How to Install Oracle Database 21c on Docker

To install Oracle Database Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition on Docker, use this procedure.

About this Docker Image for Oracle Database

Review your deployment options for this image.

The Oracle Database Enterprise Edition Docker image contains Oracle Database 21c Enterprise Edition, with the option to deploy either Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition, running on Oracle Linux 7 (x86-64). This image contains a default database in a multitenant configuration, with one pluggable database.

Accessing the Oracle Database Image on Docker

To access the database image on Docker, you start the container, and then run commands though Docker to access the database.

Connecting to the Oracle Database Server Container

After the Oracle Database server indicates that the container has started, and the STATUS field shows (healthy),client applications can connect to the database.

Connecting to the Database from Within the Container

You can connect to Oracle Database server by executing a SQL*Plus command from within the container

To connect, use one of the following commands, where dbname is the database name, cdb-user-password is the password for a database user with SYSDBA or SYSTEM system privileges on the CDB, cdb-sid is the system identifier of the CDB, pdb-password is a user with the PDBADMIN system privileges, and pdbname is the name of the PDB to which you are connecting.

$ docker exec -it dbname sqlplus / as sysdba
$ docker exec -it dbname sqlplus sys/cdb-user-password@cdb-sid as sysdba
$ docker exec -it dbname sqlplus system/cdb-user-password@cdb-sid
$ docker exec -it dbname sqlplus pdbadmin/pdb-user-password@pdbname
Connecting to the Database from Outside the Container

You can connect to the database outside the container by connecting either to the default port (1521), or to the port you have set to be the exposed port.

By default, Oracle Database server opens port 1521 for Oracle client connections over the Oracle SQL*Net protocol. Clients outside the container can connect using either SQL*Plus, or any Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) interface.

To connect from outside of the container, start the container with the -p option, as described in the section "Custom Configurations" in this document.

You can either use the default port as the exposed external port, or map another port as the Docker port. To identify the Docker port to which the Oracle Database port has been mapped, enter the following command, where db-name is the Oracle Database name:

$ docker port db-name

To connect from outside the container using SQL*Plus, use one of the following commands, where dbname is the database name, cdb-user-password is the password for a database user with SYSDBA or SYSTEM system privileges on the CDB, cdb-sid is the system identifier of the CDB, pdb-password is a user with the PDBADMIN system privileges, and pdbname is the name of the PDB to which you are connecting. In this example, the exposed Docker port for the database is 1521.

$ sqlplus sys/cdb-user-password@//localhost:1521/cdb-sid as sysdba
$ sqlplus system/cdb-user-password@//localhost:1521/cdb-sid
$ sqlplus pdbadmin/pdb-password>@//localhost:1521/pdbname

How to Change the Administrative Users Password for the Database

To change the SYS, SYSTEM, and PDBADMIN user passwords from the defaults to one of your choosing, you use the setPassword.sh script provided in the container.

On the first startup of the container, if you have not run a custom configuration and provided passwords for database administrator accounts using by using the -e, then by default a single random password is generated for these administrative users. You can find this password in the following output line of the database logs:

ORACLE PASSWORD FOR SYS, SYSTEM AND PDBADMIN:

To change the password for these three database administration accounts, use the Docker exec command to run the setPassword.sh script that Oracle provides in the container.

Note:

To use this procedure, the container must be running.

For example, where dbname is the database name, and password is the password:

$ docker exec dbname ./setPassword.sh pdb-password

Custom Configuration Parameters for Oracle Database on Docker

To customize your configuration at the time that you start up the Oracle Database image on Docker, you can use this list of custom parameters.

The supported configuration options are:

  • ORACLE_SID

    This parameter changes the Oracle system identifier (SID) of the database. This parameter is optional. The default value is set to ORCLCDB.

  • ORACLE_PDB

    This parameter modifies the name of the pluggable database (PDB). This parameter is optional. The default value is set to ORCLPDB1.

  • ORACLE_PWD

    This parameter modifies the password for the SYS, SYSTEM and PDBADMIN administration users. This parameter is optional. The default value is randomly generated. After configuration, you can change the administration user password as described in his password can be changed later as described in "How to Change the Administrative Users Password for the Database."

  • INIT_SGA_SIZE

    This parameter modifies the memory in MB that should be used for all SGA components. This parameter is optional. If you have not provided an SGA size value, then the default value is calculated during database creation. After the database is configured, you can change the SGA value later as described in "How to Set the SGA and PGA Memory."

  • INIT_PGA_SIZE

    This parameter modifies the target aggregate memory in MB of the Program Global Area, or PGA, that you want to be used for all server processes attached to the instance. This parameter is optional. If you have not provided a PGA value, then the default value is calculated during database creation. After the database is configured, you can change the PGA value later as described in "This parameter is optional. After the database is configured, you can change the PGA value later as described in "How to Set the SGA and PGA Memory."

  • ORACLE_EDITION

    This parameter selects the Oracle Database edition when the container is started for the first time. This parameter is optional. The options are enterprise, for Enterprise Edition, and standard, for Standard Edition. The default value is enterprise.

  • ORACLE_CHARACTERSET

    This parameter modifies the national language character set of the database. This parameter is optional. The default value is set to AL32UTF8.

How to Use Custom Configuration Parameters for the Database on Docker

The Oracle Database Docker image enables you to customize the configuration of your database, and to provide initialization parameters for when the database starts.

Oracle Database server container also provides configuration parameters that can be used when starting the container. The following example provides the syntax for a detailed docker run command supporting all custom configurations, with variable values in Italics font, which you can replace with values for your deployment:

docker run -d --name container_name \
 -p host_port:1521 -p host_port:5500 \
 -e ORACLE_SID=cdb-system-identifer \
 -e ORACLE_PDB=pdb-name \
 -e ORACLE_PWD=oracle-user-password \
 -e INIT_SGA_SIZE=cdb-database-sga-memory-in-mb \
 -e INIT_PGA_SIZE=cdb-database-pga-memory-in-mb \
 -e ORACLE_EDITION=ee-or-se-database-edition \ 
 -e ORACLE_CHARACTERSET=character-set \
 -e ENABLE_ARCHIVELOG=[true|false]
 -v [host-mount-point:]/opt/oracle/oradata \
container-registry.oracle.com/database/enterprise:21.3.0

Parameters:
 --name:                 The name of the container. (Default: auto-generated
 -p:                     The port mapping of the host port to the container port.
                         Two ports are exposed: 1521 (Oracle Listener), 5500 (OEM Express)
 -e ORACLE_SID:          The Oracle Database SID that should be used.(Default:ORCLCDB)
 -e ORACLE_PDB:          The Oracle Database PDB name that should be used. (Default: ORCLPDB1)
 -e ORACLE_PWD:          The Oracle Database SYS, SYSTEM and PDBADMIN password. (Default: auto-generated)
 -e INIT_SGA_SIZE:       The total memory in MB that should be used for all SGA components (Optional)
 -e INIT_PGA_SIZE:       The target aggregate PGA memory in MB that should be used for all server processes attached to the instance (Optional)
 -e ORACLE_EDITION:      The Oracle Database Edition [enterprise|standard]. (Default: enterprise)
 -e ORACLE_CHARACTERSET: The character set that you want used when creating the database. (Default: AL32UTF8)
 -e ENABLE_ARCHIVELOG    The ARCHIVELOG mode. By default, set to false. 
                         If set to true, then ARCHIVLOG mode is enabled in the database (for fresh database creation only)
 -v /opt/oracle/oradata
                         The data volume that you want used for the database. Must be writable by the oracle user (uid: 54321) inside the container
                         If omitted, then the database will not be persisted over container recreation.
 -v /opt/oracle/scripts/startup | /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/startup
                         Optional: A volume with custom scripts to be run after database startup.
                         For further details see the section "Running scripts after setup and on
                         startup" section below.
 -v /opt/oracle/scripts/setup | /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/setup
                         Optional: A volume with custom scripts that you want run after database setup.
                         For further details see the "Running scripts after setup and on startup" section below.

Starting an Oracle Database Server Instance

To start an Oracle Database server instance you use the docker run command, specifying the Docker container that contains the database.

To start the container, run the following command from the command prompt, where oracle-db is the name of the container that contains the Oracle Database:

$ docker run -d --name oracle-db
  container-registry.oracle.com/database/enterprise:21.3.0.0
To find the automatically generated default password for connecting to the Oracle Database server instance, enter the following command: can be found from the logs using
$ docker logs oracle-db

To obtain the SYS user password, use the setPassword.sh script provided in the container.

Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express

The Oracle Database image in the container includes Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express (EM Express).

You can use EM Express to assist you with administering the database.

To access EM Express, start your browser in the container, and open the following URL:

https://localhost:5500/em/

How to Reuse the Existing Database

After you initially start up the database, you can reuse the Docker data volumes created during initial configuration.

The Oracle Database server image uses Docker data volumes to store data files, redo logs, audit logs, alert logs, and trace files. The data volume is mounted within the container at /opt/oracle/oradata.

To start the Oracle Database image with a data volume, use the docker run command, where dbname is the database name:

$ docker run -d --name dbname -v
OracleDBData:/opt/oracle/oradata
container-registry.oracle.com/database/enterprise:21.3.0

In this example, OracleDBData is the data volume that is created by Docker. The data volume is mounted within the container in the path /opt/oracle/oradata.

During the first instance creation, data files are created in the new data volume. After the container is destroyed, the data files are kept persistent, and can be reused to start another container with the same data files if the same ORACLE_SID parameter is provided.

Note:

When you use data volumes created by Docker, the file system that the Docker container uses affects the performance ofe Oracle Database. For better performance, Oracle recommends that you select the ext4 file system, instead of the btfs file system.

To use a directory on the host system for the data volume, run the following command, where dbname is the CDB name, and writable-directory-path is the directory path where you want to place the directory:

$ docker run -d --name dbname -v
writable-directory-path:/opt/oracle/oradata
container-registry.oracle.com/database/enterprise:21.3.0

Note:

If you provide standard as the value for the ORACLE_EDITION parameter while creating the data files for the first time, then you must provide the same value when reusing those data files to start a new container.

SGA and PGA Memory Configuration for the Database on Docker

You can choose either to size the SGA and PGA when the initial database is created, or use the automatic values generated during database creation.

If you want to set the values for the system global area (SGA) and program global area (PGA) memory yourself, then you can define these sizes by specifying the values in metabytes (MB) the first time the database is created. To set the values yourself, specify the INIT_SGA_SIZE and INIT_PGA_SIZE parameters at the time that you run the docker run command. You must provide the values in MB, without any units appended to the values. For example:

-e INIT_SGA_SIZE=1536

These parameters are optional. If you don't provide values for the SGA and PGA, then the values are calculated automatically during database creation.

After the initial database is created, even if you specify INIT_SGA_SIZE and INIT_PGA_SIZE in the docker run command while reusing existing data files, and even though the values are visible in the container environment, the values are not set inside the database. The values used at the time of the initial database creation continue to be used.

Running Scripts After Setup and on Startup

Learn about how to configure Oracle Database images on Docker to run scripts after setup, and on database startup.

At the time of this release, you can run shell scripts (.sh) and SQL scripts (.sql) during database setup. To run these scripts, mount the volume /opt/oracle/scripts/setup, and include the scripts in this directory.

To run scripts after database startup, mount the volume /opt/oracle/scripts/startup, and include to include scripts in this directory.

Both the setup directory and startup directory locations are also represented by the symbolic link /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d. This symbolic link provides consistency with other database docker images. You can decide whether to put the setup and startup scripts under /opt/oracle/scripts, or /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d.

Note:

Startup scripts are run after the initial database creation is complete. Setup scripts are run only at the time of the initial database creation.

After the database is set up or started, the scripts in those folders are run on the database in the container. SQL scripts are run using the SYSDBA privileges (as sysdba), and shell scripts are run with the group privileges of the current user.

To ensure that scripts run in correct order, Oracle recommends that you prefix your scripts with a number. For example:

01_users.sql
02_permissions.sql

In the following example, the docker command starts up the database named dbtest, and mounts mounts the local directory myScripts to /opt/oracle/scripts/startup, which is then searched for custom startup scripts:

$ docker run -d --name dbtest -v
/home/oracle/myScripts:/opt/oracle/scripts/startup
container-registry.oracle.com/database/enterprise:21.3.0

Restrictions and Requirements for Oracle Database on Docker

Be aware of the restrictions that apply to the Docker image, and ensure that your system meets minimum requirements.

Restrictions for the Oracle Database Docker Image

This docker image has the following restrictions:

  • This docker image release supports only a single database instance.
  • Oracle Data Guard is not supported.

Requirements for the Oracle Database Docker Image

The Docker container environment must meet the following minimum requirements:

  • 21 GB of available disk space
  • 2 GB of available memory.

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