7 Managing the Keystore and the Master Encryption Key

You can modify settings for the keystore and TDE master encryption key, and store Oracle Database and store Oracle GoldenGate secrets in a keystore.

7.1 Managing the Keystore

You can perform maintenance activities on keystores such as changing passwords, and backing up, merging, and moving keystores.

7.1.1 Performing Operations That Require a Keystore Password

Many ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT operations require access to a keystore password, for both software and external keystores.

In some cases, a software keystore depends on an auto-login keystore before the operation can succeed. Auto-login keystores open automatically when they are configured and a key is requested. They are generally used for operations where the keystore could be closed but a database operation needs a key (for example, after the database is restarted). Because the auto-login keystore opens automatically, it can be retrieved to perform a database operation without manual intervention. However, some keystore operations that require the keystore password cannot be performed when the auto-login keystore is open. The auto-login keystore must be closed and the password-protected keystore must be opened for the keystore operations that require a password.

In a multitenant environment, the re-opening of keystores affects other PDBs. For example, an auto-login keystore in the root must be accessible by the PDBs in the CDB for this root.

You can temporarily open the keystore by including the FORCE KEYSTORE clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement when you perform the following operations: rotating a keystore password; creating, using, rekeying, tagging, importing, exporting, migrating, or reverse migrating encryption keys; opening or backing up keystores; adding, updating, or deleting secret keystores. In a multitenant environment, if no keystore is open in the root, then FORCE KEYSTORE opens the password-protected keystore in the root.

7.1.2 Configuring Auto-Open Connections into External Key Managers

An external key manager can be configured to use the auto-login capability.

7.1.2.1 About Auto-Open Connections into External Key Managers

An auto-open connection into an external key manager stores the external keystore credentials in an auto-login keystore.

You can configure a connection to an external key manager so that the database can open the keystore without prompting for the keystore password. This configuration is essential in Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environments, and is highly recommended for Oracle Data Guard standby databases. Be aware that this configuration reduces the security of the system as a whole. However, this configuration does support unmanned or automated operations, and is useful in deployments where TDE-enabled databases that are enrolled into an external keystore for key management can start automatically.

Be aware that executing the query SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET will automatically open an auto-login external keystore. For example, suppose you have an auto-login external keystore configured. If you close the keystore and query the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view, then the output will indicate that a keystore is open. This is because V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET opened up the auto-login external keystore and then displayed the status of the auto-login keystore.

To enable the auto-login capability for an external keystore, you must store the external keystore's credentials in an auto-login wallet.

When you use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement, there are conceptually two sets of commands that act on client secrets:

  • ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT commands that act on the wallet that is currently in use (in other words, a wallet that contains an active TDE master encryption key).
  • ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT commands that act on a wallet that is not currently being used to hold the active TDE master encryption key. Oracle recommends that you use this approach when you configure an auto-login external keystore.
7.1.2.2 Configuring an Auto-Open Connection into an External Key Manager

To configure the auto-open connection, you must use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to add or update a client secret to authenticate to the external key manager.

Before you begin this procedure, ensure that you have configured the external keystore.
In this procedure, the wallet that is created does not contain any keys. It only holds the client secret. So, when you query the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET dynamic view for this wallet, the STATUS column shows OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY rather than OPEN, because the wallet only contains the client secret.
  1. Reconfigure the WALLET_ROOT parameter in the init.ora file to include the keystore location of the software keystore, if it is not already present.

    The software keystore location may already be present if you had previously migrated to using the external key manager.

    For example:

    WALLET_ROOT=/etc/ORACLE/WALLETS/orcl
  2. Add or update the secret in the software keystore.

    The secret is the external keystore password and the client is the OKV_PASSWORD. OKV_PASSWORD is an Oracle-defined client name that is used to represent the external key manager password as a secret in the software keystore.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET 'external_key_manager_password' 
    FOR CLIENT 'OKV_PASSWORD' 
    TO LOCAL AUTO_LOGIN KEYSTORE software_keystore_location 
    WITH BACKUP;

    In this example:

    • software_keystore_location is the location of the software keystore within the WALLET_ROOT location that you just defined in Step 1.

      For the CDB root and for any PDB that is configured in united mode, the value to use for the software_keystore_location location is WALLET_ROOT/tde.

      For any PDB that is configured in isolated mode, the value to use for the software_keystore_location location is WALLET_ROOT/pdb_guid/tde. When you are in the PDB, execute the following query to find this GUID: SELECT GUID FROM V$PDBS;

    • LOCAL creates a local auto-login wallet file, cwallet.sso, to hold the credentials for the external key manager. This wallet is tied to the host on which it was created.

      For an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, omit the LOCAL keyword, because each Oracle RAC node has a different host name, yet they all use the same external key manager. If you configure a local auto-login wallet for the Oracle RAC instance, then only the first Oracle RAC node, where the cwallet.sso file was created, would be able to access the external key manager credentials. If you try to open the keystore from another node instead of from that first node, there would be a problem auto-opening cwallet.sso, and so it would result in a failure to auto-open the auto-login external keystore. This restriction applies if you are using a shared location to hold the cwallet.sso file for the Oracle RAC cluster, because using LOCAL only works if you have a separate cwallet.sso file (containing the same credentials) on each node of the Oracle RAC environment.

At this stage, the next time a TDE operation executes, the external key manager auto-login keystore opens automatically. An example of a TDE operation is to query the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view, for example:

SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET;

7.1.3 Configuring an External Store for a Keystore Password

An external store for a keystore password stores the keystore password in a centrally accessed and managed location.

7.1.3.1 About Configuring an External Store for a Keystore Password

An external store for a keystore password allows you to easily remove that keystore password from the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT command line.

This feature implements separation of duties between database administrators and key administrators. It is also useful for situations in which you use automated tools to perform Transparent Data Encryption operations that require a password, when the scripts that run the automated tools include hard-coded password. To avoid hard-coding the password in a script, you can store this password in an external store on the database server. In a multitenant environment, different PDBs can make use of the external store.

In a multitenant environment, all PDBs in united mode use the hidden password of the root container. In isolated mode, each PDB can have its own keystore password in its own external store.

7.1.3.2 Configuring the External Keystore Password Store with WALLET_ROOT

When you configure TDE by using the WALLET_ROOT parameter, the external keystore password store is auto-discovered in the WALLET_ROOT/tde_seps directory.

  • Execute the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ADD SECRET 'keystore_password' 
    FOR CLIENT 'TDE_WALLET|OKV_PASSWORD' 
    TO [LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN KEYSTORE 'WALLET_ROOT/tde_seps';
7.1.3.3 When to Use the EXTERNAL STORE Clause After Configuration

After you configure the external store for a keystore password, you can use the EXTERNAL_STORE clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement.

You must use the EXTERNAL STORE clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement for the following operations: opening, closing, backing up the keystore; adding, updating, or deleting a secret keystore; creating, using, rekeying, tagging, importing, exporting encryption keys.

For example:

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE OPEN 
IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

You can change or delete external keystore passwords by using the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT UPDATE CLIENT SECRET statement or the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT DELETE CLIENT SECRET statement.

7.1.4 Backing Up Password-Protected Software Keystores

When you back up a password-protected software keystore, you can create a backup identifier string to describe the backup type.

7.1.4.1 About Backing Up Password-Protected Software Keystores

You must back up password-protected software keystores, as per the security policy and requirements of your site.

A backup of the keystore contains all of the keys contained in the original keystore. Oracle Database prefixes the backup keystore with the creation time stamp (UTC). If you provide an identifier string, then this string is inserted between the time stamp and keystore name.

After you complete the backup operation, the keys in the original keystore are marked as "backed up". You can check the status of keys querying the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET data dictionary view.

You cannot back up auto-login or local auto-login software keystores. No new keys can be added to them directly through the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement operations. The information in these keystores is only read and hence there is no need for a backup.

You must include the WITH BACKUP clause in any ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement that changes the wallet (for example, changing the wallet password, or setting the master encryption key).

7.1.4.2 Creating a Backup Identifier String for the Backup Keystore

The backup file name of a software password keystore is derived from the name of the password-protected software keystore.

  • To create a backup identifier string for a backup keystore, use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement with the BACKUP KEYSTORE clause, with the following syntax:
    ewallet_creation-time-stamp-in-UTC_user-defined-string.p12
    

    When you create the backup identifier (user_defined_string), use the operating system file naming convention. For example, in UNIX systems, you may want to ensure that this setting does not have spaces.

    The following example shows the creation of a backup keystore that uses a user-identified string, and how the resultant keystore appears in the file system. This example includes the FORCE KEYSTORE clause in the event the auto-login keystore is in use or the keystore is closed.

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE USING 'Monthly-backup-2013-04' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password;
    

    This version is for a scenario in which the password is stored in an external store:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE USING 'Monthly-backup-2013-04' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

    Resultant keystore file:

    ewallet_2013041513244657_Monthly-backup-2013-04.p12
7.1.4.3 Backing Up a Password-Protected Software Keystore

The BACKUP KEYSTORE clause of the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement backs up a password-protected software keystore.

  • Back up the keystore by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE 
    [USING 'backup_identifier'] 
    FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | software_keystore_password] 
    [TO 'keystore_location'];
    

    In this specification:

    • USING backup_identifier is an optional string that you can provide to identify the backup. Enclose this identifier in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12).

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • software_keystore_password is the password for the keystore.

    • keystore_location is the path at which the backup keystore is stored. If you do not specify the keystore_location, then the backup is created in the same directory as the original keystore. Enclose this location in single quotation marks (' ').

    The following example backs up a software keystore into another location.

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE 
    USING 'hr.emp_keystore' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password
    TO '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1/';
    
    keystore altered.
    

    In the following version, the password for the keystore is external, so the EXTERNAL STORE clause is used. The keystore is backed up into the same directory as the current keystore.

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE 
    USING 'hr.emp_keystore' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE;

    After you run this statement, an ewallet_identifier.p12 file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_hr.emp_keystore.p12) appears in the keystore location.

7.1.5 How the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET View Interprets Backup Operations

The BACKUP column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view indicates a how a copy of the keystore was created.

The column indicates if a copy of the keystore had been created with the WITH BACKUP clause of the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement or the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE statement.

When you modify a key or a secret, the modifications that you make do not exist in the previously backed-up copy, because you make a copy and then modify the key itself. Because there is no copy of the modification in the previous keystores, the BACKUP column is set to NO, even if the BACKUP had been set to YES previously. Hence, if the BACKUP column is YES, then after you perform an operation that requires a backup, such as adding a custom attribute tag, the BACKUP column value changes to NO.

7.1.6 Backups of the External Keystore

You cannot use Oracle Database to back up external keystores.

See your external key manager vendor instructions for information about backing up keys for external keystores.

7.1.7 Merging Software Keystores

You can merge software keystores in a variety of ways.

7.1.7.1 About Merging Software Keystores

You can merge any combination of software keystores, but the merged keystore must be password-protected. It can have a password that is different from the constituent keystores.

To use the merged keystore, you must explicitly open the merged keystore after you create it, even if one of the constituent keystores was already open before the merge.

Whether a common key from two source keystores is added or overwritten to a merged keystore depends on how you write the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT merge statement. For example, if you merge Keystore 1 and Keystore 2 to create Keystore 3, then the key in Keystore 1 is added to Keystore 3. If you merge Keystore 1 into Keystore 2, then the common key in Keystore 2 is not overwritten.

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT merge statement has no bearing on the configured keystore that is in use. However, the merged keystore can be used as the new configured database keystore if you want. Remember that you must reopen the keystore if you are using the newly created keystore as the keystore for the database at the location configured by the WALLET_ROOT parameter.

7.1.7.2 Merging One Software Keystore into an Existing Software Keystore

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the MERGE KEYSTORE clause to merge one software keystore into another existing software keystore.

  • To perform this type of merge, use the following SQL statement:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE 'keystore1_location' 
    [IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore1_password] 
    INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE 'keystore2_location' 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore2_password 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier]];
    

    In this specification:

    • keystore1_location is the directory location of the first keystore, which will be left unchanged after the merge. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' ').

    • The IDENTIFIED BY clause is required for the first keystore if it is a password-protected keystore. software_keystore1_password is the password for the first keystore.

    • keystore2_location is the directory location of the second keystore into which the first keystore is to be merged. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' ').

    • software_keystore2_password is the password for the second keystore.

    • WITH BACKUP creates a backup of the software keystore. Optionally, you can use the USING clause to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12, with emp_key_backup being the backup identifier). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

The resultant keystore after the merge operation is always a password-protected keystore.
7.1.7.3 Merging Two Software Keystores into a Third New Keystore

You can merge two software keystores into a third new keystore, so that the two existing keystores are not changed.

  • Merge the software keystores by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE 'keystore1_location' 
    [IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore1_password] 
    AND KEYSTORE 'keystore2_location' 
    [IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore2_password] 
    INTO NEW KEYSTORE 'keystore3_location' 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore3_password;
    

    In this specification:

    • keystore1_location is the directory location of the first keystore, which will be left unchanged after the merge. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' ').

    • The IDENTIFIED BY clause is required for the first keystore if it is a password-protected keystore. software_keystore1_password is the current password for the first keystore.

    • keystore2_location is the directory location of the second keystore. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' ').

    • The IDENTIFIED BY clause is required for the second keystore if it is a password-protected keystore. software_keystore2_password is the current password for the second keystore.

    • keystore3_location specifies the directory location of the new, merged keystore. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' '). If there is already an existing keystore at this location, the command exits with an error.

    • software_keystore3_password is the new password for the merged keystore.

    The following example merges an auto-login software keystore with a password-protected keystore to create a merged password-protected keystore at a new location:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1' 
    AND KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB2' 
    IDENTIFIED BY existing_password_for_keystore_2 
    INTO NEW KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB3' 
    IDENTIFIED BY new_password_for_keystore_3;
    
    keystore altered.
7.1.7.4 Merging an Auto-Login Software Keystore into an Existing Password-Protected Software Keystore

You can merge an auto-login software keystore into an existing password-protected software keystore.

  • Use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE SQL statement to merge an auto-login software keystore into an existing password-protected software keystore.
    The following example shows how to merge an auto-login software keystore into a password-protected software keystore. It also creates a backup of the second keystore before creating the merged keystore.
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1' 
    INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB2' 
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password WITH BACKUP;
    

    In this specification:

    • MERGE KEYSTORE must specify the auto-login keystore.

    • EXISTING KEYSTORE refers to the password keystore.

7.1.7.5 Reversing a Software Keystore Merge Operation

You cannot directly reverse a keystore merge operation.

When you merge a keystore into an existing keystore (rather than creating a new one), you must include the WITH BACKUP clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to create a backup of this existing keystore. Later on, if you decide that you must reverse the merge, you can replace the merged software keystore with the one that you backed up. In other words, suppose you want merge Keystore A into Keystore B. By using the WITH BACKUP clause, you create a backup for Keystore B before the merge operation begins. (The original Keystore A is still intact.) To reverse the merge operation, revert to the backup that you made of Keystore B.
  • Use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE SQL statement to perform merge operations.
    • For example, to perform a merge operation into an existing keystore:
      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1' 
      INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB2' 
      IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP USING "merge1";
      

      Replace the new keystore with the backup keystore, which in this case would be named ewallet_time-stamp_merge1.p12.

    • To merge an auto-login keystore into a password-based keystore, use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE SQL statement.

7.1.8 Moving a Software Keystore to a New Location

You move a software keystore to a new location after you have updated the WALLET_ROOT parameter.

If you are using Oracle Key Vault, then you can configure a TDE direct connection where Key Vault directly manages the master encryption keys. In this case, you will never need to manually move the keystore to a new location.

  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    CONNECT c##sec_admin AS SYSKM (or CONNECT sec_admin@pdb_name AS SYSKM)
    Enter password: password
  2. Back up the software keystore.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT BACKUP KEYSTORE 
    USING 'hr.emp_keystore' 
    FORCE KEYSTORE 
    IDENTIFIED BY 
    software_keystore_password TO '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1/';
  3. Close the software keystore.

    Examples of ways that you can close the keystore are as follows.

    For an auto-login software keystore:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE; 
    

    For a password-protected software keystore:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password;
    

    For a keystore for which the password is stored externally:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEYSTORE CLOSE 
    IDENTIFIED BY EXTERNAL STORE; 
  4. Exit the database session.

    For example, if you are logged in to SQL*Plus:

    EXIT
    
  5. In the init.ora file for the database instance, update the WALLET_ROOT parameter to point to the new location where you want to move the keystore.

  6. Use the operating system move command (such as mv) to move the keystore with all of its keys to the new directory location.

7.1.9 Moving a Software Keystore Out of Automatic Storage Management

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to move a software keystore out Automatic Storage Management.

  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.

    For example:

    CONNECT c##sec_admin AS SYSKM (or CONNECT sec_admin@pdb_name AS SYSKM)
    Enter password: password
  2. Initialize a target keystore on the file system by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE KEYSTORE targetKeystorePath 
    IDENTIFIED BY targetKeystorePassword;

    In this specification:

    • targetKeystorePath is the directory path to the target keystore on the file system.

    • targetKeystorePassword is a password that you create for the keystore.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1/' IDENTIFIED BY "targetKeystorePassword"; 
  3. Copy the keystore from ASM to the target keystore that you just created.

    This step requires that you merge the keystore from ASM to the file system, as follows:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE srcKeystorePath 
    IDENTIFIED BY srcKeystorePassword 
    INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE targetKeystorePath 
    IDENTIFIED BY targetKeystorePassword 
    WITH BACKUP USING backupIdentifier;

    In this specification:

    • srcKeystorePath is the directory path to the source keystore.

    • srcKeystorePassword is th source keystore password.

    • targetKeystorePath is the path to the target keystore.

    • targetKeystorePassword is the target keystore password.

    • backupIdentifier is the backup identifier to be added to the backup file name.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE KEYSTORE '+DATAFILE' 
    IDENTIFIED BY "srcPassword" 
    INTO EXISTING KEYSTORE '/etc/ORACLE/KEYSTORE/DB1/' 
    IDENTIFIED BY "targetKeystorePassword" 
    WITH BACKUP USING "bkup";

7.1.10 Migrating Between a Software Password Keystore and an External Keystore

You can migrate between password-protected software keystores and external keystores.

7.1.10.1 Migrating from a Password-Protected Software Keystore to an External Keystore

You can migrate from a password-protected software keystore to an external keystore.

7.1.10.1.1 Step 1: Convert the Software Keystore to Open with the External Keystore

Some Oracle tools require access to the old software keystore to encrypt or decrypt data that was exported or backed up using the software keystore.

Examples of these tools are Oracle Data Pump and Oracle Recovery Manager.
  • Use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement to convert a software keystore to open with an external keystore.
    • To set the software keystore password as that of the external keystore, use the following syntax:
      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ALTER KEYSTORE PASSWORD 
      FORCE KEYSTORE
      IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password 
      SET "external_key_manager_password" WITH BACKUP 
      [USING 'backup_identifier'];
      

      In this specification:

      • software_keystore_password is the same password that you used when creating the software keystore.

      • external_key_manager_password is the new software keystore password which is the same as the password of the external keystore.

      • WITH BACKUP creates a backup of the software keystore. Optionally, you can use the USING clause to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12, with emp_key_backup being the backup identifier). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

    • To create an auto-login keystore for a software keystore, use the following syntax:
      ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE [LOCAL] AUTO_LOGIN KEYSTORE 
      FROM KEYSTORE 'keystore_location' 
      IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password;
      

      In this specification:

      • LOCAL enables you to create a local auto-login software keystore. Otherwise, omit this clause if you want the keystore to be accessible by other computers.

      • keystore_location is the path to the keystore directory location of the keystore that is configured in the sqlnet.ora file.

      • software_keystore_password is the existing password of the configured software keystore.

7.1.10.1.2 Step 2: Configure the External Keystore Type

You can use the ALTER SYSTEM statement to configure the external keystore type.

For the software keystore to open with the external keystore, either the software keystore must have the same password as the external keystore, or alternatively, you can create an auto-login keystore for the software keystore.
  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.
    For example:
    CONNECT c##sec_admin AS SYSKM (or CONNECT sec_admin@pdb_name AS SYSKM)
    Enter password: password
  2. Set the TDE_CONFIGURATION dynamic initialization parameter.

    This example migrates the database from a TDE wallet to Oracle Key Vault.

    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=OKV|FILE" SCOPE = "BOTH" SID = "*";
7.1.10.1.3 Step 3: Perform the External Keystore Migration

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SQL statement to perform an external keystore migration.

To migrate from the software keystore to external keystore, you must use the MIGRATE USING keystore_password clause in the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEY SQL statement to decrypt the existing TDE table keys and tablespace encryption keys with the TDE master encryption key in the software keystore and then reencrypt them with the newly created TDE master encryption key in the external keystore. After you complete the migration, you do not need to restart the database, nor do you need to manually re-open the external keystore. The migration process automatically reloads the keystore keys in memory.
  • Migrate the external keystores by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    IDENTIFIED BY "external_key_manager_password" 
    MIGRATE USING software_keystore_password 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • external_key_manager_password is the password that was created when the external keystore was created. Enclose this setting in double quotation marks (" ").

    • software_keystore_password is the same password that you used when you created the software keystore or that you have changed to (when converting a software keystore to open with an external keystore).

    • USING enables you to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12, with emp_key_backup being the backup identifier). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

7.1.10.2 Migrating from an External Keystore to a Password-Based Software Keystore

You can migrate an external keystore to a software keystore.

7.1.10.2.1 About Migrating Back from an External Keystore

To switch from using an external keystore solution to a software keystore, you can use reverse migration of the keystore.

After you complete the switch, keep the external keystore, in case earlier backup files rely on the TDE master encryption keys in the external key manager.

If you had originally migrated from the software keystore to the external keystore and reconfigured the software keystore, then you already have an existing keystore with the same password as the external keystore password. Reverse migration configures this keystore to act as the new software keystore with a new password. If your existing keystore is an auto-login software keystore and you have the password-based software keystore for this auto-login keystore, then use the password-based keystore. If the password-based keystore is not available, then merge the auto-login keystore into a newly created empty password-based keystore, and use the newly created password-based keystore.

If you do not have an existing keystore, then you must specify a keystore location using the WALLET_ROOT parameter in the init.ora file. When you perform the reverse migration, migrate to the previous keystore so that you do not lose the keys.

7.1.10.2.2 Step 1: Configure the External Keystore Type

You can use the ALTER SYSTEM statement to configure the external keystore type.

  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB as a user who has been granted the ALTER SYSTEM privilege.
  2. Set the TDE_CONFIGURATION dynamic initialization parameter to specify the TDE keystore type.
    For example:
    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=OKV|FILE" SCOPE = "BOTH" SID = "*";
    Setting KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION to "OKV" indicates a configuration where the connection into Oracle Key Vault must be opened by providing the Oracle Key Vault password. To use an auto-open Oracle Key Vault configuration, you set KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION to "OKV|FILE", where the Oracle Key Vault password is stored in an auto-open keystore in WALLET_ROOT/tde.
7.1.10.2.3 Step 2: Configure the Keystore for the Reverse Migration

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the SET ENCRYPTION KEY and REVERSE MIGRATE clauses can be used to reverse the migration of a keystore.

  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.
    For example:
    CONNECT c##sec_admin AS SYSKM (or CONNECT sec_admin@pdb_name AS SYSKM)
    Enter password: password
  2. Reverse migrate the keystore by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    IDENTIFIED BY software_keystore_password 
    REVERSE MIGRATE USING "external_key_manager_password" 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']]; 
    

    In this specification:

    • software_keystore_password is the password for the existing keystore or the new keystore.

    • external_key_manager_password is the password that was created when you first created the external keystore. If the pre-external software keystore is the new keystore, then you must ensure that it has the same password as the external_key_manager_password before issuing the reverse migration command. Enclose this setting in double quotation marks (" ").

    • WITH BACKUP creates a backup of the software keystore. Optionally, you can include the USING clause to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12, with emp_key_backup being the backup identifier). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    IDENTIFIED BY password 
    REVERSE MIGRATE USING "external_key_manager_password" WITH BACKUP;
    
    keystore altered.
    
  3. Optionally, change the keystore password.
    For example:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT ALTER KEYSTORE PASSWORD 
    IDENTIFIED BY old_password 
    SET new_password 
    WITH BACKUP USING 'new_password';
7.1.10.2.4 Step 3: Configure the External Keystore to Open with the Software Keystore

After you complete the migration, the migration process automatically reloads the keystore keys in memory.

You do not need to restart the database, nor do you need to manually re-open the software keystore.

The external keystore may still be required after reverse migration because the old keys are likely to have been used for Oracle Data Pump Export and Oracle Recovery Manager (Oracle RMAN)-encrypted backups. You should add the external keystore credentials to the keystore so that the HSM can be opened with the software keystore.

7.1.10.3 Keystore Order After a Migration

After you perform a migration, keystores can be either primary or secondary in their order.

The WALLET_ORDER column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET dynamic view describes whether a keystore is primary (that is, it holds the current TDE master encryption key) or if it is secondary (it holds the previous TDE master encryption key). The WRL_TYPE column describes the type of locator for the keystore (for example, FILE for the sqlnet.ora file). The WALLET_ORDER column shows SINGLE if two keystores are not configured together and no migration was ever performed previously.

Table 7-1 describes how the keystore order works after you perform a migration.

Table 7-1 Keystore Order After a Migration

Type of Migration Done WRL_TYPE WALLET_ORDER Description

Migration of software keystore to external keystore

OKV

FILE

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

Both the external and software keystore are configured. The TDE master encryption key can be either in Oracle Key Vault or the software keystore.

The TDE master encryption key is first searched in Oracle Key Vault.

If the TDE master encryption key is not in the primary keystore (Oracle Key Vault), then it will be searched for in the software keystore.

All of the new TDE master encryption keys will be created in the primary keystore (in this case, Oracle Key Vault).

Reverse migration from HSM to software keystore

FILE

HSM

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

Both the external and software keystore are configured. The TDE master encryption key can be either in the external keystore or the software keystore.

The TDE master encryption key is first searched for in the software keystore.

If the TDE master encryption key is not present in the primary (that is, software) keystore, then it will be searched for in the HSM's external keystore.

All of the new TDE master encryption keys will be created in the primary keystore (in this case, the software keystore).

7.1.11 Migration of Keystores to and from Oracle Key Vault

You can use Oracle Key Vault to migrate both software and external keystores to and from Oracle Key Vault.

This enables you to manage the keystores centrally, and then share the keystores as necessary with other TDE-enabled databases in your enterprise.

Oracle Key Vault enables you to upload a keystore to a container called a virtual wallet, and then create a new virtual wallet from the contents of previously uploaded Oracle keystores. For example, suppose you previously uploaded a keystore that contains 5 keys. You can create a new virtual wallet that consists of only 3 of these keys. You then can download this keystore to another TDE-enabled database. This process does not modify the original keystore.

In addition to Oracle keystores, Oracle Key Vault enables you to securely share other security objects, such as credential files and Java keystores, across the enterprise. It prevents the loss of keys and keystores due to forgotten passwords or accidentally deleted keystores. You can use Oracle Key Vault with products other than TDE: Oracle Real Application Security, Oracle Active Data Guard, and Oracle GoldenGate. Oracle Key Vault facilitates the movement of encrypted data using Oracle Data Pump and Oracle Transportable Tablespaces.

7.1.12 Configuring Keystores for Automatic Storage Management

You can store a software keystore on an Automatic Storage Management (ASM) disk group.

7.1.12.1 About Configuring Keystores for Automatic Storage Management

You can configure a keystore for Automatic Storage Management (ASM) for a standalone database or a multitenant environment. The WALLET_ROOT location can be compliant or non-compliant with Oracle Managed File (OMF) systems.

You should use the WALLET_ROOT and TDE_CONFIGURATION initialization parameters to configure the keystore location in an ASM system. The TDE_CONFIGURATION parameter must be set with the attribute KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=FILE in order for the WALLET_ROOT parameter to work. Note that starting with Oracle Database release 19c, the ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION, set in the sqlnet.ora file, is deprecated in favor of WALLET_ROOT and TDE_CONFIGURATION.

To perform the configuration, you must specify a + sign, followed by the ASM disk group and path where the keystore will be located. For example:

WALLET_ROOT=+disk_group/path

Note the following:

  • When you designate the path for the WALLET_ROOT for databases in standalone or multitenant environments, or environments where the WALLET_ROOT location either complies or does not comply with the Oracle Managed File (OMF) directory naming convention, be aware that this path must follow certain conventions so that the database can automate the creation of the directory components of the TDE keystore locations for you. Otherwise, you must manually create the directories under the WALLET_ROOT location.
  • If you must move or merge software keystores between a regular file system and an ASM file system, then you can use the same keystore merge statements that are used to merge software keystores.
  • To execute commands to manage keystores in an ASM environment, you can use the ASMCMD utility.
7.1.12.2 Configuring a Keystore to Point to an ASM Location

You can set WALLET_ROOT to point to an ASM directory within which the TDE keystore of the CDB root (which all united mode PDBs share) and the TDE keystores of all isolated mode PDBs are located.

  1. Ensure that the KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION attribute of the TDE_CONFIGURATION dynamic initialization parameter is set to FILE.
    For a CDB, set TDE_CONFIGURATION in the CDB root; for an isolated PDB, set it in the PDB.
    For example, in SQL*Plus:
    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=FILE";
  2. Set the WALLET_ROOT static initialization parameter to the ASM disk group location followed by the DB_UNIQUE_NAME initialization parameter value.
    The inclusion of the value of DB_UNIQUE_NAME is necessary to allow the database server to automate the creation of the necessary directories under this location.
    You must not use OMF as a directory component of the WALLET_ROOT location (unlike in the standalone database configuration section).
    For example:
    WALLET_ROOT=+disk_group_name/db_unique_name

    This setting locates the TDE wallet that is used by the root and by all of the united mode PDBs in the WALLET_ROOT/db_unique_name/tde directory (that is, in +disk_group_name/db_unique_name/tde).

    This setting locates the TDE wallet which is used by each isolated mode PDB in the WALLET_ROOT/db_unique_name/pdb_guid/tde directory (that is, in +disk_group_name/db_unique_name/pdb_guid/tde).

7.1.12.3 Configuring a Keystore to Point to an ASM Location When the WALLET_ROOT Location Does Not Follow OMF Guidelines

If the chosen WALLET_ROOT location does not comply with the Oracle Managed File (OMF) guidelines, then the Oracle database cannot perform automation of the directory creation.

In this case, you must use the ALTER DISKGROUP command to manually create the necessary directories under the WALLET_ROOT location. You must use the ALTER DISKGROUP ... ADD DIRECTORY statement to manually create the necessary directories, because no automation of the directory creation is possible when the WALLET_ROOT parameter is not using an OMF-compliant value.
  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB using the SYSASM administrative privilege.
    For example:
    CONNECT c##sec_admin AS SYSKM (or CONNNECT sec_admin@pdb_name AS SYSKM)
    Enter password: password
  2. Ensure that the KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION attribute of the TDE_CONFIGURATION dynamic initialization parameter is set to FILE.
    For example:
    ALTER SYSTEM SET TDE_CONFIGURATION="KEYSTORE_CONFIGURATION=FILE";
  3. In the init.ora file, set the WALLET_ROOT static initialization parameter to the ASM disk group location.
    For example, the following path after disk_group_name contains no uppercase OMF directory elements:
    WALLET_ROOT="+disk_group_name/mydir/wallets"
  4. As a user with the SYSDBA administrative privilege, execute the ALTER DISKGROUP statements to create the necessary directories.
    You must perform this step because the database server cannot automate the creation of these directories, since the location chosen for WALLET_ROOT is not compliant with the Oracle Managed Files guideline (that is, it does not have the OMF component included in it in uppercase letters).
    1. Find the PDB GUID of the PDB that will store the keystore, as follows:
      SELECT GUID FROM DBA_PDBS WHERE PDB_NAME = 'pdb name';
    2. Include the PDB GUID in the following ALTER DISKGROUP statements to create the necessary directories for the isolated mode PDB within the WALLET_ROOT location. For example, assuming the GUID is 4756C705E52A8768E053F82DC40A5329:
      ALTER DISKGROUP "disk_group_name" ADD DIRECTORY
          '+disk_group_name/mydir/wallets/4756C705E52A8768E053F82DC40A5329'
      
      ALTER DISKGROUP "disk_group_name" ADD DIRECTORY
          '+disk_group_name/mydir/wallets/4756C705E52A8768E053F82DC40A5329/tde';
      

7.1.13 Managing Updates to the PKCS#11 Library

Periodically, you may need to update the endpoint shared PKCS#11 library.

7.1.13.1 About Managing Updates to the PKCS#11 Library

The Oracle Database uses Oracle Key Vault's PKCS#11 endpoint shared library to retrieve the TDE master encryption key from Oracle Key Vault.

To switch an Oracle database over to an updated PKCS#11 shared library, you must execute the following statement:

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SWITCHOVER TO LIBRARY 'updated_fully_qualified_file_name_of_library' FOR ALL CONTAINERS;

Note the following:

  • The path of the updated fully qualified file name must begin with /opt/oracle/extapi/64/pkcs11/. The path provided in the fully qualified file name will be validated to ensure that each directory is owned by root and is not writable by group or other (the permissions of each directory should look like drwxr-xr-x root root), and that none of the components of the path are symbolic links. If you receive an ORA-02097: parameter cannot be modified because specified value is invalid or ORA-46702: failed to switch over the PKCS#11 library error, then check the trace file for details regarding the path validation failure.

  • Execute this command from the root container database (CDB$ROOT). The PKCS#11 library is switched for the root container database and all PDBs that currently use the PKCS#11 library.

  • Be aware that after you switch over to an updated PKCS#11 library, there may be a temporary decrease in TDE performance while the internal state of the PKCS#11 library is re-established, due to the internal state being lost during the library switchover.

7.1.13.2 Switching Over to an Updated PKCS#11 Library

When an updated PKCS#11 endpoint shared library is available, you can switch over to the updated library without incurring any database downtime.

  1. Log in to the CDB root as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.
    For example:
    sqlplus c##sec_admin AS SYSKM
    Enter password: password
  2. Switch over to the updated PKCS#11 library.
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SWITCHOVER TO LIBRARY 'updated_fully_qualified_file_name_of_library' FOR ALL CONTAINERS;

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SWITCHOVER TO LIBRARY '/opt/oracle/extapi/64/pkcs11/okv/lib/1.0.1/liborapkcs.so' FOR ALL CONTAINERS;

    In this example, the library path uses the convention /opt/oracle/extapi/64/pkcs11/vendor/lib/version/. Oracle recommends that you have at minimum version in the library path because it will help in provisioning more libraries under /opt/oracle/extapi/64/pkcs11, which is needed for the library switchover operation.

    If the database uses SPFILE to manage its parameters, then the library is switched. If the database uses PFILE, then the configuration is not changed, although the system does switch over to the updated PKCS#11 library. Otherwise any restart of the database instance would cause it to revert to using the earlier PKCS#11 library.

7.1.14 Backup and Recovery of Encrypted Data

For software keystores, you cannot access encrypted data without the TDE master encryption key.

Because the TDE master encryption key is stored in the keystore, you should periodically back up the software keystore in a secure location. You must back up a copy of the keystore whenever you set a new TDE master encryption key or perform any operation that writes to the keystore.

Do not back up the software keystore in the same location as the encrypted data. Back up the software keystore separately. This is especially true when you use the auto-login keystore, which does not require a password to open. In case the backup tape is lost, a malicious user should not be able to get both the encrypted data and the keystore.

Oracle Recovery Manager (Oracle RMAN) does not back up the software keystore as part of the database backup. When using a media manager such as Oracle Secure Backup with Oracle RMAN, Oracle Secure Backup automatically excludes auto-open keystores (the cwallet.sso files). However, it does not automatically exclude encryption keystores (the ewallet.p12 files). It is a good practice to add the following exclude data set statement to your Oracle Secure Backup configuration:

exclude name *.p12

This setting instructs Oracle Secure Backup to exclude the encryption keystore from the backup set.

If you lose the software keystore that stores the TDE master encryption key, then you can restore access to encrypted data by copying the backed-up version of the keystore to the appropriate location. If you archived the restored keystore after the last time that you reset the TDE master encryption key, then you do not need to take any additional action.

If the restored software keystore does not contain the most recent TDE master encryption key, then you can recover old data up to the point when the TDE master encryption key was reset by rolling back the state of the database to that point in time. All of the modifications to encrypted columns after the TDE master encryption key was reset are lost.

7.1.15 Dangers of Deleting Keystores

Oracle strongly recommends that you do not delete keystores.

If a keystore becomes overly full, any TDE master encryption key other than the currently-active TDE master encryption key can be moved to a new keystore to reduce the overall size of the keystore, but it is important to keep a backup of this new keystore because even though the keys have been moved out of the currently-active keystore, they may still be needed by other Oracle features, such as Oracle Recovery Manager backup operations. (See Related Topics at the end of this topic for a listing of features that are affected by deleted keystores.)

Deleting a keystore that still contains keys is particularly dangerous if you have configured Transparent Data Encryption and the keystore is in use. You can find if a keystore is in use by querying the STATUS column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view after you open the keystore. How you should proceed depends on whether you are using united mode or isolated mode.

  • In isolated mode, if the STATUS column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET is OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY, then it is safe to archive and later delete the this keystore, because there are no keys in it.
  • In united mode, you must execute the query of V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET from the CDB$ROOT, not the PDB. If you execute the query in a PDB that does not yet have a key set, then the STATUS is OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY. However, this can be misleading, because a key could have been set in the CDB$ROOT. After you execute the query in the root and if the STATUS is OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY, then you can safely archive and later delete the keystore.

The reason that you should be cautious when moving keys out of the currently-active TDE keystore is that this keystore may contain keys that are still needed by the database (even though the TDE master encryption key has been rekeyed). Deleting the keystore deletes these keys, and could result in the loss of encrypted data. Even if you decrypted all of the data in your database, you still should not delete the keystore, because doing so could still hamper the normal functioning of the Oracle database. This is because a TDE master encryption key in the keystore can also be required for other Oracle Database features. (See Related Topics at the end of this topic for a listing of features that are affected by deleted keystores.)

Even after you performed TDE keystore migration (which rekeys in such a way that the location of your currently-active TDE master encryption key changes place between your software keystore and your external keystore), you still should not delete your original keystore. The keys in the original keystore may be needed at a later time (for example, when you must recover an offline encrypted tablespace). Even if all online tablespaces are not encrypted, the key may still be in use.

The exception is in the case of software auto-login (or local auto-login) keystores. If you do not want to use this type of keystore, then ideally you should move it to a secure directory. Only delete an auto-login keystore if you are sure that it was created from a specific password-based keystore because an auto-login keystore is always based on an ordinary software keystore. The keystore should be available and known.

If you must delete a keystore, then do so with great caution. You must first move the keys within the keystore to a new keystore by using the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MOVE KEYS TO NEW KEYSTORE statement.

7.1.16 Features That Are Affected by Deleted Keystores

Some features can be adversely affected if a keystore is deleted and a TDE master encryption key residing in that keystore is later needed.

Before you delete a keystore, consider the impact that the deletion will have in the event that you need the any TDE master encryption key in the TDE keystore at a later time. The following features and activities are affected:

  • Offlined tablespace operations
  • Oracle Secure Backup operations
  • Media recovery and block media recovery operations
  • Point-in-time recovery operations
  • Physical and logical Oracle Data Guard standby operations
  • Golden Gate operations
  • Oracle Streams operations
  • Oracle Recovery Manager operations, including restoring Oracle Recovery Manager backups
  • Applying archived redo logs to a database during database crash recovery operations
  • Database online block recovery. (Online block recovery implies that the database is still open. Deleting a wallet in an open database with encrypted tablespaces will cause additional problems other than those associated with online block recovery.) These problems can include the following:
    • Encrypted online data in encrypted tablespaces would no longer be decrypted. Encrypted metadata in the SYSTEM, UNDO, and TEMP tablespaces would no longer be decrypted. You will no longer have control over what metadata is encrypted or where that metadata can reside.
    • Buffered data or metadata needs to be encrypted before it can be written back to the disk, but if the wallet is deleted, then the buffered data or metadata would no longer be encrypted. This could cause redo generation to fail, and the DBWR background process would not be able to write the data, which would possibly lead to a database instance hang or crash.
    • After a database instance crash, the database instance recovery and database crash recovery would fail, leading to the database not being able to be restarted.

7.2 Managing the TDE Master Encryption Key

You can manage the TDE master encryption key in several ways.

7.2.1 TDE Master Encryption Key Attribute Management

TDE master encryption key attributes store information about the TDE master encryption key.

7.2.1.1 TDE Master Encryption Key Attributes

TDE master encryption key attributes include detailed information about the TDE master encryption key.

The information contains the following types:

  • Key time stamp information: Internal security policies and compliance policies usually determine the key rekeying frequency. You should expire keys when they reach the end of their lifetimes and then generate new keys. Time stamp attributes such as key creation time and activation time help you to determine the key age accurately, and automate key generation.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as CREATION_TIME and ACTIVATION_TIME. See Oracle Database Reference for a complete description of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view.

  • Key owner information: Key owner attributes help you to determine the user who created or activated the key. These attributes can be important for security, auditing, and tracking purposes. Key owner attributes also include key use information, such as whether the key is used for standalone TDE operations or used in a multitenant environment.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as CREATOR, CREATOR_ID, USER, USER_ID, and KEY_USE.

  • Key source information: Keys often must be moved between databases for operations such as import-export operations and Data Guard-related operations. Key source attributes enable you to track the origin of each key. You can track whether a key was created locally or imported, and the database name and instance number of the database that created the key. In a multitenant environment, you can track the PDB where the key was created.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as CREATOR_DBNAME, CREATOR_DBID, CREATOR_INSTANCE_NAME, CREATOR_INSTANCE_NUMBER, CREATOR_PDBNAME, and so on.

  • Key usage information: Key usage information determines the database or PDB where the key is being used. It also helps determine whether a key is in active use or not.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as ACTIVATING_DBNAME, ACTIVATING_DBID, ACTIVATING_INSTANCE_NAME, ACTIVATING_PDBNAME, and so on.

  • User-defined information and other information: When creating a key, you can tag it with information using the TAG option. Each key contains important information such as whether or not it has been backed up.

    The V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view includes columns such as KEY_ID, TAG, and other miscellaneous columns, for example BACKED_UP.

Note:

TDE Master Key Attributes and Tag are only supported with a hardware security module that has PKCS#11 data object support.
7.2.1.2 Finding the TDE Master Encryption Key That Is in Use

A TDE master encryption key that is in use is the encryption key that was activated most recently for the database.

  • To find the TDE master encryption key, query the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS dynamic view.
    For example:
    SELECT KEY_ID 
    FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS 
    WHERE ACTIVATION_TIME = (SELECT MAX(ACTIVATION_TIME) 
                             FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS
                             WHERE ACTIVATING_DBID = (SELECT DBID FROM V$DATABASE));
    

7.2.2 Creating Custom TDE Master Encryption Key Attributes for Reports

Custom TDE master encryption key attributes enable you to defined attributes that are specific to your needs.

7.2.2.1 About Creating Custom Attribute Tags

Attribute tags enable you to monitor specific activities users perform, such as accessing a particular terminal ID.

By default, Oracle Database defines a set of attributes that describe various characteristics of the TDE master encryption keys that you create, such as the creation time, database in which the TDE master encryption key is used, and so on. These attributes are captured by the V$ENCRYPTION_KEY dynamic view.

You can create custom attributes that can be captured by the TAG column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS dynamic view. This enables you to define behaviors that you may want to monitor, such as users who perform activities on encryption keys. The tag can encompass multiple attributes, such as session IDs from a specific terminal.

After you create the tag for a TDE master encryption key, its name should appear in the TAG column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view for that TDE master encryption key. If you create a tag for the secret, then the tag appears in the SECRET_TAG column of the V$CLIENT_SECRETS view. If you create a secret with a tag, then the tag appears in the SECRET_TAG column of the V$CLIENT_SECRETS view.

7.2.2.2 Creating a Custom Attribute Tag

To create a custom attribute tag, you must use the SET TAG clause of the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement.

  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.
    For example:
    CONNECT c##sec_admin AS SYSKM (or CONNECT sec_admin@pdb_name AS SYSKM)
    Enter password: password
  2. If necessary, query the TAG column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEY dynamic view to find a listing of existing tags for the TDE master encryption keys.
    When you create a new tag for a TDE master encryption key, it overwrites the existing tag for that TDE master encryption key.
  3. Create the custom attribute tag by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET TAG 'tag' 
    FOR 'master_key_identifier' 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification

    • tag is the associated attributes or information that you define. Enclose this information in single quotation marks (' ').

    • master_key_identifier identifies the TDE master encryption key for which the tag is set. To find a list of TDE master encryption key identifiers, query the KEY_ID column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS dynamic view.

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • keystore_password is the password that was used to create the keystore.

    • backup_identifier defines the tag values. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ') and separate each value with a colon.

    For example, to create a tag that uses two values, one to capture a specific session ID and the second to capture a specific terminal ID:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    USING TAG 'sessionid=3205062574:terminal=xcvt' 
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password 
    WITH BACKUP;
    
    keystore altered.
    

    Both the session ID (3205062574) and terminal ID (xcvt) can derive their values by using either the SYS_CONTEXT function with the USERENV namespace, or by using the USERENV function.

7.2.3 Setting or Rekeying the TDE Master Encryption Key in the Keystore

You can set or rekey the TDE master encryption key for both software keystores and external keystores.

7.2.3.1 About Setting or Rekeying the TDE Master Encryption Key in the Keystore

You can set or rekey the TDE master encryption key for both software password-based and external keystores.

The TDE master encryption key is stored in an external security module (keystore), and it is used to protect the TDW table keys and tablespace encryption keys. By default, the TDE master encryption key is a system-generated random value created by Transparent Data Encryption (TDE).

Use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to set or reset (REKEY) the TDE master encryption key. When the master encryption key is set, then TDE is considered enabled and cannot be disabled.

Before you can encrypt or decrypt database columns or tablespaces, you must generate a TDE master encryption key. Oracle Database uses the same TDE master encryption key for both TDE column encryption and TDE tablespace encryption. The instructions for setting a software or hardware TDE master encryption key explain how to generate a tDE master encryption key.

7.2.3.2 Creating, Tagging, and Backing Up a TDE Master Encryption Key

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement enables you to create, tag, and back up a TDE master encryption key.

  • Create and back up the TDE master encryption key, and apply a tag, by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    [USING TAG 'tag'] 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier'];
    

    In this specification:

    • tag is the tag that you want to create. Enclose this tag in single quotation marks (' ').

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • keystore_password is either software_keystore_password or external_key_manager_password. As with software passwords, it is case sensitive. You must enclose the password string in double quotation marks (" ").

    • WITH BACKUP backs the TDE master encryption key up in the same location as the key, as identified by the WRL_PARAMETER column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view. To find the WRL_PARAMETER values for all of the database instances, query the GV$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view.

      You must back up password-based software keystores. You do not need to use it for auto-login or local auto-login software keystores. Optionally, include the USING backup_identifier clause to add a description of the backup. Enclose this identifier in single quotation marks (' ').

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET ENCRYPTION KEY 
    USING TAG 'backups" 
    IDENTIFIED BY password 
    WITH BACKUP USING 'hr.emp_key_backup';
    
    keystore altered.
    

    Oracle Database uses the keystore in the keystore location specified by the WALLET_ROOT parameter in the initialization parameter file to store the TDE master encryption key.

7.2.3.3 About Rekeying the TDE Master Encryption Key

Oracle Database uses a unified TDE Master Encryption Key for both TDE column encryption and TDE tablespace encryption.

When you rekey the TDE master encryption key for TDE column encryption, the TDE Master Encryption Key for TDE tablespace encryption also is rekeyed. Rekey the TDE Master Encryption Key only if it was compromised or as per the security policies of the organization. This process deactivates the previous TDE master encryption key.

For better security and to meet compliance regulations, periodically rekey the TDE master encryption key. This process deactivates the previous TDE master encryption key, creates a new TDE master encryption key, and then activates it. You can check the keys that were created recently by querying the CREATION_TIME column in the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view. To find the keys that were activated recently, query the ACTIVATION_TIME column in the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS view.

You cannot change the TDE master encryption key or rekey a TDE master encryption key for an auto-login keystore. Because auto-login keystores do not have a password, an administrator or a privileged user can change the keys without the knowledge of the security officer. However, if both the auto-login and the password-based keystores are present in the configured location (as set in the sqlnet.ora file), then when you rekey the TDE master encryption key, a TDE master encryption key is added to both the auto-login and password-based keystores. If the auto-login keystore is in use in a location that is different from that of the password-based keystore, then you must re-create the auto-login keystore.

Do not perform a rekey operation of the master key concurrently with an online tablespace rekey operation. You can find if an online tablespace is in the process of being TDE Master Encryption Keyed by issuing the following query:

SELECT TS#,ENCRYPTIONALG,STATUS FROM V$ENCRYPTED_TABLESPACES;

A status of REKEYING means that the corresponding tablespace is still being rekeyed.

Note:

You cannot add new information to auto-login keystores separately.

7.2.3.4 Rekeying the TDE Master Encryption Key

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement to rekey a TDE master encryption key.

  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB as a user who has been granted the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT or SYSKM privilege.
    For example:
    CONNECT c##sec_admin AS SYSKM (or CONNECT sec_admin@pdb_name AS SYSKM)
    Enter password: password
  2. If you are rekeying the TDE master encryption key for a keystore that has auto login enabled, then ensure that both the auto login keystore, identified by the .sso file, and the encryption keystore, identified by the .p12 file, are present.
    You can find the location of these files by querying the WRL_PARAMETER column of the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view. To find the WRL_PARAMETER values for all of the database instances, query the GV$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view.
  3. Rekey the TDE master encryption key by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET [ENCRYPTION] KEY 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]
    [USING TAG 'tag_name'] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • tag is the associated attributes and information that you define. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • keystore_password is the mandatory keystore password that you created when you created the keystore in Step 1: Create the Software Keystore.

    • WITH BACKUP creates a backup of the keystore. You must use this option for password-based and external keystores. Optionally, you can use the USING clause to add a brief description of the backup. Enclose this description in single quotation marks (' '). This identifier is appended to the named keystore file (for example, ewallet_time-stamp_emp_key_backup.p12). Follow the file naming conventions that your operating system uses.

    For example:

    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEY 
    FORCE KEYSTORE
    IDENTIFIED BY keystore_password 
    WITH BACKUP USING 'emp_key_backup';
    
    keystore altered.
    
7.2.3.5 Changing the TDE Master Encryption Key for a Tablespace

You can use the ENCRYPT and REKEY clauses of the ALTER TABLESPACE statement to encrypt a tablespace.

  1. Connect to the united mode CDB root or isolated mode PDB as a user who has been granted administrative privileges.

    For example:

    CONNECT c##sec_admin AS SYSKM (or CONNECT sec_admin@pdb_name AS SYSKM)
    Enter password: password
  2. Ensure that the tablespace open in read-write mode.

    You can query the STATUS column of the V$INSTANCE dynamic view to find if a database is open and the OPEN_MODE column of the V$DATABASE view to find if it in read-write mode.

  3. If necessary, open the database in read-write mode.
    ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ WRITE;
  4. Run the ALTER TABLESPACE SQL statement to encrypt the tablespace.

    If the tablespace has not yet been encrypted, then use the ENCRYPT clause:

    ALTER TABLESPACE encrypt_ts ENCRYPTION USING 'AES256' ENCRYPT;

    To change the encryption of the SYSTEM, SYSAUX, or UNDO tablespace, you must rekey the tablespace online. Use the ONLINE and REKEY clauses. For example, to change the encryption algorithm of the SYSTEM tablespace:

    ALTER TABLESPACE SYSTEM ENCRYPTION ONLINE USING 'AES256' REKEY;

7.2.4 Exporting and Importing the TDE Master Encryption Key

You can export and import the TDE master encryption key in different ways.

7.2.4.1 About Exporting and Importing the TDE Master Encryption Key

Oracle Database features such as transportable tablespaces and Oracle Data Pump move data that is possibly encrypted between databases.

These are some common scenarios in which you can choose to export and import TDE master encryption keys to move them between source and target keystores. For Data Guard (Logical Standby), you must copy the keystore that is in the primary database to the standby database. Instead of merging the primary database keystore with the standby database, you can export the TDE master encryption key that is in use and then import it to the standby database. Moving transportable tablespaces that are encrypted between databases requires that you export the TDE master encryption key at the source database and then import it into the target database.

7.2.4.2 About Exporting TDE Master Encryption Keys

You can use ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT to export TDE master encryption keys from a keystore, and then import them into another keystore.

A TDE master encryption key is exported together with its key identifier and key attributes. The exported keys are protected with a password (secret) in the export file.

You can specify the TDE master encryption keys to be exported by using the WITH IDENTIFIER clause of the ADMINSITER KEY MANAGENT EXPORT statement. To export the TDE master encryption keys, you can either specify their key identifiers as a comma-separated list, or you can specify a query that enumerates their key identifiers. Be aware that Oracle Database executes the query determining the key identifiers within the current user's rights and not with definer's rights.

If you omit the WITH IDENTIFER clause, then all of the TDE master encryption keys of the database are exported.

7.2.4.3 Exporting a TDE Master Encryption Key

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the EXPORT [ENCRYPTION] KEYS WITH SECRET clause exports a TDE master encryption key.

  • Export the TDE master encryption keys by using the following syntax:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT [ENCRYPTION] KEYS 
    WITH SECRET "export_secret" 
    TO 'file_path' 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE]
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password]
    [WITH IDENTIFIER IN 'key_id1', 'key_id2', 'key_idn' | (SQL_query)];
    

    In this specification:

    • export_secret is a password that you can specify to encrypt the export the file that contains the exported keys. Enclose this secret in double quotation marks (" "), or you can omit the quotation marks if the secret has no spaces.

    • file_path is the complete path and name of the file to which the keys must be exported. Enclose this path in single quotation marks (' '). You can export to regular file systems only.

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • software_keystore_password is the password of the keystore containing the keys.

    • key_id1, key_id2, key_idn is a string of one or more TDE master encryption key identifiers for the TDE master encryption key being exported. Separate each key identifier with a comma and enclose each of these key identifiers in single quotation marks (' '). To find a list of TDE master encryption key identifiers, query the KEY_ID column of the V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS dynamic view.

    • SQL_query is a query that fetches a list of the TDE master encryption key identifiers. It should return only one column which contains the TDE master encryption key identifiers. This query is executed with current user rights.

7.2.4.4 Example: Exporting a TDE Master Encryption Key by Using a Subquery

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS statement can export a TDE master encryption key by using a subquery.

Example 7-2 shows how to export TDE master encryption keys whose identifiers are fetched by a query to a file called export.exp. The TDE master encryption keys in the file are encrypted using the secret my_secret. The SELECT statement finds the identifiers for the TDE master encryption keys to be exported.

Example 7-1 Exporting a List of TDE Master Encryption Key Identifiers to a File

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS 
WITH SECRET "my_secret" 
TO '/TDE/export.exp' 
FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY password 
WITH IDENTIFIER IN 'AdoxnJ0uH08cv7xkz83ovwsAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA',
'AW5z3CoyKE/yv3cNT5CWCXUAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA';

keystore altered.
7.2.4.5 Example: Exporting a List of TDE Master Encryption Key Identifiers to a File

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS WITH SECRET statement can export a list of TDE master encryption key identifiers to a file.

Example 7-1 shows how to export TDE master encryption keys by specifying their identifiers as a list, to a file called export.exp. TDE master encryption keys in the file are encrypted using the secret my_secret. The identifiers of the TDE master encryption key to be exported are provided as a comma-separated list.

Example 7-2 Exporting TDE Master Encryption Key Identifiers by Using a Subquery

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS 
WITH SECRET "my_secret" TO '/etc/TDE/export.exp' 
FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY password 
WITH IDENTIFIER IN (SELECT KEY_ID FROM V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS WHERE ROWNUM <3);

keystore altered.
7.2.4.6 Example: Exporting All TDE Master Encryption Keys of the Database

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS SQL statement can export all TDE master encryption keys of a database.

Example 7-3 shows how to export all of the TDE master encryption keys of the database to a file called export.exp. The TDE master encryption keys in the file are encrypted using the secret my_secret.

Example 7-3 Exporting All of the TDE Master Encryption Keys of the Database

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT ENCRYPTION KEYS 
WITH SECRET "my_secret" TO '/etc/TDE/export.exp' 
FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY password;

keystore altered.
7.2.4.7 About Importing TDE Master Encryption Keys

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT IMPORT statement can import exported TDE master encryption keys from a key export file into a target keystore.

You cannot re-import TDE master encryption keys that have already been imported.

7.2.4.8 Importing a TDE Master Encryption Key

The ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement with the IMPORT [ENCRYPTION] KEYS WITH SECRET clause can import a TDE master encryption key.

  • Use the following syntax to import a TDE master encryption key:
    ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT IMPORT [ENCRYPTION] KEYS 
    WITH SECRET "import_secret"  
    FROM 'file_name' 
    [FORCE KEYSTORE] 
    IDENTIFIED BY [EXTERNAL STORE | keystore_password] 
    [WITH BACKUP [USING 'backup_identifier']];
    

    In this specification:

    • import_secret is the same password that was used to encrypt the keys during the export operation. Enclose this secret in double quotation marks (" "), or you can omit the quotation marks if the secret has no spaces.

    • file_name is the complete path and name of the file from which the keys need to be imported. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

    • FORCE KEYSTORE temporarily opens the password-protected keystore for this operation. You must open the keystore for this operation.

    • IDENTIFIED BY can be one of the following settings:

      • EXTERNAL STORE uses the keystore password stored in the external store to perform the keystore operation.

      • software_keystore_password is the password of the software keystore where the keys are being imported.

    • WITH BACKUP must be used in case the target keystore was not backed up before the import operation. backup_identifier is an optional string that you can provide to identify the keystore backup. Enclose this setting in single quotation marks (' ').

7.2.4.9 Example: Importing a TDE Master Encryption Key

You can use the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT IMPORT KEYS SQL statement to import a TDE master encryption key.

Example 7-4 shows how to import the TDE master encryption key identifiers that are stored in the file export.exp and encrypted with the secret my_secret.

Example 7-4 Importing TDE Master Encryption Key Identifiers from an Export File

ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT IMPORT KEYS 
WITH SECRET "my_secret" 
FROM '/etc/TDE/export.exp' 
FORCE KEYSTORE
IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP;

keystore altered.
7.2.4.10 How Keystore Merge Differs from TDE Master Encryption Key Export or Import

The keystore merge operation differs from the TDE master encryption key export and import operations.

Even though both the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT MERGE statement and the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT EXPORT and IMPORT statements eventually move the TDE master encryption keys from one keystore to the next, there are differences in how these two statements function.

  • The MERGE statement merges two keystores whereas the EXPORT and IMPORT statements export the keys to a file or import the keys from a file. The keystore is different from the export file, and the two cannot be used interchangeably. The export file is not a keystore and cannot be configured to be used with a database as a keystore. Similarly, the IMPORT statement cannot extract the TDE master encryption keys from the keystore.

  • The MERGE statement merges all of the TDE master encryption keys of the specified keystores where as the EXPORT and IMPORT statements can be selective.

  • The EXPORT and IMPORT statements require the user to provide both a location (filepath) and the file name of the export file, whereas the MERGE statement only takes in the location of the keystores.

  • The file name of the keystores is fixed and is determined by the MERGE operation and can be either ewallet.p12 or cwallet.sso. The file names for the export files used in the EXPORT the IMPORT statements are specified by the user.

  • The keystores on Automatic Storage Management (ASM) disk groups or regular file systems can be merged with MERGE statements. The export files used in the EXPORT and the IMPORT statements can only be a regular operating system file and cannot be located on an ASM disk group.

  • The keystores merged using the MERGE statement do not need to be configured or in use with the database. The EXPORT statement can only export the keys from a keystore that is configured and in use with the database and is also open when the export is done. The IMPORT statement can only import the keys into a keystore that is open, configured, and in use with the database.

  • The MERGE statement never modifies the metadata associated with the TDE master encryption keys. The EXPORT and IMPORT operations can modify the metadata of the TDE master encryption keys when required, such as during a PDB plug operation.

7.2.5 Management of TDE Master Encryption Keys Using Oracle Key Vault

You can use Oracle Key Vault to manage and share TDE master encryption keys across an enterprise.

Oracle Key Vault securely stores the keys in a central repository, along with other security objects such as credential files and Java keystores, and enables you to share these objects with other TDE-enabled databases.

7.3 Transparent Data Encryption Data Dynamic and Data Dictionary Views

You can query a set of dynamic and data dictionary views to find more information about Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) data.

Table 7-2 describes these dynamic and data dictionary views.

Table 7-2 Transparent Data Encryption Related Views

View Description

ALL_ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS

Displays encryption information about encrypted columns in the tables accessible to the current user

DICTIONARY_CREDENTIALS_ENCRYPT

Indicates if credential data in the SYS.LINK$ and SYS.SCHEDULER$_CREDENTIAL system tables is encrypted

DBA_ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS

Displays encryption information for all of the encrypted columns in the database

USER_ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS

Displays encryption information for encrypted table columns in the current user's schema

DBA_TABLESPACE_USAGE_METRICS

Describes tablespace usage metrics for all types of tablespaces, including permanent, temporary, and undo tablespaces

V$CLIENT_SECRETS

Lists the properties of the strings (secrets) that were stored in the keystore for various features (clients).

In a multitenant environment, when you query this view in a PDB, then it displays information about keys that were created or activated for the current PDB. If you query this view in the root, then it displays this information about keys for all of the PDBs.

V$DATABASE_KEY_INFO

Displays information about the default encryption key that is used for the current database. The default is AES128.

V$ENCRYPTED_TABLESPACES

Displays information about the tablespaces that are encrypted

V$ENCRYPTION_KEYS

When used with keys that have been rekeyed with the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement, displays information about the TDE master encryption keys.

In a multitenant environment, when you query this view in a PDB, it displays information about keys that were created or activated for the current PDB. If you query this view in the root, it displays this information about keys for all of the PDBs.

V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET

Displays information on the status of the keystore and the keystore location for TDE

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