2Manufacturing Plant Management

This chapter contains the following:

Overview of a Manufacturing Plant

A manufacturing plant is a type of inventory organization in which the manufacturing of a product is carried out. It can be further categorized into in-house manufacturing plant and contract manufacturing plant. You can set an organization as a manufacturing plant in the Manage Inventory Organization Parameters page.

In a manufacturing plant, you use a work definition to define the manufacturing process for a product. You associate the appropriate operations, operation items, and resources in a work definition to specify the process and resource requirements. You use a work order to track the production activities. You perform the production transactions to report materials, operations, and resources either in an order-based or orderless execution. You can also print various reports specific to manufacturing activities.

Before you go about defining a manufacturing process or doing your day-to-day manufacturing duties, you are required to perform a few setups. The following shows the flow of setups that you must perform:

  1. You must create the required work areas for the manufacturing plant. Every manufacturing plant has a specific region allocated for performing the production activities. This region is referred to as work area. A manufacturing plant must have at least one work area defined for it. You can also define multiple work areas for a manufacturing plant.

  2. You must create the resources that you need in the manufacturing plant. A resource can be of type labor or equipment.

  3. You must create the required work centers and associate each of them with the appropriate work area. A work center is a production unit that consists of people or equipment.

  4. Then, you must allocate the resources to the desired work centers. The Manage Work Centers page enables you to assign shifts and maintain a work center resource calendar for each resource.

  5. Although optional, the next logical step is to create the standard operations where you define the attributes and assign specific resources to it. So, when you allocate a standard operation to a work definition, all its attributes and resources are carried forward to the work definition. This helps save effort and time by enabling reuse of the standard operation.

How You Manage Work Areas

A work area is the specific region in a manufacturing plant where the production activities are executed. In other words, a work area identifies a physical, geographical or logical grouping of work centers.

At least one work area must be defined for a manufacturing plant. However, a plant can have one or more work areas defined within it. A work area consists of one or more work centers within it. A production operator can report material, resource, and operation transactions performed at work centers that belong to a specific work area.

The Manage Work Areas page in the Work Definition work area serves as a starting point to create, edit, and delete the work areas. To access the Manage Work Areas page, based on your security privilege, you can do either of the following:

  • In the Work Definition work area, in the Tasks pane, click the Manage Work Areas link in the Plant Setup category.

  • in the Setup and Maintenance work area, use the following:

    • Offering: Manufacturing and Supply Chain Materials Management

    • Functional Area: Manufacturing Master Data

    • Task: Manage Work Areas

Creating, Editing, and Deleting a Work Area

You create a work area by providing a unique name and code for the work area.

A work area is deactivated or reactivated by updating the Inactive On field. When a work area is deactivated, it is not available for further use until it is reactivated.

You can delete or deactivate a work area only if no work center is associated with it.

Note: You can query, create, update, and delete a work area using a REST API.

The resources are the labors, equipment, and tools allocated to a work center. Resources can be categorized into two types: Labor and Equipment.

The Manage Resources page in the Work Definition work area serves as a starting point to search, create, edit, and delete the resources.

However, based on your security privileges, you can also access the Manage Production Resources task in the Setup and Maintenance work area, by using the following:

  • Offering: Manufacturing and Supply Chain Materials Management

  • Functional Area: Manufacturing Master Data

  • Task: Manage Production Resources

Create, Edit, and Delete Resources

You must create a resource with unique name and code. Additionally, you must define the resource type and usage UOM of the resource at the time of creation.

You cannot change the usage UOM of a resource once associated with a work center. You cannot edit the resource type when a resource instance is associated. However, you can edit all other resource attributes at any time. You can schedule a resource in a work definition and work orders only if the usage UOM belongs to the UOM class as defined in the profile SCM Common: Default Service Duration class.

Note: The usage UOM field indicates the unit of measure for the planned and actual usage of a resource.

A resource is deactivated or reactivated by updating the Inactive On field. When a resource is deactivated, it is not available for further use until reactivated. You can delete a resource only if the resource is not assigned to any work center.

Note: You can query, create, update, and delete a production resource using a REST API.

Resource Instances

Resource instances are granular representations of a resource in the Manufacturing application. One or more resource instances can be associated to a resource. You can identify a resource by a unique code known as the identifier, and a name.

You can also optionally assign a primary work center to the resource instance to identify the department or location that the resource instance primarily works in.

Tip: Assigning a primary work center to a resource instance helps in quick assignment of the resource instance in work orders and work execution transactions.

You can deactivate or reactivate a resource instance by updating the Inactive On field. When a resource instance is deactivated, it is not available for further use until reactivated. You can delete a resource instance only if it is not used in work execution.

Associate Labor Resource Instances

A labor resource instance represents the names of actual people working in the manufacturing shop floor. A labor resource instance can be optionally associated to a person record available in the Oracle Trading Community Architecture. Such associations are unique within a plant.

Note: Oracle Trading Community Architecture represents a repository of person and organization parties identified through their party usages. Manufacturing allows the subset of Oracle Trading Community Architecture person party records to assign person type resource instances.

Person types in Oracle Trading Community Architecture that can be associated to a resource instance and can be any of the following:

  • Employee

  • Contingent Worker

  • Partner Contact

You can define persons of types Employees or Contingent Workers in Oracle Human Capital Management (HCM) and are automatically propagated to the Oracle Trading Community Architecture through the HCM- Oracle Trading Community Architecture auto-sync process.

You can set up persons of type Partner Contact in the Oracle CRM application, which are automatically available in the Oracle Trading Community Architecture.

Associate Equipment Resource Instances

An equipment resource instance represents the names of actual machines being used in the manufacturing shop floor. An equipment resource instance can optionally associated to an Asset Number defined in Maintenance Cloud. Such associations are unique within a plant.

Assets must be defined in a location corresponding to the plant and a location type work center in order to be eligible for association to the equipment resource instance.

Use the IoT Insights icon provided in the Equipment Resource Instances region, to drill down to the Machine Summary view in IoT Production Monitoring Cloud to view machine performance, real time sensor data, and insights into analytics, anomalies, predictions, and trends.

Set Up IoT Production Monitoring Integration

You can set up Third Party Applications in the Setup and Maintenance work area for IoT Production Monitoring integration.

To set up IoT Production Monitoring integration, you must opt in to enable this feature.

  1. In Oracle Fusion Applications Cloud, use the Setup and Maintenance work area to set up Third Party Applications. Create a third party application called IoT Production Monitoring which identifies the IoT Production Monitoring cloud instance that Manufacturing Cloud will integrate with.

  2. In the IoT Production Monitoring Cloud, go to Configuration, Settings, and set up the end point URL and other details required to integrate with Manufacturing Cloud.

Note: IoT integration currently supports drill down for only discrete manufacturing work orders and the equipment resource instances referenced in those work orders.

Work centers are specific production units that consist of people or equipment with similar capabilities. Each work center is associated with a valid work area and can be used for capacity requirement planning and detailed scheduling.

The Manage Work Centers page in the Work Definition work area serves as a starting point to perform the following tasks:

  • You can create, edit, and delete work centers.

  • You can add resources to a work center and allocate resources to different shifts.

  • You can view and manage exceptions associated to the resources.

However, based on your security privileges, you may have to manually add the Manage Work Centers task in the Setup and Maintenance work area, using the following:

  • Offering: Manufacturing and Supply Chain Materials Management

  • Functional Area: Manufacturing Master Data

  • Task: Manage Work Centers

Creating, Editing, and Deleting a Work Center

You create a work center by providing a unique name and code for the work center, and a valid work area to which the work center is associated.

A work center is deactivated or reactivated by updating the Inactive On field.

You cannot delete a work center if:

  • There is any resource associated with the work center.

  • The work center is being referenced in work definition operation.

  • The work center is being referenced in work order operation.

Note: You can query, create, update, and delete a work center using a REST API.

Adding Resources to a Work Center and Allocating Resources to a Shift

After creating a work center, you can add resources to it and then allocate shift hours to each resource.

The following table lists all the fields on the Manage Work Centers page and the descriptions of those fields to help you choose the required value for each field.

Field Description

Resource

The unique identifier of the resource. This is a required field.

Inactive On

The date on which the resource becomes inactive.

Default Units Available

Number of resource units available in a work center. This is a required field.

Available 24 Hours

Indicates whether a resource is available 24 hours a day. A resource that is not available 24 hours is available only during the shifts assigned to it.

Check Capable To Promise

Indicates whether the Global Order Promising engine considers the capacity of this resource during order promising.

Utilization

The percentage of the resource time available for the task. This is a required field.

Efficiency

The percentage of the time a resource takes to complete a task. This is a required field.

Utilization and Efficiency Percentages:

The utilization and efficiency percentages are by default set to 100 percent. When these percentages are set to less than 100, they extend the scheduled duration of the resource during work order scheduling. For example, if 2 hours of work is required to be done using resource LATHE1 starting from 9 AM on a specific work order, and if its efficiency is 50 percent, and utilization is 50 percent, then the scheduler will determine the end time for this resource as 5 PM. This is calculated as 2/ (0.5*0.5) = 8 hours.( the efficiency percentage of the resource and the utilization percentage of the resource is multiplied to get a value. Then the number of hours required to be done by the resource is divided by the derived value to determine the number of hours from the start time of a resource.)

Resource Allocation:

A resource is available in shifts if the Available 24 Hours field is not selected. When a shift-based resource is associated to a work center, the default units of the resource are automatically assigned to all the shifts of the plant. You can update the availability of resource units across the shifts as required.

For example, consider that you have defined two 8 hour shift for the work center WC1: Day Shift and Night Shift. You associate two units each of four resources R1, R2, R3, and R4 to the work center WC1. The following table shows the various possibilities of associating shifts to resources in a work center and the ways to implement the solutions:

Scenario Implementation

You want the resource R1 available for 24 hours a day.

Consideration: You have not associated the resource R1 to the work center WC1 yet.

Solution: Select the Available 24 Hours check box when associating the resource R1 to the work center WC1. Now, the two units of resource R1 are available 24 hours a day and you cannot assign any shift for it.

You want two units of the resource R2 available for the Day Shift only.

Consideration: You have already associated the resource R2 to work center WC1 with Available 24 Hours check box deselected.

Solution: In the Resource Availability region, in the Day Shift column, enter 2 against the resource R2. Now, the two units of resource R2 is available for Day Shift. For the Night Shift, the resource R2 has zero or Null value.

You want one unit of the resource R3 available for Day Shift and one unit of resource R3 available for Night Shift.

Consideration: You have already associated the resource R3 to work center WC1 with Available 24 Hours check box deselected.

Solution: In the Resource Availability region, in the Day Shift column, enter 1 against the resource R3 and in the Night Shift column, enter 1 against the resource R3. Now, one unit of resource R3 is available for the Day Shift and one unit of resource R3 is available for the Night Shift.

You want all the units of resource R4 available for both the Day Shift and Night Shift.

Consideration: You have already associated the resource R4 to work center WC1 with Available 24 Hours check box deselected.

Solution: In the Resource Availability region, in the Day Shift column, enter 2 against the resource R4 and in the Night Shift column, enter 2 against the resource R4. Now, two units of resource R4 is available for both the Day Shift and the Night Shift.

Viewing and Managing Resource Exceptions

You use the work center resource calendar to view and manage the exceptions related to the resources. In case of a conflict, the exceptions granted in the work center resource calendar override the exceptions granted in production calendar.

How You Manage Standard Operations

When you have similar operations in the manufacturing process, you can define them as standard operations which can then be reused in multiple work definitions and work orders.

Managing the Standard Operations

The Manage Standard Operations page in the Work Definition work area serves as a starting point to create a new standard operation and manage the existing standard operations.

The Manage Standard Operations page enables you to perform the following tasks:

  • Search for the standard operations

  • Create a standard operation

  • Edit a standard operation

  • Delete a standard operation

Search for the Standard Operations:

The Manage Standard Operations page shows all the standard operations along with their associated details. You can use the filter to search for a standard operation or restrict the list of standard operations to be displayed.

The following are some key usage points for the search feature:

  • You can search for a standard operation using the name, code, description, work center, or work center code of the standard operation.

  • You can select or deselect the Include inactive operations check box to include or exclude the standard operations that are inactive.

Create a Standard Operation:

The following is a brief procedure to create a standard operation:

  1. On the Manage Standard Operations page, click the Add icon. The Create Standard Operation dialog box opens.

  2. In the Create Standard Operation dialog box, you must enter or select certain values.

    The following table lists all the fields and the corresponding descriptions which helps you to enter or select the values as required in the Manage Standard Operations dialog box:

    Field Description

    Operation Type

    Specifies if an operation is executed in-house or outsourced to suppliers.

    Name

    The name of the standard operation.

    Code

    The code that uniquely identifies the standard operation. The operation code must be unique within the organization. The operation code cannot be updated when the standard operation is used in a work definition or a work order.

    Description

    The description of the standard operation.

    Work Center

    The name of the work center to which the standard operation is to be associated. Only the active work centers can be assigned to an operation.

    Work Center Code

    The unique code of the work center to which the standard operation is to be associated. The value is automatically derived based on the selected work center.

    Work Center Description

    The description of the work center to which the standard operation is to be associated. The value is automatically derived based on the selected work center.

    Count point

    Indicates that the standard operation completion must be explicitly reported. The Count point and Automatically transact attributes are mutually exclusive.

    Automatically transact

    Indicates that the standard operation is automatically completed, the pull components are backflushed, and the resources are automatically charged when the next count point operation is completed. The Count point and Automatically transact attributes are mutually exclusive.

    Inactive Date

    The date on which the standard operation becomes inactive.

    Attachments

    The attachments of type file, text, or URL in the standard operation.

    Default for automatic work definition

    Indicates that the standard operation is the default operation for automatic work definitions.

    Additional Manual Material Issue

    Specifies if operators can manually issue additional materials that are not defined in the work order with push supply type, or manually issue quantities greater than those specified in the work order. The possible values are Allow and Do not allow.

    Completions with Under Issues

    Specifies if operators can report operation completions when materials with push supply type have not been issued. The possible values are Allow, Allow with warning, and Do not allow.

    Completions with Open Exceptions

    Specifies if operators can report operation completions when there are open exceptions. The possible values are Allow, Allow with warning, and Do not allow.

    Note: A standard operation is called an optional operation when both the Count point and Automatically transact check boxes are deselected for it.
  3. In the Resources region, click the Add icon. A new row is added.

    The following table lists the fields on the Resources region of the Create Standard Operation dialog box and the corresponding descriptions which helps you to choose or select values in order to assign resources to an operation.

    Field Description

    Sequence

    The resource sequence of the standard operation resource. You can repeat a resource sequence to indicate the simultaneous resources.

    Resource

    The name of the resource. The associated resources must pertain to the designated standard operation work center and be active.

    Units Assigned

    The number of assigned resources. The assigned units cannot exceed the available units for the resource as defined in the work center resource availability definition.

    Basis

    The valid values are: Fixed and Variable. Select Fixed if the resource usage is fixed per product quantity produced. Select Variable if the resource usage varies with the product quantity produced.

    Usage

    The usage amount of the standard operation resource.

    Inverse Usage

    If the Usage field is entered, then the Inverse Usage field is calculated automatically. If the Inverse Usage field is entered, then the Usage field is calculated automatically.

    UOM

    The usage unit of measure as defined in the resource definition. This is a read only field inherited from the resource definition.

    Scheduled

    The indicator that the resource is a scheduled resource. A resource can be scheduled if the Resource UOM belongs to the UOM class defined in the profile option RCS_DEFAULT_UOM_SRVICE_DURATION_CLASS.

    Principal

    The indicator that a resource is the principal resource within a group of simultaneous resources. The simultaneous resources must have only one resource designated as principal resource.

    Charge Type

    The valid values are: Automatic and Manual.

    Note: The charge type must be Manual for an optional operation.

    Code

    The code of the resource. This is a predefined value derived from the resource definition.

    Inactive On

    The date on which the resource becomes inactive.

    Activity

    The predefined values are: Setup, Run, and Tear Down. The lookup can be extended by adding new values.

    Attachments

    Attachments of type file, text, or URL in the resource.

    Alternates

    Alternate resources are ranked by priority. Basis, Scheduled, and Charge Type are inherited from the primary resource and cannot be updated. Usage, Inverse Usage, and Units Assigned are defaulted from the primary resource definition and can be updated.

    Costing enabled

    The indicator that the resource cost is charged to the work order. This is a read only field inherited from the resource definition.

    Alternates

    Alternate resources are ranked by priority. Basis, Scheduled, and Charge Type are inherited from the primary resource and cannot be updated. Usage, Inverse Usage and Units Assigned are defaulted from the primary resource definition and can be updated.

    The following table lists the fields and their corresponding descriptions in the Supplier Operation Details section, required to choose or select values if you want to specify a supplier operation:

    Field Description

    Outside Processing Item

    An item that represents the value added service being performed on the assembly in outside processing. The item is defined in Product Information Management.

    Outside Processing Item Description

    The description of the outside processing item.

    Supplier

    The recommended supplier used in creating the requisition. The supplier is an external party who provides specialized manufacturing services to manufacture a product.

    Supplier Site

    A recommended supplier site.

    Lead Time UOM

    The unit of measure for the lead time of a supplier operation.

    Fixed Lead Time

    The fixed lead time for the operation and is independent of the order quantity.

    Variable Lead Time

    The variable lead time for the operation and is dependent on the quantity.

  4. Click Save and Close to save the standard operation.

Edit a Standard Operation:

In the Manage Standard Operations page, click the name of the standard operation that you want to edit. This opens the Edit Standard Operation dialog box. In the dialog box, you can do the following:

  • Update the following attributes: Name, Description, Inactive Date, and Attachments.

  • Update the Work Center attribute only if there are no resources associated with the standard operation.

  • You can add, delete, and update the resources and their alternates associated with the standard operation.

Delete a standard operation:

You can delete a standard operation in the Manage Standard Operations page. However, you cannot delete a standard operation if it is referenced in any of the work definitions or work orders.

Note: If you have enabled Electronic Signatures and Electronic Records, you can submit the standard operation for approval. An E-Signature page opens where you can view the status of the approval process of the standard operation.

Using Standard Operations

When you assign a standard operation to a work definition or a work order, all the attributes of the standard operation are inherited by the work definition or the work order. This includes the resources, descriptive flexfields, and attachments assigned to the standard operation.

You can use the standard operations in two different ways:

  • You can directly use a standard operation in a work definition operation. To refer, select the Referenced check box when adding the standard operation in the work definition or work order. This is called a referenced operation in work definition. In this case, when you make any changes to the standard operation, it is automatically reflected in the work definitions that reference the standard operation.

  • You can use a copy of a standard operation in a work definition or a work order. To use a copy, deselect the Referenced check box when adding the standard operation in the work definition or work order. In this case, any future changes to the standard operation will not be reflected in the work definitions and work orders that reference the standard operation. If any changes are required in the copied standard operation, it has to be manually done for the specific work definition or work order.

Manage Standard Operations in Spreadsheet

The Oracle Application Development Framework Desktop Integration (ADFdi) enables you to combine the third party desktop productivity applications with the Oracle web applications. So, you can use a program like Microsoft Excel as an interface to access the Oracle web application data.

In the Navigator, in the Tools, select the Download Desktop Integration Installer to install the desktop integration installer. After installing it, on Work Definition Overview page, in the Tasks pane, click the Manage Work Definitions in Spreadsheet link to download the worksheets. Then, you can log in and start working.

You can mass create and update the standard operations and resources by using the ADFdi. There are two worksheets representing the work definition header (Standard Operations) and standard operation resources (Standard Operations Resources).

You can search for the standard operation details based on the search criteria available on each spreadsheet. To update the data, you can overwrite the data in the search results table. After the update, an indicator appears in the Changed column for each updated row. The inactive cells are read only fields and are not included in the upload process. Click Upload when you are ready to synchronize the changes with the Oracle Fusion applications. Any data validation errors will be shown after the upload. And the success or failure of each row being uploaded is reflected in the Row Status column.

During creation, you must create the standard operation header details first, and then define the resource details for it. During update, you must first search for the standard operation header or resource details before you can update any of the attributes. You must not run a blind report with values not specified for any of the parameters.

Note: You can upload, query, or update the descriptive flexfields details in the work definitions using ADFdi. However, while uploading or updating the descriptive flexfields in the standard operation using ADFdi, only data type validations are performed.

Using the ADFdi feature is beneficial for you in the following ways:

  • After you download the standard operation data hosted on the Oracle Fusion Manufacturing application to a spreadsheet, you can modify it even when you are disconnected from the application.

  • You can perform bulk entry and update of data with ease through a spreadsheet.

Note: You can query, create, update, and delete a standard operation using a REST API.

Overview of Electronic Signatures and Electronic Records for Standard Operation Management

You can enable the ability to capture electronic signatures and generate electronic records inline while creating and updating a standard operation in the Work Definition work area.

To capture electronic signatures and generate electronic records for standard operation management in an organization, you need to set up the following:

  • Enable Manufacturing Standard Operation Management for the Organization. Follow these steps:

    1. In the Setup and Maintenance work area, go to the following:

      • Offering: Manufacturing and Supply Chain Materials Management

      • Functional Area: Facilities

      • Task: Configure Electronic Signature Preferences

    2. Enable the E-Signature for Standard Operation Management transaction.

  • Configure the Business Process Rules to Determine the Approvers for Standard Operation Management. Follow these steps:

    1. In the Setup and Maintenance work area, go to the following:

      • Offering: Manufacturing and Supply Chain Materials Management

      • Functional Area: Facilities

      • Task: Manage Task Configurations for Supply Chain Management

    2. Define approval rules for Standard Operation Management.

Note: For more information about implementing E-Signatures and generating E-Records, refer to the Implementing E-Signatures and E-Records chapter of the Oracle SCM Cloud Implementing Manufacturing and Supply Chain Materials Management guide.

How You Capture E-Signatures and Generate E-Records for Standard Operation Management

Once you enable electronic signatures and electronic records for Standard Operation Management, the inline process to generate electronic records and capture electronic signatures is initiated when you create or update a standard operation and submit for approval through the Create or Edit Standard Operation page.

The E-Record contains the following information:

  • Standard Operation Details

  • Attachment Details

  • Resource Details

  • Resource Level Attachment Details

  • Alternate Resource Details

Note: The process to generate E-Records and capture E-Signatures is not initiated when a standard operation is created and updated through ADF desktop integration (ADFdi).

When you create or edit the standard operation, you can also be an approver. You can review the electronic records, enter comments, indicate your approval or rejection, and sign the E-Record in the E-Signature page.

Notifications are sent to other approvers who can access them through the bell notifications in the Oracle Cloud application. Approvers can review the electronic records before adding their electronic signature, enter their comments, indicate their approval or rejection and sign the electronic record by entering their password. The standard operation is not saved until all approvals are completed. Depending upon the outcome of the approval, the standard operation creation or update is either saved or rolled back. You can search and view the existing E-Records for standard operations from the Electronic Records work area.

Note: For more information about capturing E-Signatures and generating E-Records, refer to the Oracle SCM Cloud Using E-Signatures and E-Records guide.