This document contains important information for Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode, Release 19.1 that is not included in the regular documentation.
The product name Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode is often abbreviated as DMU throughout this document, in other Oracle documentation, and on Oracle websites.
This document may be updated after it is released. To check for updates to this document and to view other Oracle documentation, refer to the Documentation section on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) website:
1.1 Changes between Releases 19.1 and 2.2
The DMU repository definition has been updated in the DMU 19.1 release.
If you have an existing repository installed with an older DMU release, then before you can perform migration tasks using the DMU 19.1 software, you must upgrade or reinstall the repository using DMU 19.1.
1.1.1 New Features in Release 19.1
The following changes are new for Release 19.1:
PL/SQL code scan
You can use the DMU to scan PL/SQL application code in the database to identify Unicode migration-related issues and coding patterns that may need to be addressed.
See "Scanning the PL/SQL Code" in Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode Guide.
Character set detection
During data analysis, you can use the character set detection feature in the cleansing editor to help determine the real character set for problem data.
See "Setting the Assumed Character Set" in Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode Guide.
SSH support for database connections
The Create Database Connection dialog box now supports SSH connections. You can specify the SSH host name, port, user name, key file, and so on.
See "Creating a Database Connection" in Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode Guide.
1.2 Changes between Releases 2.2 and 2.1.1
The DMU repository definition has been updated in the DMU 2.2 release.
If you have an existing repository installed with an older DMU release, then before you can perform any migration tasks with the DMU 2.2 software, you must upgrade or re-install the repository using DMU 2.2.
1.2.1 New Features in Release 2.2
The following changes are new for Release 2.2:
DMU 2.2 supports Java SE Development Kit (JDK) version 8. Install the supported JDK version for your platform before using the DMU software.
See "Overview of Java Runtime Requirements" in Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode Guide.
A new command-line scanner (DMU-CLS) has been introduced in this release to perform database scans and generate reports, which is useful for regularly monitoring data convertibility issues and implementing health check for Unicode databases.
See "Scanning the Database with the DMU Command-line Scanner (DMU-CLS)" in Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode Guide.
Changes and updates to support the migration of Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) to Unicode.
1.3 Changes between Releases 2.1.1 and 2.1
The DMU repository definition has been updated in the DMU 2.1.1 release.
If you have an existing repository installed with an older DMU release, you will need to upgrade or re-install the repository using DMU 2.1.1 before you can perform any migration tasks with the DMU 2.1.1 software.
1.3.1 New Features in Release 2.1.1
The following changes are for Release 2.1.1:
DMU 2.1.1 supports Java SE Development Kit (JDK) versions 7 and 8. Install one of the supported JDK versions for your platform before using the DMU software.
A new option has been provided for the pattern-based cleansing feature to control the scope of the pattern-based replacement operation. You can now choose to apply pattern-based cleansing to the rows containing problem data only or to all the rows of the target columns. By default, DMU applies the pattern-based cleansing to the rows containing problem data only.
DMU 2.1.1 supports Oracle Database versions 126.96.36.199 and later as Extended Support for the earlier database versions has ended.
1.4 Changes between Releases 2.1 and 2.0
The DMU repository schema has been updated in the DMU 2.1 release.
If you have an old repository installed with the DMU 2.0 release, then you will need to upgrade the repository using DMU 2.1 before you can perform any migration tasks with the DMU 2.1 software.
1.4.1 New Features in Release 2.1
The following changes are for Release 2.1:
DMU 2.1 offers a solution to achieve a near-zero downtime migration to Unicode by leveraging the DMU migration functionality in conjunction with the Oracle GoldenGate replication technology. Using DMU 2.1 and Oracle GoldenGate 188.8.131.52.0 or later, you can set up a migration procedure that utilizes DMU to accomplish scanning, cleansing, and conversion of the database, while relying on Oracle GoldenGate to capture and replicate incremental data changes that take place during the migration process.
DMU also generates the required Oracle GoldenGate configuration files to ensure that all the incremental data is replicated correctly by taking into consideration any scheduled data cleansing actions already defined to address convertibility issues.
You can now export a DMU migration profile from one database instance and import it into another database instance created as a clone of the original instance. The DMU migration profile contains general information about the database, user-specified migration settings for scanning and conversion operations, and any scheduled cleansing actions.
This feature can be particularly useful for reusing and fine-tuning migration settings during the trial migrations where end-to-end migration procedure is rehearsed in the test environment using a snapshot of the production database.
In addition to the Scan Report, Problem Data Report feature has been introduced to allow the detailed information about the data in the database objects containing convertibility issues to be generated into a spreadsheet file. Problem Data Report can be convenient for reviewing the data issues with users who may not have access to the DMU interface and also for record-keeping purposes.
DMU 2.1 can detect and upgrade any existing DMU 2.0 repository in the database to the DMU 2.1 format and preserve the migration information so that the upgrade process is mostly transparent to the user without having to re-install the repository again.
The format and content of DMU log files have been enhanced to facilitate diagnostics collection and trouble-shooting usage issues.
1.5 Supported Configurations
The latest support information for Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode is available in the Supported Configurations document on the OTN website.
You can find the document at the following URL:
1.6 Installation Instructions
The installation instructions for Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode are available in the Getting Started document on the OTN website.
You can find the document at the following URL:
1.7 Requirements for Using DMU
There are general requirements for using the DMU software, and also requirements specifically relating to convertibility and space.
1.7.1 General Database Requirements
The database must meet certain requirements to be supported by the DMU.
These requirements are:
The database character set must be ASCII-based, therefore, databases running on the EBCDIC-based platforms IBM z/OS and Fujitsu BS2000 are not supported.
SYS.DBMS_DUMA_INTERNALmust be installed in the database.
?/rdbms/admin/prvtdumi.plbto create the package is available as part of the database installation. You must create the package manually by running the script from the Oracle home of the database. See the installation instructions for details.
Oracle Database Vault must be disabled before starting the migration process, because DMU is not certified to work with it, when it is enabled.
The database must be opened in read/write mode.
DMU supports the migration of Oracle pluggable databases (PDBs) in Oracle Database 12c release.
If you are using the PDB feature in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) to consolidate databases with different database character sets, then note that every PDB must have a database character set that is compatible with that of the container database (CDB) which the PDB is being plugged into. Compatible means the PDB's character set must be either same as that of the CDB's character set or it must be a binary subset of the CDB's character set, and both the character sets must be either single-byte or multibyte.
If you are using the PDB feature in Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) or later, and if the container database (CDB) character set is AL32UTF8, then the PDBs’ character sets do not have to be compatible with that of the CDB.
Oracle's recommended best practices approach for such consolidation is to use the Unicode character set AL32UTF8 for the new CDB and its PDBs. AL32UTF8 provides a uniform superset character set that can support character data in any language, thus allowing maximum compatibility among databases with different legacy character sets to be consolidated.
To consolidate databases with different character sets:
Create a CDB with the database character set AL32UTF8 and the national character set AL16UTF16. If most of the databases to be consolidated use the national character set of UTF8, then use UTF8 instead of AL16UTF16.
For each non-CDB to be consolidated:
Upgrade it to Oracle Database 12c in case it uses Oracle Database version that is earlier to 12c.
Migrate its database character set to AL32UTF8 using DMU.
Migrate its national character set to the national character set of the CDB (AL16UTF16 or UTF8). Contact Oracle Support to find out how to do this migration.
Use the upgraded and migrated non-CDB to create a PDB.
Oracle Multitenant Administrator's Guide to learn how to create a PDB from a non-CDB
If you have already consolidated your databases using a non-Unicode character set, and if you need to migrate your existing PDBs to Unicode on Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), then you can use DMU as follows:
Create or identify an AL32UTF8 CDB into which the migrated PDBs are to be plugged.
For each PDB to be migrated:
Use the DMU to scan the PDB and resolve any reported convertibility issues while it is still plugged into the original non-Unicode CDB.
Unplug the PDB to be migrated, and then plug it into the target AL32UTF8 CDB. This operation puts the PDB into restricted mode due to character set incompatibility.
Use the DMU to convert the PDB to Unicode.
Restart the converted PDB in unrestricted mode.
Starting in Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2), you can follow a similar procedure. The difference is that, if necessary, you can use the DMU to scan and cleanse the PDB after plugging it into the AL32UTF8 CDB because the PDB is not automatically placed into restricted mode.
This approach allows for an efficient and predictable consolidation process, which reduces the downtime window requirement.
To perform scanning and cleansing operations on a PDB, you can connect as a user with the
SYSDBAprivilege in the local PDB. However, to convert a PDB to Unicode, you must connect as the
1.7.2 Database Convertibility Requirements
Additional requirements apply to databases to be converted by the DMU. Without meeting these requirements, you can still use the DMU to scan and cleanse the database.
The requirements are as follows:
All database objects, including auxiliary objects created by standard PL/SQL packages, such as
DBMS_WM, must be named using only characters from the ASCII character set. In other words, the data dictionary of the database cannot contain non-ASCII characters except in a few selected tables.
"Migrating Data Dictionary Contents" in Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode Guide.
No OLAP analytical workspaces, other than predefined system workspaces and certain predefined Oracle Applications workspaces, can exist in the database.
No flashback data archives can exist in the database.
No data to be converted can reside in a read-only or offline tablespace.
Neither cluster key columns nor partitioning key columns can be defined with character length semantics.
No convertible data can be present in tables in the recycle bin.
No convertible data can be present in a reference partitioning key column.
No convertible data can be present in
1.7.3 Database Space Requirements
The migration process requires free space for the DMU repository and for data conversion.
Free space is required in the following areas:
The DMU repository tables store DMU internal state information, scan results, scheduled cleansing actions, conversion plan details, and collected rowids for convertible, or problematic, or both rows in scanned tables. Oracle recommends that you create a separate tablespace for the DMU repository.
Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode Guide for more information about creating a separate tablespace for the DMU repository.
Data that is converted from a legacy character set to AL32UTF8 or UTF8, and which does not consist of ASCII characters only, usually expands in size. This is because the UTF-8 encoding of a character usually has more bytes than the legacy character set encoding of the same character. Moreover, the conversion method "Copy data using
CREATE TABLE AS SELECT" converts data in a table while creating a copy of the table with the SQL statement
CREATE TABLE AS SELECT. After the copy is created, the source table is dropped but for some time both tables exist simultaneously. Therefore, additional space is required to accommodate copies of tables converted using this conversion method.
To view an estimation of the amount of free space needed per tablespace to accommodate the data expansion and the temporary space for
CREATE TABLE AS SELECT, right-click the database node in the Navigator pane of the DMU and select Properties. On the opened Database Properties tab, select the Scanning subtab. Click the Estimate Tablespace Extension button at the bottom of the page to calculate the minimum and maximum space requirements for each tablespace. The minimum tablespace extension is calculated by taking into account the post-conversion data size expansion and the temporary space requirement of the largest table converted using the "Copy data using
CREATE TABLE AS SELECT" method. The maximum tablespace extension is calculated by taking into account the post-conversion data size expansion and the temporary space requirements of the first n largest tables converted using the "Copy data using
CREATE TABLE AS SELECT" method where n is the number of conversion worker threads.
Use the reported extension information to estimate the order of magnitude of the required free space but use the autoextend feature of database data files to ensure that tablespaces can expand if required.
1.8.1 Converting Auditing Tables on Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) or Later
To convert an Oracle database having version 12.2 or later to Unicode using the DMU, the database must be opened in the upgrade mode before starting the conversion process.
This is a workaround for a known issue related to converting auditing tables (reference: Bug 22230211).
1.8.2 Creating DMU Diagnostic Packages on Oracle Database 184.108.40.206 PDBs
The Create Diagnostic Package functionality does not work on PDBs in Oracle Database 220.127.116.11.0 when the PDB has an incompatible character set with the CDB character set.
The cause is a known database bug. See bug 17384878.
1.8.3 Non-ASCII Characters in PDB PL/SQL Definitions
If the PDB to be migrated contains non-ASCII characters in PL/SQL objects, triggers, and view definitions, then the DMU conversion SQL generation operation fails with ORA-6502 for Oracle Database 18.104.22.168.0 (reference: Bug 16488610).
The workaround is to remove the non-ASCII characters from the definitions and re-scan the data dictionary before generating the conversion SQL statements.
1.8.4 Editing ANYDATASET Columns with Collections
The cleansing editor cannot properly display
ANYDATASET columns containing varrays or nested tables.
To cleanse data in such columns, you need to update the problematic values or use larger built-in content types, depending on the reported issue. You can use the
ANYDATA OCI, or PL/SQL, or both APIs to access, decompose, edit, and rebuild
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for information on the
ANYDATAOracle-supplied types and their methods that comprise the
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for information on the
OCIAnyDatainterfaces that comprise the
1.8.5 LOB Segment Attributes
Due to bugs 5577093, 5983283, and 6677390, LOB segments in tables converted by the method "Copy data using
CREATE TABLE AS SELECT" may lose the storage attribute
RETENTION and get the attribute
Run the following SQL statement to restore the expected attribute:
ALTER TABLE table_name MODIFY LOB (lob_name) (RETENTION)
1.8.6 Scheduled Cleansing from CHAR to VARCHAR2
When a scheduled cleansing action is defined to migrate a
CHAR column to
VARCHAR2 data type, the scan results may incorrectly report over type limit issues, even if the post-conversion length fits within the
VARCHAR2 data type limit.
If you can confirm that the post-conversion data size fits within the
VARCHAR2 data type limit in the cleansing editor, then the workaround is to set the "Allow Conversion of Data with Issues" column conversion property to "Yes" so that the conversion feasibility test on this column can be bypassed. This issue is fixed in Oracle Database 22.214.171.124 release (reference: Bug 12868420).
1.8.7 Column-level Character Set Tagging in Multibyte Databases
Due to a restriction in the DMU server-side data scanning function, DMU does not allow character set tagging for character length semantics columns when the database character set is multibyte and Oracle Database version is 126.96.36.199 or earlier.
If such tagging is necessary, consider temporarily switching the column to byte length semantics for the duration of the migration (reference: Bug 13242969).
1.8.8 Editing Columns with Shift-sensitive Character Data
The cleansing editor currently does not support editing data in columns which are tagged with shift-sensitive character sets.
You can still view the data details for cells in these columns using the data viewer (reference: Bug 14241789).
1.8.9 Replacement Characters Reported as Invalid for UTF8 Target Character Set
In some cases, the
? character is incorrectly reported as invalid.
In the following situations, the
? character is incorrectly reported as invalid in the scan results:
- In Oracle Database 10.2, when the source character set is multibyte and target character set is UTF8
- In Oracle Database 11g releases up to 188.8.131.52, when the source character set is multibyte, the target character set is UTF8, and the
?character is followed by any non-ASCII character
If you can confirm that there is no other invalid data in the column, then you can set "Allow Conversion of Data with Issues" property on this column to "Yes" so that the conversion feasibility test on this column can be bypassed (reference: Bug 14530511).
1.8.10 Scanning Shift-Sensitive Data without Shift Characters
If a column tagged with a shift-sensitive character set contains data that does not include any shift-in or shift-out characters, and if the target migration character set is UTF8, then the DMU scan may hang due to a known bug.
You can work around the issue by adding shift characters into the input data (reference: Bug 14580879).
1.8.11 Flashback Data Archives for Tables with Convertible Data
Before the migration to Unicode, purge the flashback data archive for storing data from tables with convertible data.
The reason is that the binary representation of the historic character data in these tables may become invalid under the Unicode database character set.
1.8.12 PL/SQL Procedure Parameter Names Ending with Non-ASCII Characters
If a PL/SQL procedure has a parameter name ending with a non-ASCII character, then the DMU post-conversion phase may fail to replace the PL/SQL procedure after the database character set is changed to Unicode.
This is due to a known Oracle Database bug (reference: Bug 20714938). The workaround is to drop the procedure before changing the character set and restore it after changing it.
1.8.13 PL/SQL Modules Containing Character Length Semantics Attributes
After the migration to Unicode, run the SQL scripts
These scripts invalidate and recompile all PL/SQL modules in the database so that any internal length limits for types containing character length semantics attributes are adjusted properly based on the new Unicode database character set. Alternatively, you can recompile only those standalone and PL/SQL types that have character length semantics attributes. However, there is no easy method to identify all such types because types can be nested or embedded in PL/SQL.
1.8.14 Zone Maps Defined on Tables with Converted Character Data
Oracle recommends that you rebuild the zone maps defined on the converted tables after the migration.
The reason is that tihe binary representation of the character data stored in those tables may have changed.
1.9 Important Security Considerations
Unless you install the DMU on a host to which only authorized users have access, you must protect the DMU installation and configuration files. Otherwise, unauthorized access to the files could compromise database security.
After you have uncompressed the archive file with the DMU installation, ensure that all uncompressed files and directories are writable only by you and other authorized operating system users. The DMU does not come with an installer that could set file permissions automatically. Removing the write privilege from unauthorized users is very important because such users with access to the DMU host could modify the DMU files to make the DMU execute arbitrary SQL statements when the DMU is later started with
SYSDBA credentials. Such SQL statements could compromise database security.
If you select the Save Password check box when creating a database connection, the password you specify is saved in an obfuscated form in a password file named
cwallet.sso in your user directory. Because obfuscation is a reversible operation, use this feature only for passwords to test databases with no production data or only if the DMU is installed on a very well protected host. Ensure that the password file is readable only by you.
cwallet.sso file is in the
$HOME/.dmu/ directory on a Linux and a UNIX system, and in the
%APPDATA%\DMU\ directory on a Microsoft Windows system.
This release of the DMU requires that you connect to a database with the
SYSDBA privileges. This user has full access to the DMU repository objects. Do not grant any privileges on DMU tables or PL/SQL packages to any database user except when instructed by the DMU documentation.
1.10 Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program website at http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers that have purchased support have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired.
Oracle Database Migration Assistant for Unicode Release Notes, Release 19.1
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