Module java.base

Class ConcurrentLinkedQueue<E>

java.lang.Object
java.util.AbstractCollection<E>
java.util.AbstractQueue<E>
java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentLinkedQueue<E>
Type Parameters:
E - the type of elements held in this queue
All Implemented Interfaces:
Serializable, Iterable<E>, Collection<E>, Queue<E>

public class ConcurrentLinkedQueue<E>
extends AbstractQueue<E>
implements Queue<E>, Serializable
An unbounded thread-safe queue based on linked nodes. This queue orders elements FIFO (first-in-first-out). The head of the queue is that element that has been on the queue the longest time. The tail of the queue is that element that has been on the queue the shortest time. New elements are inserted at the tail of the queue, and the queue retrieval operations obtain elements at the head of the queue. A ConcurrentLinkedQueue is an appropriate choice when many threads will share access to a common collection. Like most other concurrent collection implementations, this class does not permit the use of null elements.

This implementation employs an efficient non-blocking algorithm based on one described in Simple, Fast, and Practical Non-Blocking and Blocking Concurrent Queue Algorithms by Maged M. Michael and Michael L. Scott.

Iterators are weakly consistent, returning elements reflecting the state of the queue at some point at or since the creation of the iterator. They do not throw ConcurrentModificationException, and may proceed concurrently with other operations. Elements contained in the queue since the creation of the iterator will be returned exactly once.

Beware that, unlike in most collections, the size method is NOT a constant-time operation. Because of the asynchronous nature of these queues, determining the current number of elements requires a traversal of the elements, and so may report inaccurate results if this collection is modified during traversal.

Bulk operations that add, remove, or examine multiple elements, such as addAll(java.util.Collection<? extends E>), removeIf(java.util.function.Predicate<? super E>) or forEach(java.util.function.Consumer<? super E>), are not guaranteed to be performed atomically. For example, a forEach traversal concurrent with an addAll operation might observe only some of the added elements.

This class and its iterator implement all of the optional methods of the Queue and Iterator interfaces.

Memory consistency effects: As with other concurrent collections, actions in a thread prior to placing an object into a ConcurrentLinkedQueue happen-before actions subsequent to the access or removal of that element from the ConcurrentLinkedQueue in another thread.

This class is a member of the Java Collections Framework.

Since:
1.5
See Also:
Serialized Form
  • Constructor Summary

    Constructors
    Constructor Description
    ConcurrentLinkedQueue()
    Creates a ConcurrentLinkedQueue that is initially empty.
    ConcurrentLinkedQueue​(Collection<? extends E> c)
    Creates a ConcurrentLinkedQueue initially containing the elements of the given collection, added in traversal order of the collection's iterator.
  • Method Summary

    Modifier and Type Method Description
    boolean add​(E e)
    Inserts the specified element at the tail of this queue.
    boolean addAll​(Collection<? extends E> c)
    Appends all of the elements in the specified collection to the end of this queue, in the order that they are returned by the specified collection's iterator.
    boolean contains​(Object o)
    Returns true if this queue contains the specified element.
    void forEach​(Consumer<? super E> action)
    Performs the given action for each element of the Iterable until all elements have been processed or the action throws an exception.
    boolean isEmpty()
    Returns true if this queue contains no elements.
    Iterator<E> iterator()
    Returns an iterator over the elements in this queue in proper sequence.
    boolean offer​(E e)
    Inserts the specified element at the tail of this queue.
    boolean remove​(Object o)
    Removes a single instance of the specified element from this queue, if it is present.
    boolean removeAll​(Collection<?> c)
    Removes all of this collection's elements that are also contained in the specified collection (optional operation).
    boolean removeIf​(Predicate<? super E> filter)
    Removes all of the elements of this collection that satisfy the given predicate.
    boolean retainAll​(Collection<?> c)
    Retains only the elements in this collection that are contained in the specified collection (optional operation).
    int size()
    Returns the number of elements in this queue.
    Spliterator<E> spliterator()
    Returns a Spliterator over the elements in this queue.
    Object[] toArray()
    Returns an array containing all of the elements in this queue, in proper sequence.
    <T> T[] toArray​(T[] a)
    Returns an array containing all of the elements in this queue, in proper sequence; the runtime type of the returned array is that of the specified array.

    Methods declared in class java.util.AbstractQueue

    clear, element, remove

    Methods declared in class java.util.AbstractCollection

    containsAll, toString

    Methods declared in class java.lang.Object

    clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait

    Methods declared in interface java.util.Collection

    clear, containsAll, equals, hashCode, parallelStream, stream, toArray

    Methods declared in interface java.util.Queue

    element, peek, poll, remove
  • Constructor Details

    • ConcurrentLinkedQueue

      public ConcurrentLinkedQueue()
      Creates a ConcurrentLinkedQueue that is initially empty.
    • ConcurrentLinkedQueue

      public ConcurrentLinkedQueue​(Collection<? extends E> c)
      Creates a ConcurrentLinkedQueue initially containing the elements of the given collection, added in traversal order of the collection's iterator.
      Parameters:
      c - the collection of elements to initially contain
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the specified collection or any of its elements are null
  • Method Details

    • add

      public boolean add​(E e)
      Inserts the specified element at the tail of this queue. As the queue is unbounded, this method will never throw IllegalStateException or return false.
      Specified by:
      add in interface Collection<E>
      Specified by:
      add in interface Queue<E>
      Overrides:
      add in class AbstractQueue<E>
      Parameters:
      e - the element to add
      Returns:
      true (as specified by Collection.add(E))
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the specified element is null
    • offer

      public boolean offer​(E e)
      Inserts the specified element at the tail of this queue. As the queue is unbounded, this method will never return false.
      Specified by:
      offer in interface Queue<E>
      Parameters:
      e - the element to add
      Returns:
      true (as specified by Queue.offer(E))
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the specified element is null
    • isEmpty

      public boolean isEmpty()
      Returns true if this queue contains no elements.
      Specified by:
      isEmpty in interface Collection<E>
      Overrides:
      isEmpty in class AbstractCollection<E>
      Returns:
      true if this queue contains no elements
    • size

      public int size()
      Returns the number of elements in this queue. If this queue contains more than Integer.MAX_VALUE elements, returns Integer.MAX_VALUE.

      Beware that, unlike in most collections, this method is NOT a constant-time operation. Because of the asynchronous nature of these queues, determining the current number of elements requires an O(n) traversal. Additionally, if elements are added or removed during execution of this method, the returned result may be inaccurate. Thus, this method is typically not very useful in concurrent applications.

      Specified by:
      size in interface Collection<E>
      Returns:
      the number of elements in this queue
    • contains

      public boolean contains​(Object o)
      Returns true if this queue contains the specified element. More formally, returns true if and only if this queue contains at least one element e such that o.equals(e).
      Specified by:
      contains in interface Collection<E>
      Overrides:
      contains in class AbstractCollection<E>
      Parameters:
      o - object to be checked for containment in this queue
      Returns:
      true if this queue contains the specified element
    • remove

      public boolean remove​(Object o)
      Removes a single instance of the specified element from this queue, if it is present. More formally, removes an element e such that o.equals(e), if this queue contains one or more such elements. Returns true if this queue contained the specified element (or equivalently, if this queue changed as a result of the call).
      Specified by:
      remove in interface Collection<E>
      Overrides:
      remove in class AbstractCollection<E>
      Parameters:
      o - element to be removed from this queue, if present
      Returns:
      true if this queue changed as a result of the call
    • addAll

      public boolean addAll​(Collection<? extends E> c)
      Appends all of the elements in the specified collection to the end of this queue, in the order that they are returned by the specified collection's iterator. Attempts to addAll of a queue to itself result in IllegalArgumentException.
      Specified by:
      addAll in interface Collection<E>
      Overrides:
      addAll in class AbstractQueue<E>
      Parameters:
      c - the elements to be inserted into this queue
      Returns:
      true if this queue changed as a result of the call
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the specified collection or any of its elements are null
      IllegalArgumentException - if the collection is this queue
      See Also:
      AbstractQueue.add(Object)
    • toArray

      public Object[] toArray()
      Returns an array containing all of the elements in this queue, in proper sequence.

      The returned array will be "safe" in that no references to it are maintained by this queue. (In other words, this method must allocate a new array). The caller is thus free to modify the returned array.

      This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based APIs.

      Specified by:
      toArray in interface Collection<E>
      Overrides:
      toArray in class AbstractCollection<E>
      Returns:
      an array containing all of the elements in this queue
    • toArray

      public <T> T[] toArray​(T[] a)
      Returns an array containing all of the elements in this queue, in proper sequence; the runtime type of the returned array is that of the specified array. If the queue fits in the specified array, it is returned therein. Otherwise, a new array is allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and the size of this queue.

      If this queue fits in the specified array with room to spare (i.e., the array has more elements than this queue), the element in the array immediately following the end of the queue is set to null.

      Like the toArray() method, this method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based APIs. Further, this method allows precise control over the runtime type of the output array, and may, under certain circumstances, be used to save allocation costs.

      Suppose x is a queue known to contain only strings. The following code can be used to dump the queue into a newly allocated array of String:

       String[] y = x.toArray(new String[0]);
      Note that toArray(new Object[0]) is identical in function to toArray().

      Specified by:
      toArray in interface Collection<E>
      Overrides:
      toArray in class AbstractCollection<E>
      Type Parameters:
      T - the component type of the array to contain the collection
      Parameters:
      a - the array into which the elements of the queue are to be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the same runtime type is allocated for this purpose
      Returns:
      an array containing all of the elements in this queue
      Throws:
      ArrayStoreException - if the runtime type of the specified array is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in this queue
      NullPointerException - if the specified array is null
    • iterator

      public Iterator<E> iterator()
      Returns an iterator over the elements in this queue in proper sequence. The elements will be returned in order from first (head) to last (tail).

      The returned iterator is weakly consistent.

      Specified by:
      iterator in interface Collection<E>
      Specified by:
      iterator in interface Iterable<E>
      Specified by:
      iterator in class AbstractCollection<E>
      Returns:
      an iterator over the elements in this queue in proper sequence
    • spliterator

      public Spliterator<E> spliterator()
      Returns a Spliterator over the elements in this queue.

      The returned spliterator is weakly consistent.

      The Spliterator reports Spliterator.CONCURRENT, Spliterator.ORDERED, and Spliterator.NONNULL.

      Specified by:
      spliterator in interface Collection<E>
      Specified by:
      spliterator in interface Iterable<E>
      Implementation Note:
      The Spliterator implements trySplit to permit limited parallelism.
      Returns:
      a Spliterator over the elements in this queue
      Since:
      1.8
    • removeIf

      public boolean removeIf​(Predicate<? super E> filter)
      Description copied from interface: Collection
      Removes all of the elements of this collection that satisfy the given predicate. Errors or runtime exceptions thrown during iteration or by the predicate are relayed to the caller.
      Specified by:
      removeIf in interface Collection<E>
      Parameters:
      filter - a predicate which returns true for elements to be removed
      Returns:
      true if any elements were removed
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the specified filter is null
    • removeAll

      public boolean removeAll​(Collection<?> c)
      Description copied from class: AbstractCollection
      Removes all of this collection's elements that are also contained in the specified collection (optional operation). After this call returns, this collection will contain no elements in common with the specified collection.
      Specified by:
      removeAll in interface Collection<E>
      Overrides:
      removeAll in class AbstractCollection<E>
      Parameters:
      c - collection containing elements to be removed from this collection
      Returns:
      true if this collection changed as a result of the call
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if this collection contains one or more null elements and the specified collection does not support null elements (optional), or if the specified collection is null
      See Also:
      AbstractCollection.remove(Object), AbstractCollection.contains(Object)
    • retainAll

      public boolean retainAll​(Collection<?> c)
      Description copied from class: AbstractCollection
      Retains only the elements in this collection that are contained in the specified collection (optional operation). In other words, removes from this collection all of its elements that are not contained in the specified collection.
      Specified by:
      retainAll in interface Collection<E>
      Overrides:
      retainAll in class AbstractCollection<E>
      Parameters:
      c - collection containing elements to be retained in this collection
      Returns:
      true if this collection changed as a result of the call
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if this collection contains one or more null elements and the specified collection does not permit null elements (optional), or if the specified collection is null
      See Also:
      AbstractCollection.remove(Object), AbstractCollection.contains(Object)
    • forEach

      public void forEach​(Consumer<? super E> action)
      Description copied from interface: Iterable
      Performs the given action for each element of the Iterable until all elements have been processed or the action throws an exception. Actions are performed in the order of iteration, if that order is specified. Exceptions thrown by the action are relayed to the caller.

      The behavior of this method is unspecified if the action performs side-effects that modify the underlying source of elements, unless an overriding class has specified a concurrent modification policy.

      Specified by:
      forEach in interface Iterable<E>
      Parameters:
      action - The action to be performed for each element
      Throws:
      NullPointerException - if the specified action is null