5Meters for Assets

This chapter contains the following:

Oracle Maintenance Cloud provides you the ability to define and use meters as a way to track your asset utilization. You can define multiple reusable meter templates that can then be assigned to the applicable assets. You can also set up multiple meters for an asset to track different parameters of the asset.

The meters are created to model a physical meter that's installed on an asset. The physical meters have mechanical or electrical properties that define how they capture and record the utilization of an asset over time. The meter templates can be modeled for both types of meter: Continuous meter (for example, an Odometer) and Gauge meter (for example, a Thermometer).

The meter readings provide a historical record of an asset use or asset condition at user-defined intervals. The meter readings provide insight into the asset conditions and requirements that can be useful in scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. Typically, the meter readings are tracked by a physical counter on the asset or by the computer controls that are used to operate and monitor the asset. Few examples of the meter readings are number of operating hours, number of cycles, revolutions, and so on.

As part of meters management, you can perform the following tasks:

  • Define a meter template.

  • Associate a meter to an asset.

  • View the asset meter details.

  • Delete an asset meter that doesn't have any meter reading history.

  • Enter new meter readings.

  • View meter reading history.

  • Insert, edit, and disable meter readings in history.

Creating a meter for an asset is a two-step process. You define meter template in which you specify the behavior and validations for the meter. Then, you associate the meter template to an asset for capturing the meter readings. If you have an existing meter template that you want to use, then you can skip the first step.

A meter template can be associated to one or many assets that share the same type of meter. Also, multiple meters can be associated to an asset to track various parameters of an asset. When you associate a meter template to an asset, a unique relationship is created. The corresponding meter reading history of each meter association is also unique.

Define a New Meter Template

The meter template enables you to control how the corresponding meter readings are recorded. The meter template also enables you to define specific data validation rules that can be enforced at the time of recording the meter readings. You can create a meter template on the Create Template page.

Perform the following steps to define a new meter template:

  1. Open the Assets page by clicking the Manage Assets link on the Tasks pane.

  2. Search for the asset and click on the asset number link.

  3. On the Asset: Overview page, select the Meters tab.

  4. On the Asset: Meters page, from the Add from Template drop-down button, select: Create Template.

  5. On the Create Template page, select from or enter values for the following fields:

    Field Description

    Name

    The name of the meter template.

    Code

    The code of the meter template.

    Description

    The description of the meter template.

    UOM

    The unit of measure of the meter template.

    Meter Type

    The type of the meter. The valid values are:

    • Continuous: The meter readings are sequential and each new reading is related to the previous and next reading.

    • Gauge: The meter readings are unique and each new reading is independent of the previous and next reading.

    Reading Type

    The type of the meter reading. The valid values are:

    • Absolute: The displayed reading on the physical meter at the time of recording.

    • Change: The net change in the current and last displayed readings on the physical meter.

    Reading Direction

    The direction of the meter reading. The valid values are:

    • Ascending: Increases in value.

    • Descending: Decreases in value.

    Start Date

    The date on which the meter template becomes active.

    End Date

    The date on which the meter template becomes inactive.

    Initial Value

    The initial meter reading value. You may also edit the initial value before associating a meter template to a meter. If defined, the value becomes the first meter reading history for the associated meter.

    Reading Minimum Value

    The lowest value that can be accepted as a meter reading value. The attribute value is used for validation at the time of entering a new meter reading.

    Note: The Reading Minimum Value can only be defined for a meter of Continuous type with Change as reading type and a meter of Gauge type.

    Reading Maximum Value

    The highest value that can be accepted as a meter reading value. The attribute value is used for validation at the time of entering a new meter reading.

    Note: The Reading Maximum Value can only be defined for a meter of Continuous type with reading type as Change and a meter of Gauge type.

    Reset allowed

    Option to specify whether or not the meter is to be reset.

    Reset Value

    The value to which the meter reading value is reset.

    Rollover allowed

    Specifies whether or not the meter rollover is to be enabled. A rollover event occurs when the physical meter reaches its maximum reading value and resets to a new value, typically zero.

    Note: A rollover can only be defined for a meter of Continuous type with reading type as Absolute and direction as Ascending.

    Meter Maximum Value

    The highest meter reading value supported by the meter during a rollover event. The attribute value is used for validation at the time of entering a new meter reading when a rollover event is encountered.

    Meter Minimum Value

    The lowest meter reading value supported by the meter during a rollover event. The attribute value is used for validation at the time of entering a new meter reading when a rollover event is encountered.

    Note: If a reset value if defined, then the meter minimum value must be equal to the reset value.

    Record Meters at Work Order Completion

    Option to control the meter reading entry at work order completion.

    The valid values are:

    • Do not allow

    • Optional

    • Mandatory

    The default value is Do not allow.

    Allow meter to schedule a maintenance program

    Option to indicate whether the meter can used to schedule a maintenance program. This field isn't applicable for Gauge meter type.

    Base Utilization Rate per Day

    The daily average total of meter readings that are expected to be entered for the meter. This value is used to generate a meter-based forecast in a maintenance program for the asset.

    Note: This field isn't applicable for Gauge meter type.

    Number of Readings for Calculating a Utilization Rate

    The number of meter readings in history that are to be used for calculating a daily utilization rate. This field isn't applicable for Gauge meter type. When this value is reached, a calculated daily utilization rate will be generated for the asset meter. This value will replace the base utilization rate per day in the forecast.

    Note: This field isn't applicable for Gauge meter type.

    Note: For a Gauge meter, the reading type is always Absolute and the direction is always Bidirectional.
  6. Click the Save button or the Save and Close button.

Assign Meter Template to an Asset

You can search for a meter template and add it to an asset on the Meter Template dialog box. The search result doesn't display the inactive meter templates and duplicate meters, or the meters that are already associated to the asset.

Perform the following steps to associate a meter template to an asset:

  1. On the Asset: Overview page, select the Meters tab.

  2. On the Asset: Meters page, click the Add from Template button.

  3. On the Meter Template dialog box, search for the meter template.

  4. In the Search results region, select the meter template.

  5. Click the Apply button and then the OK button.

  6. Verify that the template is displayed in the meter list.

  7. Click Save to create a unique relationship between the asset and the meter template.

You can delete a meter association to an asset only if there isn't any meter reading history recorded beyond an initial reading. When you delete a meter from the list, the meter association with the asset and the initial reading entered for the asset meter are deleted. Now, the meter template remains available to be associated with the same or any other assets.

The Asset: Meters page lists all the active meters associated to an asset. A Delete icon is shown only for the meters that can be deleted. Click the Delete icon to delete the asset meter. A warning message is displayed and you can click the OK button to proceed with the delete action.

An alternative to deleting a meter association with an asset is to end date the meter association by setting the end date to a value that's equal to or prior to the current date.

You can record the new meter readings on the Enter Readings page.

The following are the points to remember when entering a new meter reading:

  • The new meter readings should be recorded sequentially by date and time. However, you can enter historical meter readings out of sequence during data correction.

  • Duplicate meter readings, by date and time, are never permitted for active readings.

  • The new meter readings must follow the validation rules defined in the meter template. You can only insert new readings after the last reset or locked meter reading in history

  • In case of a meter rollover for Absolute meter, you can specify it when entering the meter reading. This relaxes certain validations and enables recording of the meter reading.

  • In case of a meter rollover for a Change meter, the application will automatically indicate when the rollover event occurs

  • You can record readings for inactive meters only if the reading date is prior to the meter end date.

  • When you enter a new reading, the status column is updated with a status of Recorded, Reset, or Rolled over. Only Initial readings will display a status of Initial.

Steps to Enter a New Meter Reading

Perform the following steps to enter a new meter reading:

  1. Open the Assets page by clicking the Manage Assets link on the Tasks pane.

  2. Search for the asset and click on the asset number link.

  3. On the Asset: Overview page, select the Meters tab. The Asset: Meters page displays the meters associated with the asset.

  4. On the Asset: Meters page, click the Enter Reading button.

  5. By default, the Enter Readings page displays the active meters only. To display all the meters including the inactive meters, from the Show drop-down list, select: All meters.

  6. For the specific meter, select from or enter values the following fields:

    Field Description

    New Reading

    Enter the new meter reading value.

    Rollover

    Select the check box to indicate that the new meter reading has incurred a roll over. This field is applicable only for the meter of Absolute Ascending type.

    Reading Date

    Enter the date on which the meter reading is recorded.

    Comments

    Enter any comment regarding the new meter reading.

  7. Click the Save button or Save and Close button.

  8. The Net Change, Displayed Reading, and Life-to-Date Reading values are then calculated for the meter reading. For a historical reading, all the subsequent active reading rows will have the Net Change, Displayed Reading, and Life-to-Date Reading values recalculated based on the newly inserted reading row.

Validations at the Time of Entering a New Meter Reading

At the time of a new meter reading entry, there are certain validations in place that are driven by the meter template. The meter type, reading type, and direction defined in the meter template determine the validation rules. The Net Change, Displayed Reading, and Life-to-Date Reading values are also calculated based on the meter type, reading type, and direction defined in the meter template.

The following table discusses the meter template combinations and their respective validations at the time of entering a new meter reading value:

Meter Type Reading Type Direction Validations

Continuous

Absolute

Ascending

The date and time of new reading must be later than or equal to the date and time of last reading.

The new reading value must be greater than or equal to the last reading value.

Continuous

Absolute

Descending

The date and time of new reading must be later than or equal to the date and time of last reading.

The new reading value must be less than or equal to the last reading value.

Continuous

Change

Ascending

The date and time of new reading must be later than or equal to the date and time of last reading.

The new reading value must be greater than or equal to the last reading value. The new reading value may also be validated against the minimum and maximum reading thresholds.

Continuous

Change

Descending

The date and time of new reading must be later than or equal to the date and time of last reading.

The new reading value must be greater than or equal to the last reading value. The new reading value may also be validated against the minimum and maximum reading thresholds.

Gauge

Absolute

Bidirectional

The date and time of new reading must be later than or equal to the date and time of last reading.

The new reading value is validated against the minimum and maximum reading thresholds.

The Net Change value is calculated as the difference between the current and last Displayed Reading values for a meter. For a Change meter, this value is the same as the reading value. For an Absolute meter, this value indicates the delta value between readings in history.

The Displayed Reading represents the current value that's shown on a physical meter. This value is the same as the Life-to-Date Reading value up until the point that a meter is reset or encounters a Rollover event. For a Change meter, this value is calculated by adding the current Net Change value to the previous Displayed Reading value. For an Absolute meter, this value is always the same as the reading value.

The Life-to-Date Reading represents the cumulative reading value for an asset meter, irrespective of Reset or Rollover events.

The following table discusses the meter template combinations and their respective Life-to-Date Reading value calculation:

Meter Type Reading Type Direction Life-to-Date Reading Value

Continuous

Absolute

Ascending

The current Life-to-Date Reading value is typically equal to the new reading value and the Displayed Reading value. It is calculated by adding the current Net Change value to the previous Life-to-Date Reading value. As an exception, the Life-to-Date Reading value isn't equal to the new reading value and the Displayed Reading value if a reset or rollover event occurs during the meter reading entry.

Continuous

Absolute

Descending

The current Life-to-Date Reading value is equal to the new reading value and the Displayed Reading value.

Continuous

Change

Ascending

The current Life-to-Date Reading value is calculated by adding the new reading value to the previous Life-to-Date Reading value. It will be equal to the Displayed Reading value unless a reset or rollover event occurs during the meter reading entry

Continuous

Change

Descending

The current Life-to-Date Reading value is calculated by subtracting the new reading value from the previous Life-to-Date Reading value. If will be equal to the Displayed Reading value.

Gauge

Absolute

Bidirectional

The current Life-to-Date Reading value is equal to the new reading value and the Displayed Reading value.

You can view and edit the meter reading history of an asset and its associated meters on the Reading History page.

The Asset: Meters page displays the meters associated with a specific asset. You can click the history icon in the meter row to view the meter reading history. The Reading History page displays the meter reading history. By default, the page shows meter reading history for the last seven days and the current date. From the Show drop-down list, you can select the time period for which you want to view the history.

The following are the points to remember when editing the meter reading history:

  • You can edit meter reading history for both active and inactive meters.

  • You can only edit the last active reading value on the Reading History page. The newly entered reading value must pass the usual validations specified for the meter reading definition.

  • You can disable any reading if it was recorded after the last reset or locked meter reading in history, and if the Disable icon is active for the reading. Once disabled, all the subsequent active reading rows will have the Net Change, Displayed Reading, and Life-to-Date Reading values recalculated based on the last active row in the reading history.

  • You can also edit a historical meter reading by first disabling the reading, and then insert a new reading in the Enter Readings page for the same date and time, but with a new reading value and comments. Once recorded, all the subsequent active reading rows will have the Net Change, Displayed Reading, and Life-to-Date Reading values recalculated based on the newly inserted reading row.

  • When you edit or disable a reading, the status column is updated with a status of either Edited or Disabled.

Meter readings can be locked by other Oracle Cloud solutions, such as Oracle Subscription Management. Once a historical reading is locked, the date of the last locked reading in history is displayed in the asset meters list for an asset. The date value will be visible to all users, however, there is no direct locking capability available in the asset meter pages. This capability will only be available from other Oracle Cloud solutions and isn't intended to be used by Maintenance users in the asset pages.

The locked date will be used to validate any new readings that you enter using the Enter Readings page. You can only enter new readings that are greater than the locked date in history, else a validation will produce an appropriate error message, preventing you from entering a reading that could impact the integrity of reading history. Additionally, you can't disable readings before the last locked reading in history.

You can continually lock readings in history by other solutions if they're for a date that's greater than the last locked reading in history. Typically, this occurs for a billing cycle, such as locking the last reading in a billing period.

When you define or update a meter template using REST APIs, you can associate inventory items as child resources of the template using the Meter Applicability child resource.

When you create a new asset, either manually, via services, or upload, the application looks to see if there a meter applicability for the asset's item. If there is a match, then the application automatically creates an asset meter for the asset. Thus, you get a seamless process for the automatic creation of asset meters and supports the standardization of asset meters across similar types of assets that share a common item.

The meter applicability is defined for the item at the master organization level. This is because items are uniquely created for the master and all its associated organizations. Therefore, defining the applicability at the master organization allows for any asset created in one of its associated organizations to be validated for the automatic creation of an asset meter.

The meter applicability is further controlled by a start and end date. Only a start date is required to activate the applicability definition. Once an end date is set and reached in time, the applicability will be deactivated.

Use the following actions in Meter Template REST API for this purpose:

  • Use the POST method to create new inventory item associations by organization.

  • Use the GET method to obtain the inventory item applicability for a meter template definition.

  • Use the PATCH method to edit certain attributes of an inventory item association for a meter template definition.

How Meter Readings Are Automatically Created with Oracle IoT Asset Monitoring Cloud

Define and use meters as a way to track asset utilization as well as different parameters of the asset. No setup is required for the meters to be used to capture IoT Sensor Data. These meters can be imported when you create a digital twin of the assets in Oracle IoT Asset Monitoring Cloud Service.

For each asset in Oracle IoT Asset Monitoring Cloud Service, you can link the sensor attributes to their corresponding sensor devices to provide asset monitoring. Then you can also associate these sensor attributes to the corresponding asset meters. When you establish this link, sensor data coming from devices can be automatically pushed and recorded as asset meter readings in Oracle Maintenance Cloud.

Thus, you get a seamless link between Asset Monitoring Cloud Service and Oracle Maintenance Cloud for asset meter readings, providing you ability to see the data directly coming from the devices without having to physically access the asset.

To enable automatic meter reading creation, you must define and associate asset in Oracle Maintenance Cloud.

Additional setup is covered in the Maintenance chapter of the Implementing Manufacturing and Supply Chain Materials Management guide. For more details, refer to the Using Oracle IoT Asset Monitoring Cloud Service guide available in the Oracle library.