Module java.desktop
Package java.awt.geom

Class CubicCurve2D

java.lang.Object
java.awt.geom.CubicCurve2D
All Implemented Interfaces:
Shape, Cloneable
Direct Known Subclasses:
CubicCurve2D.Double, CubicCurve2D.Float

public abstract class CubicCurve2D
extends Object
implements Shape, Cloneable
The CubicCurve2D class defines a cubic parametric curve segment in (x,y) coordinate space.

This class is only the abstract superclass for all objects which store a 2D cubic curve segment. The actual storage representation of the coordinates is left to the subclass.

Since:
1.2
  • Nested Class Summary

    Nested Classes
    Modifier and Type Class Description
    static class  CubicCurve2D.Double
    A cubic parametric curve segment specified with double coordinates.
    static class  CubicCurve2D.Float
    A cubic parametric curve segment specified with float coordinates.
  • Constructor Summary

    Constructors
    Modifier Constructor Description
    protected CubicCurve2D()
    This is an abstract class that cannot be instantiated directly.
  • Method Summary

    Modifier and Type Method Description
    Object clone()
    Creates a new object of the same class as this object.
    boolean contains​(double x, double y)
    Tests if the specified coordinates are inside the boundary of the Shape, as described by the definition of insideness.
    boolean contains​(double x, double y, double w, double h)
    Tests if the interior of the Shape entirely contains the specified rectangular area.
    boolean contains​(Point2D p)
    Tests if a specified Point2D is inside the boundary of the Shape, as described by the definition of insideness.
    boolean contains​(Rectangle2D r)
    Tests if the interior of the Shape entirely contains the specified Rectangle2D.
    Rectangle getBounds()
    Returns an integer Rectangle that completely encloses the Shape.
    abstract Point2D getCtrlP1()
    Returns the first control point.
    abstract Point2D getCtrlP2()
    Returns the second control point.
    abstract double getCtrlX1()
    Returns the X coordinate of the first control point in double precision.
    abstract double getCtrlX2()
    Returns the X coordinate of the second control point in double precision.
    abstract double getCtrlY1()
    Returns the Y coordinate of the first control point in double precision.
    abstract double getCtrlY2()
    Returns the Y coordinate of the second control point in double precision.
    double getFlatness()
    Returns the flatness of this curve.
    static double getFlatness​(double[] coords, int offset)
    Returns the flatness of the cubic curve specified by the control points stored in the indicated array at the indicated index.
    static double getFlatness​(double x1, double y1, double ctrlx1, double ctrly1, double ctrlx2, double ctrly2, double x2, double y2)
    Returns the flatness of the cubic curve specified by the indicated control points.
    double getFlatnessSq()
    Returns the square of the flatness of this curve.
    static double getFlatnessSq​(double[] coords, int offset)
    Returns the square of the flatness of the cubic curve specified by the control points stored in the indicated array at the indicated index.
    static double getFlatnessSq​(double x1, double y1, double ctrlx1, double ctrly1, double ctrlx2, double ctrly2, double x2, double y2)
    Returns the square of the flatness of the cubic curve specified by the indicated control points.
    abstract Point2D getP1()
    Returns the start point.
    abstract Point2D getP2()
    Returns the end point.
    PathIterator getPathIterator​(AffineTransform at)
    Returns an iteration object that defines the boundary of the shape.
    PathIterator getPathIterator​(AffineTransform at, double flatness)
    Return an iteration object that defines the boundary of the flattened shape.
    abstract double getX1()
    Returns the X coordinate of the start point in double precision.
    abstract double getX2()
    Returns the X coordinate of the end point in double precision.
    abstract double getY1()
    Returns the Y coordinate of the start point in double precision.
    abstract double getY2()
    Returns the Y coordinate of the end point in double precision.
    boolean intersects​(double x, double y, double w, double h)
    Tests if the interior of the Shape intersects the interior of a specified rectangular area.
    boolean intersects​(Rectangle2D r)
    Tests if the interior of the Shape intersects the interior of a specified Rectangle2D.
    void setCurve​(double[] coords, int offset)
    Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the double coordinates at the specified offset in the specified array.
    abstract void setCurve​(double x1, double y1, double ctrlx1, double ctrly1, double ctrlx2, double ctrly2, double x2, double y2)
    Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the specified double coordinates.
    void setCurve​(CubicCurve2D c)
    Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the same as those in the specified CubicCurve2D.
    void setCurve​(Point2D[] pts, int offset)
    Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the coordinates of the Point2D objects at the specified offset in the specified array.
    void setCurve​(Point2D p1, Point2D cp1, Point2D cp2, Point2D p2)
    Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the specified Point2D coordinates.
    static int solveCubic​(double[] eqn)
    Solves the cubic whose coefficients are in the eqn array and places the non-complex roots back into the same array, returning the number of roots.
    static int solveCubic​(double[] eqn, double[] res)
    Solve the cubic whose coefficients are in the eqn array and place the non-complex roots into the res array, returning the number of roots.
    static void subdivide​(double[] src, int srcoff, double[] left, int leftoff, double[] right, int rightoff)
    Subdivides the cubic curve specified by the coordinates stored in the src array at indices srcoff through (srcoff + 7) and stores the resulting two subdivided curves into the two result arrays at the corresponding indices.
    void subdivide​(CubicCurve2D left, CubicCurve2D right)
    Subdivides this cubic curve and stores the resulting two subdivided curves into the left and right curve parameters.
    static void subdivide​(CubicCurve2D src, CubicCurve2D left, CubicCurve2D right)
    Subdivides the cubic curve specified by the src parameter and stores the resulting two subdivided curves into the left and right curve parameters.

    Methods declared in class java.lang.Object

    equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait

    Methods declared in interface java.awt.Shape

    getBounds2D
  • Constructor Details

    • CubicCurve2D

      protected CubicCurve2D()
      This is an abstract class that cannot be instantiated directly. Type-specific implementation subclasses are available for instantiation and provide a number of formats for storing the information necessary to satisfy the various accessor methods below.
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      CubicCurve2D.Float, CubicCurve2D.Double
  • Method Details

    • getX1

      public abstract double getX1()
      Returns the X coordinate of the start point in double precision.
      Returns:
      the X coordinate of the start point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getY1

      public abstract double getY1()
      Returns the Y coordinate of the start point in double precision.
      Returns:
      the Y coordinate of the start point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getP1

      public abstract Point2D getP1()
      Returns the start point.
      Returns:
      a Point2D that is the start point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getCtrlX1

      public abstract double getCtrlX1()
      Returns the X coordinate of the first control point in double precision.
      Returns:
      the X coordinate of the first control point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getCtrlY1

      public abstract double getCtrlY1()
      Returns the Y coordinate of the first control point in double precision.
      Returns:
      the Y coordinate of the first control point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getCtrlP1

      public abstract Point2D getCtrlP1()
      Returns the first control point.
      Returns:
      a Point2D that is the first control point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getCtrlX2

      public abstract double getCtrlX2()
      Returns the X coordinate of the second control point in double precision.
      Returns:
      the X coordinate of the second control point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getCtrlY2

      public abstract double getCtrlY2()
      Returns the Y coordinate of the second control point in double precision.
      Returns:
      the Y coordinate of the second control point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getCtrlP2

      public abstract Point2D getCtrlP2()
      Returns the second control point.
      Returns:
      a Point2D that is the second control point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getX2

      public abstract double getX2()
      Returns the X coordinate of the end point in double precision.
      Returns:
      the X coordinate of the end point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getY2

      public abstract double getY2()
      Returns the Y coordinate of the end point in double precision.
      Returns:
      the Y coordinate of the end point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getP2

      public abstract Point2D getP2()
      Returns the end point.
      Returns:
      a Point2D that is the end point of the CubicCurve2D.
      Since:
      1.2
    • setCurve

      public abstract void setCurve​(double x1, double y1, double ctrlx1, double ctrly1, double ctrlx2, double ctrly2, double x2, double y2)
      Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the specified double coordinates.
      Parameters:
      x1 - the X coordinate used to set the start point of this CubicCurve2D
      y1 - the Y coordinate used to set the start point of this CubicCurve2D
      ctrlx1 - the X coordinate used to set the first control point of this CubicCurve2D
      ctrly1 - the Y coordinate used to set the first control point of this CubicCurve2D
      ctrlx2 - the X coordinate used to set the second control point of this CubicCurve2D
      ctrly2 - the Y coordinate used to set the second control point of this CubicCurve2D
      x2 - the X coordinate used to set the end point of this CubicCurve2D
      y2 - the Y coordinate used to set the end point of this CubicCurve2D
      Since:
      1.2
    • setCurve

      public void setCurve​(double[] coords, int offset)
      Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the double coordinates at the specified offset in the specified array.
      Parameters:
      coords - a double array containing coordinates
      offset - the index of coords from which to begin setting the end points and control points of this curve to the coordinates contained in coords
      Since:
      1.2
    • setCurve

      public void setCurve​(Point2D p1, Point2D cp1, Point2D cp2, Point2D p2)
      Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the specified Point2D coordinates.
      Parameters:
      p1 - the first specified Point2D used to set the start point of this curve
      cp1 - the second specified Point2D used to set the first control point of this curve
      cp2 - the third specified Point2D used to set the second control point of this curve
      p2 - the fourth specified Point2D used to set the end point of this curve
      Since:
      1.2
    • setCurve

      public void setCurve​(Point2D[] pts, int offset)
      Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the coordinates of the Point2D objects at the specified offset in the specified array.
      Parameters:
      pts - an array of Point2D objects
      offset - the index of pts from which to begin setting the end points and control points of this curve to the points contained in pts
      Since:
      1.2
    • setCurve

      public void setCurve​(CubicCurve2D c)
      Sets the location of the end points and control points of this curve to the same as those in the specified CubicCurve2D.
      Parameters:
      c - the specified CubicCurve2D
      Since:
      1.2
    • getFlatnessSq

      public static double getFlatnessSq​(double x1, double y1, double ctrlx1, double ctrly1, double ctrlx2, double ctrly2, double x2, double y2)
      Returns the square of the flatness of the cubic curve specified by the indicated control points. The flatness is the maximum distance of a control point from the line connecting the end points.
      Parameters:
      x1 - the X coordinate that specifies the start point of a CubicCurve2D
      y1 - the Y coordinate that specifies the start point of a CubicCurve2D
      ctrlx1 - the X coordinate that specifies the first control point of a CubicCurve2D
      ctrly1 - the Y coordinate that specifies the first control point of a CubicCurve2D
      ctrlx2 - the X coordinate that specifies the second control point of a CubicCurve2D
      ctrly2 - the Y coordinate that specifies the second control point of a CubicCurve2D
      x2 - the X coordinate that specifies the end point of a CubicCurve2D
      y2 - the Y coordinate that specifies the end point of a CubicCurve2D
      Returns:
      the square of the flatness of the CubicCurve2D represented by the specified coordinates.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getFlatness

      public static double getFlatness​(double x1, double y1, double ctrlx1, double ctrly1, double ctrlx2, double ctrly2, double x2, double y2)
      Returns the flatness of the cubic curve specified by the indicated control points. The flatness is the maximum distance of a control point from the line connecting the end points.
      Parameters:
      x1 - the X coordinate that specifies the start point of a CubicCurve2D
      y1 - the Y coordinate that specifies the start point of a CubicCurve2D
      ctrlx1 - the X coordinate that specifies the first control point of a CubicCurve2D
      ctrly1 - the Y coordinate that specifies the first control point of a CubicCurve2D
      ctrlx2 - the X coordinate that specifies the second control point of a CubicCurve2D
      ctrly2 - the Y coordinate that specifies the second control point of a CubicCurve2D
      x2 - the X coordinate that specifies the end point of a CubicCurve2D
      y2 - the Y coordinate that specifies the end point of a CubicCurve2D
      Returns:
      the flatness of the CubicCurve2D represented by the specified coordinates.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getFlatnessSq

      public static double getFlatnessSq​(double[] coords, int offset)
      Returns the square of the flatness of the cubic curve specified by the control points stored in the indicated array at the indicated index. The flatness is the maximum distance of a control point from the line connecting the end points.
      Parameters:
      coords - an array containing coordinates
      offset - the index of coords from which to begin getting the end points and control points of the curve
      Returns:
      the square of the flatness of the CubicCurve2D specified by the coordinates in coords at the specified offset.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getFlatness

      public static double getFlatness​(double[] coords, int offset)
      Returns the flatness of the cubic curve specified by the control points stored in the indicated array at the indicated index. The flatness is the maximum distance of a control point from the line connecting the end points.
      Parameters:
      coords - an array containing coordinates
      offset - the index of coords from which to begin getting the end points and control points of the curve
      Returns:
      the flatness of the CubicCurve2D specified by the coordinates in coords at the specified offset.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getFlatnessSq

      public double getFlatnessSq()
      Returns the square of the flatness of this curve. The flatness is the maximum distance of a control point from the line connecting the end points.
      Returns:
      the square of the flatness of this curve.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getFlatness

      public double getFlatness()
      Returns the flatness of this curve. The flatness is the maximum distance of a control point from the line connecting the end points.
      Returns:
      the flatness of this curve.
      Since:
      1.2
    • subdivide

      public void subdivide​(CubicCurve2D left, CubicCurve2D right)
      Subdivides this cubic curve and stores the resulting two subdivided curves into the left and right curve parameters. Either or both of the left and right objects may be the same as this object or null.
      Parameters:
      left - the cubic curve object for storing for the left or first half of the subdivided curve
      right - the cubic curve object for storing for the right or second half of the subdivided curve
      Since:
      1.2
    • subdivide

      public static void subdivide​(CubicCurve2D src, CubicCurve2D left, CubicCurve2D right)
      Subdivides the cubic curve specified by the src parameter and stores the resulting two subdivided curves into the left and right curve parameters. Either or both of the left and right objects may be the same as the src object or null.
      Parameters:
      src - the cubic curve to be subdivided
      left - the cubic curve object for storing the left or first half of the subdivided curve
      right - the cubic curve object for storing the right or second half of the subdivided curve
      Since:
      1.2
    • subdivide

      public static void subdivide​(double[] src, int srcoff, double[] left, int leftoff, double[] right, int rightoff)
      Subdivides the cubic curve specified by the coordinates stored in the src array at indices srcoff through (srcoff + 7) and stores the resulting two subdivided curves into the two result arrays at the corresponding indices. Either or both of the left and right arrays may be null or a reference to the same array as the src array. Note that the last point in the first subdivided curve is the same as the first point in the second subdivided curve. Thus, it is possible to pass the same array for left and right and to use offsets, such as rightoff equals (leftoff + 6), in order to avoid allocating extra storage for this common point.
      Parameters:
      src - the array holding the coordinates for the source curve
      srcoff - the offset into the array of the beginning of the the 6 source coordinates
      left - the array for storing the coordinates for the first half of the subdivided curve
      leftoff - the offset into the array of the beginning of the the 6 left coordinates
      right - the array for storing the coordinates for the second half of the subdivided curve
      rightoff - the offset into the array of the beginning of the the 6 right coordinates
      Since:
      1.2
    • solveCubic

      public static int solveCubic​(double[] eqn)
      Solves the cubic whose coefficients are in the eqn array and places the non-complex roots back into the same array, returning the number of roots. The solved cubic is represented by the equation:
           eqn = {c, b, a, d}
           dx^3 + ax^2 + bx + c = 0
       
      A return value of -1 is used to distinguish a constant equation that might be always 0 or never 0 from an equation that has no zeroes.
      Parameters:
      eqn - an array containing coefficients for a cubic
      Returns:
      the number of roots, or -1 if the equation is a constant.
      Since:
      1.2
    • solveCubic

      public static int solveCubic​(double[] eqn, double[] res)
      Solve the cubic whose coefficients are in the eqn array and place the non-complex roots into the res array, returning the number of roots. The cubic solved is represented by the equation: eqn = {c, b, a, d} dx^3 + ax^2 + bx + c = 0 A return value of -1 is used to distinguish a constant equation, which may be always 0 or never 0, from an equation which has no zeroes.
      Parameters:
      eqn - the specified array of coefficients to use to solve the cubic equation
      res - the array that contains the non-complex roots resulting from the solution of the cubic equation
      Returns:
      the number of roots, or -1 if the equation is a constant
      Since:
      1.3
    • contains

      public boolean contains​(double x, double y)
      Tests if the specified coordinates are inside the boundary of the Shape, as described by the definition of insideness.
      Specified by:
      contains in interface Shape
      Parameters:
      x - the specified X coordinate to be tested
      y - the specified Y coordinate to be tested
      Returns:
      true if the specified coordinates are inside the Shape boundary; false otherwise.
      Since:
      1.2
    • contains

      public boolean contains​(Point2D p)
      Tests if a specified Point2D is inside the boundary of the Shape, as described by the definition of insideness.
      Specified by:
      contains in interface Shape
      Parameters:
      p - the specified Point2D to be tested
      Returns:
      true if the specified Point2D is inside the boundary of the Shape; false otherwise.
      Since:
      1.2
    • intersects

      public boolean intersects​(double x, double y, double w, double h)
      Tests if the interior of the Shape intersects the interior of a specified rectangular area. The rectangular area is considered to intersect the Shape if any point is contained in both the interior of the Shape and the specified rectangular area.

      The Shape.intersects() method allows a Shape implementation to conservatively return true when:

      • there is a high probability that the rectangular area and the Shape intersect, but
      • the calculations to accurately determine this intersection are prohibitively expensive.
      This means that for some Shapes this method might return true even though the rectangular area does not intersect the Shape. The Area class performs more accurate computations of geometric intersection than most Shape objects and therefore can be used if a more precise answer is required.

      Specified by:
      intersects in interface Shape
      Parameters:
      x - the X coordinate of the upper-left corner of the specified rectangular area
      y - the Y coordinate of the upper-left corner of the specified rectangular area
      w - the width of the specified rectangular area
      h - the height of the specified rectangular area
      Returns:
      true if the interior of the Shape and the interior of the rectangular area intersect, or are both highly likely to intersect and intersection calculations would be too expensive to perform; false otherwise.
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      Area
    • intersects

      public boolean intersects​(Rectangle2D r)
      Tests if the interior of the Shape intersects the interior of a specified Rectangle2D. The Shape.intersects() method allows a Shape implementation to conservatively return true when:
      • there is a high probability that the Rectangle2D and the Shape intersect, but
      • the calculations to accurately determine this intersection are prohibitively expensive.
      This means that for some Shapes this method might return true even though the Rectangle2D does not intersect the Shape. The Area class performs more accurate computations of geometric intersection than most Shape objects and therefore can be used if a more precise answer is required.
      Specified by:
      intersects in interface Shape
      Parameters:
      r - the specified Rectangle2D
      Returns:
      true if the interior of the Shape and the interior of the specified Rectangle2D intersect, or are both highly likely to intersect and intersection calculations would be too expensive to perform; false otherwise.
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      Shape.intersects(double, double, double, double)
    • contains

      public boolean contains​(double x, double y, double w, double h)
      Tests if the interior of the Shape entirely contains the specified rectangular area. All coordinates that lie inside the rectangular area must lie within the Shape for the entire rectangular area to be considered contained within the Shape.

      The Shape.contains() method allows a Shape implementation to conservatively return false when:

      • the intersect method returns true and
      • the calculations to determine whether or not the Shape entirely contains the rectangular area are prohibitively expensive.
      This means that for some Shapes this method might return false even though the Shape contains the rectangular area. The Area class performs more accurate geometric computations than most Shape objects and therefore can be used if a more precise answer is required.

      Specified by:
      contains in interface Shape
      Parameters:
      x - the X coordinate of the upper-left corner of the specified rectangular area
      y - the Y coordinate of the upper-left corner of the specified rectangular area
      w - the width of the specified rectangular area
      h - the height of the specified rectangular area
      Returns:
      true if the interior of the Shape entirely contains the specified rectangular area; false otherwise or, if the Shape contains the rectangular area and the intersects method returns true and the containment calculations would be too expensive to perform.
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      Area, Shape.intersects(double, double, double, double)
    • contains

      public boolean contains​(Rectangle2D r)
      Tests if the interior of the Shape entirely contains the specified Rectangle2D. The Shape.contains() method allows a Shape implementation to conservatively return false when:
      • the intersect method returns true and
      • the calculations to determine whether or not the Shape entirely contains the Rectangle2D are prohibitively expensive.
      This means that for some Shapes this method might return false even though the Shape contains the Rectangle2D. The Area class performs more accurate geometric computations than most Shape objects and therefore can be used if a more precise answer is required.
      Specified by:
      contains in interface Shape
      Parameters:
      r - The specified Rectangle2D
      Returns:
      true if the interior of the Shape entirely contains the Rectangle2D; false otherwise or, if the Shape contains the Rectangle2D and the intersects method returns true and the containment calculations would be too expensive to perform.
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      Shape.contains(double, double, double, double)
    • getBounds

      public Rectangle getBounds()
      Returns an integer Rectangle that completely encloses the Shape. Note that there is no guarantee that the returned Rectangle is the smallest bounding box that encloses the Shape, only that the Shape lies entirely within the indicated Rectangle. The returned Rectangle might also fail to completely enclose the Shape if the Shape overflows the limited range of the integer data type. The getBounds2D method generally returns a tighter bounding box due to its greater flexibility in representation.

      Note that the definition of insideness can lead to situations where points on the defining outline of the shape may not be considered contained in the returned bounds object, but only in cases where those points are also not considered contained in the original shape.

      If a point is inside the shape according to the contains(point) method, then it must be inside the returned Rectangle bounds object according to the contains(point) method of the bounds. Specifically:

      shape.contains(x,y) requires bounds.contains(x,y)

      If a point is not inside the shape, then it might still be contained in the bounds object:

      bounds.contains(x,y) does not imply shape.contains(x,y)

      Specified by:
      getBounds in interface Shape
      Returns:
      an integer Rectangle that completely encloses the Shape.
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      Shape.getBounds2D()
    • getPathIterator

      public PathIterator getPathIterator​(AffineTransform at)
      Returns an iteration object that defines the boundary of the shape. The iterator for this class is not multi-threaded safe, which means that this CubicCurve2D class does not guarantee that modifications to the geometry of this CubicCurve2D object do not affect any iterations of that geometry that are already in process.
      Specified by:
      getPathIterator in interface Shape
      Parameters:
      at - an optional AffineTransform to be applied to the coordinates as they are returned in the iteration, or null if untransformed coordinates are desired
      Returns:
      the PathIterator object that returns the geometry of the outline of this CubicCurve2D, one segment at a time.
      Since:
      1.2
    • getPathIterator

      public PathIterator getPathIterator​(AffineTransform at, double flatness)
      Return an iteration object that defines the boundary of the flattened shape. The iterator for this class is not multi-threaded safe, which means that this CubicCurve2D class does not guarantee that modifications to the geometry of this CubicCurve2D object do not affect any iterations of that geometry that are already in process.
      Specified by:
      getPathIterator in interface Shape
      Parameters:
      at - an optional AffineTransform to be applied to the coordinates as they are returned in the iteration, or null if untransformed coordinates are desired
      flatness - the maximum amount that the control points for a given curve can vary from colinear before a subdivided curve is replaced by a straight line connecting the end points
      Returns:
      the PathIterator object that returns the geometry of the outline of this CubicCurve2D, one segment at a time.
      Since:
      1.2
    • clone

      public Object clone()
      Creates a new object of the same class as this object.
      Overrides:
      clone in class Object
      Returns:
      a clone of this instance.
      Throws:
      OutOfMemoryError - if there is not enough memory.
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      Cloneable