any specific tax rules driven based on the transaction business category, you must configure them for both Receivables and Payables transactions.

  • To apply the same tax on the Payables transaction that's calculated on the Receivables transaction, ensure that both the receiver and provider business units and legal entities are subscribed to the applicable tax regime on the transaction date.

  • When you use the standard tax classification code method, the tax calculation process expects the same tax classification code to be available on both the Receivables and Payables transactions. If you define a new tax rate code that may be applied to an intercompany transaction, ensure that it's specified for usage on both Receivables and Payables transactions. If the tax rate code used on the Receivables transaction is a migrated tax rate code, then ensure that the same tax rate code is defined for the Payables business unit also.

  • If the tax amount on the Receivables invoice is zero, then the Payables invoice can have a zero-rated tax rate associated, resulting in a zero tax amount. However, if the derived tax amount on the Payables transaction isn't zero, then the corresponding tax rate needs an offset tax rate associated to it and the offset tax setup enabled to zero out the intercompany tax amount.

  • If there is a possibility of the Payables tax rate being different from the Receivables tax rate, then select the Allow ad hoc tax rate option on the Payables tax rate code.

  • Establish customer and supplier relationships for enabling invoicing between two related organizations during intercompany transactions. Use the corresponding party tax profiles of these representative customers and suppliers to configure the required tax setup.

Account for Tax on Transactions

Set up default tax accounts for the taxes in a tax regime to post the tax amounts derived from your transactions. The tax accounts you define for tax serve as default accounting information for tax rates and tax jurisdictions. You can override the defaulted accounts. Configure the tax recoverable or liability account for the tax recovery rate. Accounts assigned to the tax rate and recovery rate are used when the taxes are applicable to the transaction.

Set up tax accounts for a primary ledger or in combination with a business unit. The calculated tax amounts are posted to the accounts specified for a business unit. If those accounts aren't available, tax accounts defined for the primary ledger are used. These are default accounts and the actual accounts that are used for accounting depend on the subledger accounting configuration.

For a tax, either assign new tax accounts or use accounts from an existing tax. This depends on the option selected in the Tax Accounts Creation Method attribute for the tax. If you choose to use accounts from an existing tax, specify another tax as the source tax. All the tax account details that you set up at the source tax level are copied into the Tax Accounts region as read only values. You can't edit the details or create new records.

Tax Accounts

Define tax accounts for a tax, tax rate, and tax jurisdiction. Tax accounts are:

  • Tax Expense: A Payables tax account that records tax amounts from invoice distributions; or a Receivables tax account that record net changes generated by adjustments, earned and unearned discounts, and finance charges. Receivables activities such as discounts and adjustments reduce the receivable amount, and are therefore considered an expense. This occurs only if the adjustment type has tax handling.

  • Tax Recoverable: An account that records tax recovery amounts. If you set up recovery rates for a tax that you also intend to self-assess, then define a tax recovery account for the associated recovery rates.

  • Tax Liability: An account that records tax liability amounts.

    Note: If you intend to use different accounts for tax recovery and liability then set up the recovery account for the tax recovery rate. This account is used to debit the recoverable tax amount while the account on the tax rate is used to account for tax liability.
  • Interim Tax: An account that records interim tax recovery or liability before the actual recovery or liability arises on a payment of an invoice. You must set up an interim tax account for taxes and tax rates that have tax point basis set as payment.

  • Accounts for Receivables activities:

    • Finance Charge Tax Liability: An account that records tax amounts on finance charges that are used as a deduction against overall tax liability.

    • Nonrecoverable Tax Accounts: Accounts that record tax amounts on earned and unearned discounts and adjustments that you can't claim as a deduction against tax liability.

    • Expense and Revenue Accounts: Accounts that record net changes generated by adjustments, earned and unearned discounts, and finance charges. Receivables activities such as discounts and adjustments reduce the receivable amount, and are therefore considered an expense.

Accounting for Payables Transactions

Default accounting for taxes for Payables transactions is based on the nature of the tax, tax recoverability, and the tax account assigned to relevant tax configuration.

Accounting for Payables transactions is dependent on the category, such as for:

  • Unmatched standard invoices

  • Purchase order matched invoices

  • Receipt matched invoices

  • Prepayments

Unmatched Standard Invoices

The following table describes the accounting for taxes for unmatched standard invoices:

Nature of Tax Recoverability Debit Account Credit Account Notes

All taxes

Recoverable

Tax Recoverable

Payables

The recoverable tax account is derived from the tax recovery setup. If its not defined there, its derived from the tax rate.

All taxes

Nonrecoverable

Tax Expense

Payables

The debit to the tax expense account applies only when the tax expense account is specified for the tax rate. If it is not defined, then the debit is applied to the charge account for the transaction line.

Deferred to tax point of Payment

Recoverable

Interim Tax

Payables

Recovery for these taxes is deferred until payment. On payment, the interim tax account is credited with a debit to the tax recovery account.

Deferred to tax point of Payment

Nonrecoverable

Tax Expense

Payables

 

Self-assessed

Recoverable

Tax Recoverable or Liability

Tax Recoverable or Liability

As these taxes are to be assessed and paid by the first party organization. The credit is posted to the tax liability account instead of the payables account.

Self-assessed

Nonrecoverable

Tax Expense

Tax Recoverable or Liability

 

Offset tax

Recoverable

Tax Recoverable or Liability

Payables

Offset taxes are always 100% recoverable. These taxes are defined with a negative rate, and an invoice distribution with negative amount is created. The Payables amounts between the base tax and the offset tax are negated. What remains is the debit to tax expense or tax recovery account and negative debit to tax liability account.

Purchase Order Matched Invoices

The tax accounting approach for purchase order matched invoices is similar to unmatched invoices. The key areas where the purchase order matched invoice varies from unmatched invoice accounting are:

  1. When there is no tax expense account specified for the tax rate, the charge account that is used to account for the corresponding item line is used.

  2. When there are differences in taxes between the purchase order and the invoice, these are identified as variances and are accounted accordingly. Tax variances are accounted only for nonrecoverable tax amounts. Recoverable tax amounts are accounted as mentioned previously. The variance accounts are defined as a part of Oracle Fusion Payables configuration.

  3. Account derivation for the Tax Invoice Price Variance and the Tax Rate Variance depends on the item used and the accrual method as described in the following table:

    Item Type Accrue at Receipt: Enabled Accrue at Receipt: Disabled

    Expense

    Purchase order charge account is used

    Tax expense account is used

    Inventory

    Purchase order variance account that is defaulted from the Oracle Fusion Inventory organization parameters receiving accounts

    Purchase order variance account that is defaulted from the Inventory organization parameters receiving accounts

The accounting treatment of tax variance is:

Nature of Tax Recoverability Variance Type Debit Account Credit Account Notes

All taxes

Nonrecoverable

Tax Rate Variance

Tax Expense, Charge Account

Payables

Invoice distribution for tax rate variance is posted to the account that is used for accounting for nonvariance tax amounts. If the tax rate has a tax expense account then the same account is used. If not, the charge account (used for accounting for the item line) is used.

All taxes

Nonrecoverable

Invoice Price Variance

Invoice Price Variance Account

Payables

This is the difference in tax amount between the purchase order and the invoice due to invoice price changes. This amount is posted to the invoice price variance account. The account is the same as the one used for accounting for the variance with the item line.

All taxes

Nonrecoverable

Exchange PO Rate Variance

Exchange PO Rate Variance Gain or Loss Account

Payables

This is the difference in tax amount between the purchase order and the invoice due to conversion rate changes. This amount is posted to the conversion rate variance gain or loss account. The account is the same as the one used for accounting for the variance with the item line.

Receipt Matched Invoices

The only difference in accounting between the regular Payables invoices and receipt matched invoices is the account to which nonrecoverable taxes are debited. This amount is debited to the Payables accrual account instead of the expense or charge account.

The following table describes the accounting treatment for a receipt matched invoice:

Nature of Tax Recoverability Debit Account Credit Account

All taxes

Nonrecoverable

Payables Accrual Account

Payables

Accounting treatment for variances applicable to a receipt matched invoice is the same as a purchase order matched invoice.

Prepayments

When the applied amount handling for a tax is Recalculated, taxes are recalculated on the prepayment application. The difference in the tax amount between the prepayment and the invoice is posted to the tax difference account. Depending on the amount change, positive or negative, the amount is either credited or debited to this account.

If the tax is partially recoverable then only the nonrecoverable tax amount is posted to the tax difference account.

Note: The tax difference account is applicable only when there is one-to-one full application of the prepayment to the invoice and when there is difference in the tax amount involved.

Accounting for Tax on Receivables Transactions

Accounting for taxes applicable to Receivables transactions is based on the tax and Receivables AutoAccounting configuration. This generates interim accounting while the subledger accounting configuration derives the final accounting.

You can control the derivation of values for each segment in the tax accounts that apply to the transaction with the AutoAccounting process. Set the value of the segment to a constant to post taxes for all transactions in a business unit to the same account. You can also base it on one of the source tables:

  • Bill-to site: The tax account specified at the bill-to business purpose of each address defined within the customer account

  • Sales representative: There is no tax account defined for the sales representative. However, the revenue account is used to pick the corresponding segment for the tax general ledger account

  • Transaction types: The tax account specified for the transaction type

  • Taxes: The tax recoverable or liability account specified for the tax rate

    If the tax has a tax accounting creation method option of Use accounts from an existing tax then use the tax accounting configuration for the source tax as the basis.

Each segment within a tax general ledger account is derived from any of the given sources. The application validates the derived code combination before stamping a transaction.

Tax accounting for all the Oracle Fusion Receivables invoice transactions remains the same. The tax liability is credited to the tax liability account when the tax point basis for tax is not Payment. If you set tax point basis to Payment, the tax amount is credited to the interim account. The tax liability is accounted when the invoice is paid, for example, when a receipt is applied to the invoice.

Accounting for Tax on Applied Credit Memos

For applied credit memos, accounting is based on the Receivables profile option of AR: Use Invoice Accounting for Credit Memos. When you set this to:

  • Yes, Receivables uses the account references given on the original invoice for the credit memo.

  • No, Receivables references the AutoAccounting options.

Accounting for Tax on Receivables Adjustments and Miscellaneous Receipts

The tax rate code source you specify for the Receivables activity determines whether Receivables calculates and accounts for tax on adjustments, discounts, and miscellaneous receipts assigned to this activity.

If you specify a tax rate code source of Invoice, then Receivables uses the tax accounting information defined for the invoice tax rate codes to automatically account for the tax. Specify one of the following Tax Rate Code Sources:

  • None: Allocate the entire tax amount according to the general ledger account source specified. Choose this option if you don't want to separately account for tax.

  • Activity: Allocate the tax amount to the asset or liability tax accounts that you define for this Receivables activity. This source is available if the Receivables Activity Type is Miscellaneous cash.

    The asset tax rate code is your collected tax account or tax received. Use this tax rate code to account for tax on miscellaneous receipts.

    The liability tax rate code is your deductible account or tax paid. Use this tax rate code to account for tax on miscellaneous payments.

  • Invoice: Distribute the tax amount to the tax accounts specified by the tax rate code on the invoice. You can't choose this option if the Activity Type is Miscellaneous cash or Late charges.

    In the event of a tax adjustment to an invoice with zero amount tax distributions, don't set the adjustment activity's tax rate code source to Invoice.

FAQs for Calculate Transaction Taxes

What happens if I make the transaction line inclusive of tax?

If you make a transaction line inclusive of tax, the line amount includes the tax amount.

To update the inclusiveness, select Allow override and entry of inclusive tax lines at the tax or tax rate level. Enabling this option at tax rate level takes precedence over enabling it at any other level. After you update the inclusive option setting, the taxable amount and transaction amount is recalculated.

You can specify if transactions are tax inclusive at the tax regime level.

Options include:

  • Standard inclusive handling: The line amount on the transaction line is inclusive of tax.

  • Standard noninclusive handling: The line amount on the transaction line is exclusive of tax. The tax amount is added to the line amount.

  • Special inclusive handling: Use this option for special tax handling, such as a taxable base amount based upon the line amount rather than the adjusted line amount, or based on the line amount plus another tax amount.

All taxes defined under that tax regime are inclusive for all transactions.

You can also vary the treatment by tax and tax rate by selecting the appropriate tax inclusive option at each level. In certain cases, parties prefer to provide or receive invoices with invoice amounts inclusive of taxes. You set this option on the party tax profile for the appropriate parties. This option overrides the tax inclusive handling setting at the tax level, but not at the tax rate level.

Why isn't the tax amount included in the line amount of a transaction line?

The line amount doesn't include the tax amount if you don't enable the Allow override and entry of inclusive tax lines option.

You can't update the inclusiveness of a tax line in these scenarios:

  • When prepayments are applied to invoices

  • When an invoice is partially or fully paid

  • When withholding taxes are applied

  • When the invoice amount is encumbered

  • When the invoice is matched to a purchase order or a receipt

  • When the invoice is of the type Expense Report or Intercompany

  • When a credit or debit memo is applied to an invoice

  • When the tax line is already specified as a self-assessed part of an offset tax

  • When the tax line is canceled

Accounting-related setups affect tax calculation, when the tax rules are defined based on the accounting determining factor class. Changing or creating a distribution affects tax calculation.

Select the Enforce tax from account option for the configuration owner and event class. This option allows any defined Account-Based Direct Tax Rate rules to be processed, superseding any other rules used in tax calculation.

When does tax get calculated or recalculated on a Receivables transaction?

Taxes on a Receivables transaction are determined when you save, edit, or complete a transaction.

If taxes are already calculated and you save, edit, or complete a transaction, Oracle Fusion Tax recalculates taxes. This ensures that any changes on the transaction or transaction line are considered for calculating accurate taxes.

To view the tax details on your transaction:

  1. Go the Edit Tax Transactions page.

  2. Click on the tax amount or click the Edit icon next to the Tax field.

    The tax details appear in the Detail Tax Lines dialog box.

Note: For a complete transaction, you can only view the tax lines. Navigate to the Detail Tax Lines dialog box to view the tax lines.

Depending on your tax configuration and security privileges, you can view and update the following:

  • Tax line attributes

  • Tax jurisdiction

  • Tax status

  • Tax rate name

  • Tax rate

  • Tax amount

Note: You can also enter a tax line for a specific transaction line manually.

Verify Transaction Tax Configuration

Tax Simulator is a tool to simulate tax calculation results for your purchase and sales transactions. Variations in transaction attributes such as location details, transacting parties, and items can impact the tax calculation results. These variations can be previewed in the Tax Simulator to confirm your tax configuration.

The Tax Simulator lets you:

  • Preview the workings of your tax configuration before you perform tax calculations on live transactions in a subledger application.

  • Test new tax configuration in conjunction with existing tax configuration to preview the resulting tax calculation.

  • Identify the root cause when tax calculation isn't what's expected on live data.

To validate your tax configuration, enter or copy a variety of transactions that are a representation of your business flows and verify that your tax is calculated as expected.

Note: The simulated tax calculations don't affect live data.

Principle aspects of the Tax Simulator include:

  • Functions and verifications

  • Analysis tools

  • Restrictions

Tax Simulator Functions and Verifications

The Tax Simulator lets you simulate the tax determination process on transactions without creating live data.

The Tax Simulator enables you to complete these functions:

  • Enter transactions to simulate tax calculation based on various scenarios.

  • Simulate the characteristics of the Payables, Purchasing, and Receivables transactions and create the tax line for each type of operation.

  • View the detail tax lines generated for each transaction line.

  • View the tax rules that were applied to a tax calculation and the processed result for each rule type.

The Tax Simulator provides these verifications:

  • How the tax rules that you have defined for one or more taxes work in conjunction with the defaults that you have set for them.

  • Whether a tax rule that you expected to have a successful evaluation for a given set of transaction conditions achieved the desired result.

  • How the options that you have set at various levels are reflected in the results of tax determination processing. If a certain transaction doesn't process taxes as you predicted, then you can use the simulated result to troubleshoot the cause. For example:

    • You thought that there were product tax exceptions, but they weren't used on a transaction as expected. You then discover that the Allow tax exceptions option wasn't enabled on the applicable tax rate record.

    • Your supplier record has the option enabled to use offset taxes, but the offset taxes don't appear. You then discover that the tax rate record doesn't have an offset tax rate associated with it.

Tax Simulator Analysis Tools

The Tax Simulator provides these pages to analyze the tax calculations on simulated transactions:

  • Simulator Transaction page: View the details of the simulated transaction.

  • Tax Line Details page: View the calculated tax lines for the simulated transaction. For each transaction line, the page displays:

    • Applicable tax and tax configuration details

    • Whether the result was determined by a tax rule or the default value. If a tax rule was applied, the page displays the associated tax condition set.

  • Rule Type page: View details of all enabled rules for a rule type. The page displays the:

    • Processed result for each rule

    • Associated tax condition sets and their processing details and results

Tax Simulator Restrictions

The following restrictions apply when using the Tax Simulator:

  • Payables tax recovery processing can't be simulated.

  • Application-specific actions on transactions or transaction lines, such as canceling, deleting, and reversing, aren't tested.

  • User control settings such as tax profiles options, manual tax line entry, and tax exemption override control aren't tested or verified.

Copy transactions from Oracle Fusion Payables, Oracle Fusion Purchasing, and Oracle Fusion Receivables and use them to test the entire tax and related configuration. Once the Tax Simulator copies data into the simulated transaction, you can update and delete lines as needed.

Settings That Affect Subledger Transactions

Oracle Fusion Tax uses your search criteria defined for the application, legal entity, and business unit to provide a listing of subledger transactions. The Tax Simulator copies the attributes of the selected transaction and populates them on the Create Simulator Transaction page.

What Subledger Data Is Copied

The Tax Simulator copies the following data from the subledger transaction:

  • Transaction header information, including supplier and customer information

  • Transaction lines with a line type of line or freight

  • Line-level tax attributes

  • Discounts and exceptions for Receivables transactions

  • Ship-to information for Receivables transactions

The Tax Simulator doesn't copy:

  • Any referencing, applied, or adjusted documents

  • Tax-only lines

  • Canceled lines

Changing Transaction Attributes

Update and delete lines and attributes as needed. The only fields that you can't update are the document event class and source document number.

Use the Tax Simulator to validate new and existing tax setup for procure-to-pay and order-to-cash transactions. The format of the Tax Simulator interface is a lightweight version of the procure-to-pay and order-to-cash work areas, allowing ease of data entry and flow of item lines to tax calculation and tax lines.

In addition to manual entry of transaction data, you can copy live data to view or modify in the Tax Simulator. You can purge the data using a process request.

The Tax Simulator gives you visibility into transaction attributes that impact tax calculation, including:

  • Required transaction attributes

  • Additional tax attributes

  • Reference, adjusted, and applied documents

Required Transaction Attributes

The required fields for transaction entry and tax calculation are:

  • Document Event Class

  • Document Date

  • Legal Entity

  • Business Unit

  • Currency

  • Supplier

  • Customer

  • Line Amount

  • Line Type

  • Line level:

    • Line Class

    • Line Type

    • Item

    • Product Type

Additional Tax Attributes

In addition to the required fields for transaction entry and tax calculation, the Tax Simulator gives you visibility into additional tax attributes that are commonly used to drive tax calculation based on tax rules.

The following additional tax attributes are organized in a tabbed region for entry and update:

  • Header level:

    • Taxation Country

    • First-Party Tax Registration Number

    • Third-Party Tax Registration

    • Ship-from Location

  • Line Level:

    • Line Class

    • Item

    • Product Type

    • Tax Inclusive

    • Transaction Business Category

    • Assessable Value

    • Tax Classification

    • Product Category

    • Intended Use

    • Product Fiscal Classification

    • User-Defined Fiscal Classification

    • Location of Final Discharge

    • Account

All of these attributes can drive tax determination or tax calculation directly based on tax rules and tax formulas.

Reference, Adjusted, and Applied Documents

Reference, adjusted, and applied documents can have tax calculation impacted by the documents they're associated with. The Tax Simulator presents information on some of the impacts. Others, such as variances in distributions, aren't presented since accounting isn't part of the Tax Simulator functionality.

When a document is simulated or copied in the Tax Simulator, the application doesn't copy referencing, adjusted, and applied documents. You must copy each document separately and associate them in the Tax Simulator.

The following is a list of the available event classes and associations that can be made in the Tax Simulator:

Application Header Level Document Event Class Item Line Attribute Line Class Reference, Adjusted, and Applied Tab: Document Event Class Reference, Adjusted, and Applied Tab: Document Number Reference, Adjusted, and Applied Tab: Document Date Reference, Adjusted, and Applied Tab: Document Line Number

Payables

Standard Invoice

Invoice

Purchase Order (not required)

Select the purchase order document number.

Populated when the document number is selected and it's read only.

When you enter the document number of the purchase order this list is available with the respective invoice lines.

Payables

Standard Invoice

Prepayment

Prepayment Invoice

Select the prepayment invoice number.

Populated when the document number is selected and it's read only.

When you enter the document number of the prepayment invoice this list is available with the respective prepay invoice lines.

Payables

Standard Invoice

Credit Memo

Standard Invoice

Select the credit memo document number.

Populated when the document number is selected and it's read only.

When you enter the document number of the invoice this list is available with the respective invoice lines.

Payables

Prepayment Invoice

Column not displayed

Tab not displayed

Tab not displayed

Tab not displayed

Tab not displayed

Purchasing

Purchase Order

Column not displayed

Tab not displayed

Tab not displayed

Tab not displayed

Tab not displayed

Receivables

Invoice

Column not displayed

Tab not displayed

Tab not displayed

Tab not displayed

Tab not displayed

Receivables

Credit Memo

Column not displayed

Invoice

Required

Populated when the document number is selected and it's read only.

When you enter the document number of the invoice this list is available with the respective invoice lines.

Enabling Taxes for Transactions and Simulation

Tax Simulator lets you choose the status of the taxes to consider for evaluation. The transaction header region in the Tax Simulator includes an Evaluate Taxes attribute.

You can set this attribute to:

  • Enabled for simulation: Only taxes with the status Enable Tax for simulation are selected for processing.

    When you select Enable tax for simulation, the tax is available only for processing on Tax Simulator transactions and isn't calculated on live transactions.

  • Enabled for transactions: Only taxes that are live or have both Enable tax for simulation and Enable tax for transactions selected on the tax record are considered for processing.

    This mimics the behavior of the processing for active taxes in the subledgers and is the default value when simulating or copying subledger transactions in the Tax Simulator.

  • Enabled for transactions and simulation: Both taxes that have a status of Enable tax for simulation and taxes that have a status of Enable tax for simulation and Enable tax for transactions selected are processed.

    This lets you see behavior of both active and inactive taxes on the same transaction. When you select this option, the tax is considered active and is available for processing on both live transactions and Tax Simulator transactions.

    This is a useful tool when the calculation of one tax can impact another such as in the case of compounding tax formulas for tax calculation.

Transactions pass key tax drivers relating to parties, products, places, and processes captured on the transaction to Oracle Fusion Tax for tax determination. Using these tax driver values as input, the tax determination process performs a series of process steps utilizing the defined:

  • Tax configuration

  • Tax rules for each rule type

From the transaction tax details it might not be clearly evident as to which tax rule from your defined tax setup got processed or if the calculated tax is the result of the relevant rule condition. Using the Tax Simulator you can verify the:

  • Tax determination process breakdown

  • Details of the tax rules that are evaluated for each rule type, such as

    • Result type, default, or rule-based

    • Rule result

    • Sequence of the rule evaluation

    • Successful, unsuccessful, and not evaluated tax rules

    • Corresponding determining factor sets, condition sets, and detailed condition elements

  • Other key factors that are analyzed and applied during the tax determination process

The tax line details in the Tax Simulator lists out the following key process results that the tax determination process considers for each tax applied on the transaction:

  • The tax determination methodology applied, such as regime determination or standard tax classification codes

  • The rounding criteria applied, including rounding rule, rounding level, minimum accountable unit, and tax precision

  • The types of taxes evaluated, for example, those enabled for transactions or enabled for simulation

Use the Tax Line Details page to review the transaction level details that influence all tax lines and view the calculated tax lines for your simulated transaction. Each tax line for each transaction line number is listed in the Tax Line Details table with the corresponding tax configuration details.

Open the Tax Line Details page by clicking the View Tax Lines button on the Simulator Transaction pages from the Manage Simulator Transactions task.

Attributes in tax line details include:

  • Configuration owner, document event class, and source

  • Allow tax applicability

  • Regime determination set

  • Default rounding level

Configuration Owner, Document Event Class, and Source

The configuration owner identifies the business unit or legal entity on the transaction that owns the tax configuration. For example, if the business unit is subscribing to the data from the legal entity, the legal entity is identified, rather than the business unit.

In order for a tax regime to be applicable on the transaction, the identified configuration owner has to subscribe to the applicable tax regime.

The Source field can have a value of:

  • Configuration owner tax options: The application derives the event class-specific tax options from a configuration owner tax option that's defined for the combination of configuration owner, event class, and date range.

  • Event class: The application derives the tax options from the default predefined values for the event class.

These tax options include the:

  • Option to calculate tax

  • Regime determination set

  • Options to allow manual entry and override

  • Rounding defaults

  • Details regarding tax calculation on referencing documents

When the value is Event class, there are no configuration owner tax options defined for the combination of configuration owner, event class, and date. The predefined values are used including the predefined value of TAXREGIME for the regime determination set.

Allow Tax Applicability

The two allow tax applicability attributes identify whether the tax configuration setup provides for the calculation of taxes on the transaction. Both attributes must be set to Yes to calculate tax.

The two occurrences indicate the following:

  • The first occurrence indicates if the Allow tax applicability option is selected on the predefined event class or applicable configuration owner tax options setup.

    • If you don't set up configuration owner tax options, the default value is set to Yes based on the event class mapping.

    • If configuration owner tax options are set up and the Allow tax applicability option isn't selected, a value of No appears.

  • The second occurrence validates the hierarchy of tax applicability from the Supplier and supplier site definitions for procure-to-pay transactions

    • Supplier Site Party Tax Profile definitions

    • Supplier Party Tax Profile definitions

    • Supplier Site definitions

    • Supplier definitions

When the Allow tax applicability option is:

  • Not selected at any of the applicable levels, tax isn't calculated.

    Note: For supplier party tax profile, taxes are calculated even when the Allow tax applicability option is not selected.
  • Selected at a lower level and not selected at a higher level, tax isn't applicable.

If the Allow Tax Applicability field on the Tax Lines Detail page is No, click the link to see where this option isn't selected.

Regime Determination Set

The regime determination set indicates how the application determines the tax regimes to use for this transaction.

The regime determination set can either be:

  • A value other than STCC (standard tax classification code). A determining factor set of type regime determination that includes transaction factors of location types is used to derive the owning country on the transaction for tax purposes. Taxes are calculated for the tax regimes that you defined for the derived country. The predefined regime determination set is TAXREGIME, this value always populates if the source is Event class.

    Drill down to the regime determination set details to identify the precedence of locations while determining the tax regime country.

  • The value STCC. The additional tax attribute of Tax Classification set at the Line Level Tax Attributes tab derives tax calculation either directly or based on the Tax Classification Based Direct Rate Rules.

For example, if your simulated transaction doesn't have any tax lines, check the regime determination set value. If it is set to STCC and the Tax Classification field on the Line Level Tax Attributes tab is blank, tax isn't calculated. Review your application tax options to verify the:

  • Defaulting hierarchy that specifies both the sources to use for tax classification codes

  • Order in which the application searches these sources to find a valid tax classification code at transaction time

Default Rounding Level

The default rounding level shows in order of precedence, the party type, source, and rounding level value. At a minimum, a default value is set. The options are:

  • Header level rounding: Header level rounding applies rounding to calculated tax amounts once for each tax rate per invoice.

  • Line level rounding: Line level rounding applies rounding to the calculated tax amount on each invoice line.

The rounding rule is the method used to round off taxes to the minimum accountable unit. To know how rounding is determined or to modify the setup, use the dialog details in conjunction with the party information.

Use the Tax Line Details page to review the calculated tax lines with the corresponding tax configuration details for each transaction line.

Open the Tax Line Details page by clicking the View Tax Lines button on the Simulator Transaction pages from the Manage Simulator Transactions task.

Details include:

  • Tax regime, tax, tax jurisdiction, tax status, tax rate code, and tax rate

  • Tax amount and taxable amount

  • Tax enabled status

  • Indicators such as: inclusive, self-assessed, manually entered, and tax only line

  • Calculated tax amount and tax base modifier rate

  • Legal justification text

  • Place of supply

For the tax lines associated with each transaction line, you can review the attributes that are specific to each tax line, such as:

  • Rounding rule

  • Inclusive

  • Minimum accountable unit and tax precision

  • Tax rate modification

Rounding Rule

The Rounding Rule dialog box shows the rounding details for the transaction line. The rounding rule is:

  • Used to round off taxes to the minimum accountable unit.

  • Derived based on the rounding level specified in the hierarchy visible in the dialog box with level one taking precedence over level 2 and so on.

When the rounding level is at the:

  • Header level, rounding is applied to calculated tax amounts once for each tax rate per invoice.

  • Line level, rounding is applied to calculated tax amounts on each invoice line.

Inclusive

The Inclusive dialog box shows the setup related to enforcing inclusiveness or exclusiveness of tax on a transaction line by order of precedence.

The inclusive details for the line number are:

  • Precedence: The level 0 precedence is the highest, overriding all other values and level 5 precedence being the lowest or the default if none others are populated.

  • Inclusive: The values are Yes or blank with blank meaning an option wasn't selected for inclusive handling.

If the transaction input value tax inclusive is set to Yes this means this option was overridden directly on the transaction.

Minimum Accountable Unit and Tax Precision

The Minimum Accountable Unit and Tax Precision dialog box shows the derivation of these values by precedence:

  • Minimum accountable unit is the smallest unit a tax amount can have.

  • Tax precision is a one-digit number that indicates the number of decimal places to which to calculate a tax.

For example, a precision of 0 rounds to a whole currency. To round off a calculated tax amount of 1.366 to 1.37, define:

  • Tax precision of 2

  • Rounding rule of Up or Nearest

  • Minimum accountable unit of .01

If the results aren't what you expected, the dialog window gives you more information on the source of the definitions. The precedence of 1 is the highest with the definition at the currency level superseding the definition at the tax level.

Tax Rate Modification

The Tax Rate Modification dialog box identifies if any applicable rate adjustments are applied. The dialog box displays:

  • Tax rate name

  • Tax rate before modification

  • Attributes to identify if exemptions or exceptions or both are applied

  • Tax rate after each of these modifications

For example, you can see if an exemption was applied to the original tax rate.

For the tax lines associated with each transaction line, you can review the tax rule details that are specific to each tax line, such as:

  • Rule results

  • Rule conditions

  • Tax rules process results

Rule Results

Use the Rule Results table to view the tax rules that are applied to each tax line for each tax calculation process. For each rule type, you can:

  • View the processed result.

  • Verify whether the result was determined by a tax rule or the default value.

When a tax rule is applied, you can determine the associated tax rule from the Rule Results table.

Rule Conditions

By selecting the Determine Tax Registration row, you can review the rule conditions that are successfully evaluated in the Determine Tax Registration: Rule Conditions table.

The following table shows the attributes displayed:

Determining Factor Class Class Qualifier Tax Determining Factor Name Operator Value or From Range To Range

Registration

Ship-from party

Registration Status

Equal to

Not Registered

 

Tax Rules Process Results

Use the Tax Rules Process Results table to view the processing and evaluation of the rules associated with a rule type. For each associated rule, the process result consists of one of the following:

  • Failed

  • Successful

  • Not evaluated

For each rule in the Tax Rules Process Results table, you can also review:

  • Rule information: Provides a summary of details associated with the tax rule, such as configuration owner, tax regime, tax, effectivity, rule order, and tax determining set code.

  • Event information: Provides additional information for the event class if the rule is defined as applicable to a specific event class.

  • Geography information: Provides additional parent geography and geography details defined for a specific tax rule if the rule is geography specific.

For each tax rule listed in the Tax Rules Process Results table, you can drill-down to the associated rule conditions to review the condition details.

For example, if your transaction is correctly using tax rules to calculate taxes but is applying an incorrect tax rule, use the Tax Rules Process Results table to review the rule order and the associated rule conditions for each tax rule.

Example of Using Tax Simulator to Analyze Tax Not Calculating as Expected

Use the Tax Simulator to create a simulated transaction and analyze the tax calculations of your transaction before you enable your setup for live data or to troubleshoot existing tax setup. Use the header level details in the Tax Simulator to troubleshoot issues where tax is not calculated as expected.

The following scenario illustrates when you can use the Tax Simulator to evaluate a Payables invoice where you expect tax to be calculated but it isn't calculated.

Scenario

If a transaction in the subledger work area isn't calculating tax, you can simulate the transaction in the Tax Simulator.

Note: The transaction date in the Tax Simulator is updated to the system date, so modify the transaction date to the expected date of tax calculation.

The following attributes help you identify the issue:

  • Document Date: Ensure that the:

    • Document date is correct.

    • Regime to rate setup and applicable tax rules are effective on the tax calculation date.

  • Configuration Owner: Determine if the:

    • Configuration owner is the legal entity or the business unit.

    • Configuration owner has a subscription definition to the tax regime when you're expecting tax to calculate.

    • Subscription is effective on the document date.

  • Document Event Class and Source: Determine if the source is accurately reflected. The source identifies if the tax options are derived from the:

    • Predefined event class

    • Configuration owner tax options that are defined

      If they're derived from the configuration owner tax options, you can:

      • Query the configuration owner tax option definition by the configuration owner and document event class.

      • View the options based on transaction date effectivity.

      Other attributes and options, such as Allow Tax Applicability, Tax Regime Determination, and Enforce tax from reference document are included in configuration owner tax options.

      Issues with tax calculation may occur if the regime determination isn't defined properly. Select either the standard tax classification code or the TAXREGIME determination, but not both. If the transaction is between different countries, verify the precedence of regime determination points to the expected country of taxation.

  • Allow Tax Applicability: Ensure that this option is set to Yes to calculate tax. This is the value defined on the source value in the Document Event Class and Source attribute. There is another Allow Tax Applicability attribute in this region that checks the value from the applicable party.

  • Regime Determination Set: Ensure this attribute is set accurately to indicate if tax calculation is determined by the standard tax classification code or by the predefined TAXREGIME regime determination set.

  • Default Rounding Level: This doesn't impact tax calculation but identifies the rounding derivation.

  • Third-party location: Determine if the third-party locations are accurately reflected. These attributes help identify locations on the transaction that may influence regime determination and tax calculation based on location. There may be other locations set at a line level that may impact tax calculation as well.

  • Allow Tax Applicability: Ensure that this option is set to Yes to calculate tax. This option is derived from supplier, supplier site, third party, and third-party site tax profile depending on the event class. Tax applicability must be set to Yes for all relevant party tax profiles in order to calculate tax. If tax applicability is set to No for either attribute then tax is not processed.

  • Evaluate Taxes: Verify the status of the tax you are expecting to calculate. You can select which types of taxes to evaluate for applicability: taxes Enabled for transactions, Enabled for simulation, or Enabled for transactions and simulation. This helps identify what status of taxes is evaluated for calculating tax.

FAQs for Verify Tax Configuration

Create a simulated transaction when you want to control the testing of specific transaction attributes or when you don't have transaction data available, such as for a new tax regime.

Copy a subledger transaction to examine either the transaction itself or your tax configuration. For example, when you want to:

  • Review tax calculation on a transaction that yielded correct but unexpected results.

  • Evaluate variations of a transaction to see the tax impact.

  • Evaluate major changes to your tax configuration.

What's the difference between taxes enabled for transactions and taxes enabled for simulation?

You can specify whether a tax is enabled for transactions, simulation, or both. When you're testing, you can enable a tax for simulation to ensure that the setup is correct. Once you're done testing, you can then enable the tax for actual transaction tax processing.

When you create a simulator transaction, you can select which types of taxes to evaluate for applicability: taxes enabled for simulation only, taxes enabled for transactions only, or both.