Glossary


3 | A | B | C | D | E | F | I | J | L | O | P | R | S | T | V | W

3

3PL
third-party logistics. A buyer and supplier association with a third party outsourced for product delivery services and supply chain expertise.

A

account rule
The rule that processing uses to derive complete accounts or segment values on a subledger journal entry. Conditions can be defined within the rule to derive a different account based on specific attributes of the transaction.
accounting attribute
Predefined fields that map to components of subledger journal entries. Sources are assigned to accounting attributes.
accounting event class
Categories that classify transaction types and group event types for accounting rules.
accounting event type
Represents a business operation that may have an accounting impact.
actual cost
A cost method that tracks the actual cost of each receipt into inventory. When depleting inventory, the processor logically identifies the receipts that are consumed to satisfy the depletion, and assigns the associated receipt costs to the depletion.

B

backorder
An order or an order line that is withheld from processing until inventory becomes available.

C

chart of accounts
The account structure your organization uses to record transactions and maintain account balances.
cost book
A view or method of cost accounting for inventory transactions. You can create multiple cost books and assign them to a cost organization for different financial and management reporting purposes.
cost component
User-defined costs, or incoming costs from external sources such as Purchasing, Accounts Payable, Inventory Management, and Landed Cost Management. Examples of cost components are purchase order item price, freight, and overhead.
cost component group
Mapping of cost components to cost elements. Cost component groups use set-level definitions, and are one of the attributes of item cost profiles.
cost element
A cost that you can associate with an item so that you can monitor the cost through the inventory and accounting life cycle. For example, you can monitor the material cost, overhead cost, and tax cost of an item. You can monitor each of these costs as a separate cost element.
cost element group
A grouping of cost elements that is used as the basis for calculation of overhead costs, such as materials cost element group, or freight cost element group.
cost organization
A grouping of inventory organizations that indicates legal and financial ownership of inventory, and which establishes common costing and accounting policies.
cost organization book
Designates which cost book a cost organization uses for different costing and reporting purposes. For example, the Canada cost organization may use a perpetual average cost book and a primary cost book. In this case, there are two cost organization books: Canada-Perpetual Average, and Canada-Primary.
cost profile
Defines the cost accounting policies for items, such as the cost method and valuation structure.

D

default cost profile
Simplifies the effort of assigning cost profiles to items. Items can automatically inherit the default cost profile, if there is no manually-defined cost profile.
description rule
The rule that defines description content that can appear on the subledger journal header and line.
documentation and accounting rule
A type of rule that determines how financial orchestration creates intercompany invoicing, uses financial routes, and uses different routes in reply to the different supply chain events that might occur during a transaction.
drop ship order
A drop ship order is one where material flows directly from a supplier or contract manufacturer to the customer.

E

expense pool
A grouping of similar costs representing one or more general ledger expense accounts, such as warehouse or freight expense pools. Expense pools are used in the definition of overhead accounting rules.
external system or external application
A system or application that's external to and not part of Order Management. An order capture system that resides upstream of Order Management is an example of an external system. A fulfillment application that resides downstream of Order Management is an example of an external application.

F

FIFO
Abbreviation for first in, first out. A material control technique of rotating inventory stock so that the earliest inventory units received or produced are the first units used or shipped. The ending inventory therefore consists of the most recently acquired goods.
financial orchestration flow
A flow of information that defines a trade relationship between two different entities. It tracks and stores data that involves financial instruments such as accounts receivables, accounts payable, billing, and so on.
financial orchestration qualifier
A rule that specifies when to run one of the financial orchestration flows that you create in the Manage Supply Chain Financial Orchestration Flows task. If you do not create any qualifier, then financial orchestration runs the flow for all transactions that it receives
financial orchestration system option
A type of option that affects all financial orchestration flows.
fulfillment system
A system that resides downstream of Order Management Cloud that's responsible for fulfilling a sales order. For example, a fulfillment system is responsible for shipping the physical goods to your customer, such as shipping a laptop computer from a warehouse to a customer location.

I

Incoterms
Incoterms are a series of international sales terms that represent international commercial transportation practices and are used in contracts for the sale of goods. These terms help clarify and divide transaction costs, risks, and responsibilities between buyer and seller.
intercompany buyer profile
A type of profile that specifies information about the buyer that Financial Orchestration uses to create the intercompany invoice.
intercompany invoice
Invoices created by financial orchestration to account for the intercompany trade resulting from complex supply chain transactions between internal organizations. The internal organizations can belong to the same or different legal entities.
intercompany seller profile
A type of profile that specifies information about the seller that financial orchestration uses to create the intercompany invoice.
intercompany transaction
Transactions resulting from intercompany trade of goods or services between internal organizations of an enterprise. These organizations are defined as profit center business units and they can belong to the same legal entity or to different legal entities.
intercompany transfer price
A type of price that financial orchestration uses during an intercompany transaction for accounting and taxation purposes. It determines how financial orchestration allocates profits and losses among different parts of an enterprise when these parts use different tax systems.
Intrastat
Intrastat is the system for collecting and producing trade statistics for movement of goods within the member countries of the European Union (EU).
Intrastat Reporting
Oracle Fusion Intrastat Reporting allows companies within the European Union (EU) to collect, record, and report statistics related to trade as per their respective government legislations.
inventory organization
A logical or physical entity in the enterprise that tracks inventory transactions and balances, stores definitions of items, and manufactures or distributes products.
item cost profile
Cost accounting method assigned to an item. Items in a cost organization book can use different cost profiles. For example, you can use a cost profile to calculate average cost at the lot or serial level, and another cost profile to calculate average cost at the cost organization level.
item master
A collection of data that describes items and their attributes recorded in a database file.
item subinventory
An association of an item with a subinventory that is created when you add an item to a subinventory.
item validation organization
An inventory organization whose primary or secondary unit of measure is used as the costing unit of measure for the item in the cost organization to which that inventory organization belongs. The item master organization can also be designated as the item validation organization.

J

journal entry
Point of entry of business transactions into the accounting system. Chronological record, with an explanation of each transaction, the accounts affected, and the amounts to increase or decrease each account.
journal line
An element of journal entries consisting of account combinations and credit or debit amounts. Optionally, contains statistical quantities, currency information for multicurrency journals, and additional information.
journal line rule
A rule that includes options to convert transactional data into a subledger journal line. Conditions can be defined within the rule so it's only used based on specific attributes of a transaction.

L

locator
A physical area within a subinventory that is used to store inventory items, such as a row, aisle, bin, or shelf.

O

order fulfillment
The part of the order management lifecycle that fulfills a sales order. Order fulfillment typically begins after the user submits a sales order in Order Management Cloud. Order Management schedules, ships, and bills a sales order during order fulfillment. Order Management communicates with a downstream fulfillment system during order fulfillment.

P

PAR
Abbreviation for periodic automated replenishment.
perpetual average cost
The average cost of an item, derived by continually averaging its valuation after each incoming transaction. The average cost of an item is the sum of the debits and credits in the inventory general ledger balance, divided by the on-hand quantity.
pick wave
A batch of shipment lines that are pick released together based on certain business-related criteria.
profit center business unit
A part of a company that you treat as a separate business, where your organization calculates the profits and losses for this center separately from other parts of the organization.

R

receipt layer
Unique identification of delivery or put away of an item into inventory.
RMA
Abbreviation for return material authorization.
role
Controls access to application functions and data.

S

sales order
A contractual document between a sales organization and a customer. You create a sales order in the Order Management work area. Order Management also transforms a source order it receives from a source system into a sales order that it can submit to order fulfillment.
set-level definition
Enables you to segment and share your reference data. Entities that are defined at the set level can be shared by all cost organizations belonging to that set. You can also use the Common set to share the same reference data across all cost organizations.
source
Contextual and reference information from subledger applications used in conjunction with accounting rules to create subledger journal entries.
source document
The document that financial orchestration uses as the input to the transaction. A fulfillment line from an order in Distributed Order Orchestration is an example of a source document. A line in a purchase order in Procurement is another example of a source document.
source order
An order that you import into Order Management from a source system. Order Management transforms a source order to a sales order when you import it from a source system.
source system
System where the sales order was created. Order Management Cloud and an order capture system are each an example of a source system. A source system provides business application information to an Oracle application. Oracle can use this information to extract fulfillment data and planning data into data files.
standard cost
An inventory valuation method in which inventory is valued at a predetermined standard value. You track variances for the difference between the standard cost and the actual transaction cost, and you periodically update the standard cost to bring it in line with actual costs.
subinventory
A physical or logical grouping of inventory such as raw material, finished goods, defective material, or a freezer compartment.
subledger
A low-level ledger that stores and manages the details that substantiate the monetary value stored in the general ledger. Oracle Fusion Receivables and Oracle Fusion Payables are examples of subledgers.
subledger journal entry
A detailed journal entry generated for a transaction in a subledger application.
subledger journal entry line
An individual debit or credit line that is part of a subledger journal entry.
subledger journal entry rule set
A set of rules defining how to generate a complete journal entry for an accounting event.

T

transaction action
A system-defined type of material movement or cost update, such as Receipt into Stores, Issue from Stores, and Subinventory Transfer.
transaction source
An entity against which an Oracle Fusion Inventory Management transaction is charged.
transaction type
A combination of a transaction source and transaction action that is used to classify transactions.
transfer pricing rule
A type of rule that calculates the intercompany transfer price according to the information that is associated with an intercompany transaction. The transfer pricing rules determine how to price an international transaction that occurs in a multinational company so that each country receives the correct share of taxation.

V

valuation structure
Defines inventory control attributes that are used to calculate the cost of an item. For example, the valuation structure of an item can be inventory organization and subinventory, or lot, or grade.
valuation unit
Defines the set of values for the control attributes that are used to calculate the cost of an item. For example, valuation unit V1 is defined by cost organization A, item I1, and lot L1.

W

WMS
warehouse management system. A system that supports warehouse or distribution center personnel with warehouse processes and activities, such as receiving, picking, and shipping.