Module java.sql
Package java.sql

Class DriverManager

java.lang.Object
java.sql.DriverManager

public class DriverManager extends Object
The basic service for managing a set of JDBC drivers.

NOTE: The DataSource interface, provides another way to connect to a data source. The use of a DataSource object is the preferred means of connecting to a data source.

As part of its initialization, the DriverManager class will attempt to load available JDBC drivers by using:

  • The jdbc.drivers system property which contains a colon separated list of fully qualified class names of JDBC drivers. Each driver is loaded using the system class loader:
    • jdbc.drivers=foo.bah.Driver:wombat.sql.Driver:bad.taste.ourDriver
  • Service providers of the java.sql.Driver class, that are loaded via the service-provider loading mechanism.

Implementation Note:
DriverManager initialization is done lazily and looks up service providers using the thread context class loader. The drivers loaded and available to an application will depend on the thread context class loader of the thread that triggers driver initialization by DriverManager.

When the method getConnection is called, the DriverManager will attempt to locate a suitable driver from amongst those loaded at initialization and those loaded explicitly using the same class loader as the current application.

Since:
1.1
See Also:
Driver, Connection
  • Method Details

    • getLogWriter

      public static PrintWriter getLogWriter()
      Retrieves the log writer. The getLogWriter and setLogWriter methods should be used instead of the get/setlogStream methods, which are deprecated.
      Returns:
      a java.io.PrintWriter object
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      setLogWriter(java.io.PrintWriter)
    • setLogWriter

      public static void setLogWriter(PrintWriter out)
      Sets the logging/tracing PrintWriter object that is used by the DriverManager and all drivers.

      If a security manager exists, its checkPermission method is first called with a SQLPermission("setLog") permission to check that the caller is allowed to call setLogWriter.

      Parameters:
      out - the new logging/tracing PrintStream object; null to disable logging and tracing
      Throws:
      SecurityException - if a security manager exists and its checkPermission method denies permission to set the log writer.
      Since:
      1.2
      See Also:
      SecurityManager.checkPermission(java.security.Permission), getLogWriter()
    • getConnection

      public static Connection getConnection(String url, Properties info) throws SQLException
      Attempts to establish a connection to the given database URL. The DriverManager attempts to select an appropriate driver from the set of registered JDBC drivers.

      Note: If a property is specified as part of the url and is also specified in the Properties object, it is implementation-defined as to which value will take precedence. For maximum portability, an application should only specify a property once.

      Parameters:
      url - a database url of the form jdbc:subprotocol:subname
      info - a list of arbitrary string tag/value pairs as connection arguments; normally at least a "user" and "password" property should be included
      Returns:
      a Connection to the URL
      Throws:
      SQLException - if a database access error occurs or the url is null
      SQLTimeoutException - when the driver has determined that the timeout value specified by the setLoginTimeout method has been exceeded and has at least tried to cancel the current database connection attempt
    • getConnection

      public static Connection getConnection(String url, String user, String password) throws SQLException
      Attempts to establish a connection to the given database URL. The DriverManager attempts to select an appropriate driver from the set of registered JDBC drivers.

      Note: If the user or password property are also specified as part of the url, it is implementation-defined as to which value will take precedence. For maximum portability, an application should only specify a property once.

      Parameters:
      url - a database url of the form jdbc:subprotocol:subname
      user - the database user on whose behalf the connection is being made
      password - the user's password
      Returns:
      a connection to the URL
      Throws:
      SQLException - if a database access error occurs or the url is null
      SQLTimeoutException - when the driver has determined that the timeout value specified by the setLoginTimeout method has been exceeded and has at least tried to cancel the current database connection attempt
    • getConnection

      public static Connection getConnection(String url) throws SQLException
      Attempts to establish a connection to the given database URL. The DriverManager attempts to select an appropriate driver from the set of registered JDBC drivers.
      Parameters:
      url - a database url of the form jdbc:subprotocol:subname
      Returns:
      a connection to the URL
      Throws:
      SQLException - if a database access error occurs or the url is null
      SQLTimeoutException - when the driver has determined that the timeout value specified by the setLoginTimeout method has been exceeded and has at least tried to cancel the current database connection attempt
    • getDriver

      public static Driver getDriver(String url) throws SQLException
      Attempts to locate a driver that understands the given URL. The DriverManager attempts to select an appropriate driver from the set of registered JDBC drivers.
      Parameters:
      url - a database URL of the form jdbc:subprotocol:subname
      Returns:
      a Driver object representing a driver that can connect to the given URL
      Throws:
      SQLException - if a database access error occurs
    • registerDriver

      public static void registerDriver(Driver driver) throws SQLException
      Registers the given driver with the DriverManager. A newly-loaded driver class should call the method registerDriver to make itself known to the DriverManager. If the driver is currently registered, no action is taken.
      Parameters:
      driver - the new JDBC Driver that is to be registered with the DriverManager
      Throws:
      SQLException - if a database access error occurs
      NullPointerException - if driver is null
    • registerDriver

      public static void registerDriver(Driver driver, DriverAction da) throws SQLException
      Registers the given driver with the DriverManager. A newly-loaded driver class should call the method registerDriver to make itself known to the DriverManager. If the driver is currently registered, no action is taken.
      Parameters:
      driver - the new JDBC Driver that is to be registered with the DriverManager
      da - the DriverAction implementation to be used when DriverManager#deregisterDriver is called
      Throws:
      SQLException - if a database access error occurs
      NullPointerException - if driver is null
      Since:
      1.8
    • deregisterDriver

      public static void deregisterDriver(Driver driver) throws SQLException
      Removes the specified driver from the DriverManager's list of registered drivers.

      If a null value is specified for the driver to be removed, then no action is taken.

      If a security manager exists, its checkPermission method is first called with a SQLPermission("deregisterDriver") permission to check that the caller is allowed to deregister a JDBC Driver.

      If the specified driver is not found in the list of registered drivers, then no action is taken. If the driver was found, it will be removed from the list of registered drivers.

      If a DriverAction instance was specified when the JDBC driver was registered, its deregister method will be called prior to the driver being removed from the list of registered drivers.

      Parameters:
      driver - the JDBC Driver to remove
      Throws:
      SQLException - if a database access error occurs
      SecurityException - if a security manager exists and its checkPermission method denies permission to deregister a driver.
      See Also:
      SecurityManager.checkPermission(java.security.Permission)
    • getDrivers

      public static Enumeration<Driver> getDrivers()
      Retrieves an Enumeration with all of the currently loaded JDBC drivers to which the current caller has access.

      Note: The classname of a driver can be found using d.getClass().getName()

      Returns:
      the list of JDBC Drivers loaded by the caller's class loader
      See Also:
      drivers()
    • drivers

      public static Stream<Driver> drivers()
      Retrieves a Stream with all of the currently loaded JDBC drivers to which the current caller has access.
      Returns:
      the stream of JDBC Drivers loaded by the caller's class loader
      Since:
      9
    • setLoginTimeout

      public static void setLoginTimeout(int seconds)
      Sets the maximum time in seconds that a driver will wait while attempting to connect to a database once the driver has been identified.
      Parameters:
      seconds - the login time limit in seconds; zero means there is no limit
      See Also:
      getLoginTimeout()
    • getLoginTimeout

      public static int getLoginTimeout()
      Gets the maximum time in seconds that a driver can wait when attempting to log in to a database.
      Returns:
      the driver login time limit in seconds
      See Also:
      setLoginTimeout(int)
    • setLogStream

      @Deprecated(since="1.2") public static void setLogStream(PrintStream out)
      Deprecated.
      Use setLogWriter
      Sets the logging/tracing PrintStream that is used by the DriverManager and all drivers.

      If a security manager exists, its checkPermission method is first called with a SQLPermission("setLog") permission to check that the caller is allowed to call setLogStream.

      Parameters:
      out - the new logging/tracing PrintStream; to disable, set to null
      Throws:
      SecurityException - if a security manager exists and its checkPermission method denies permission to set the log stream.
      See Also:
      SecurityManager.checkPermission(java.security.Permission), getLogStream()
    • getLogStream

      @Deprecated(since="1.2") public static PrintStream getLogStream()
      Deprecated.
      Use getLogWriter
      Retrieves the logging/tracing PrintStream that is used by the DriverManager and all drivers.
      Returns:
      the logging/tracing PrintStream; if disabled, is null
      See Also:
      setLogStream(java.io.PrintStream)
    • println

      public static void println(String message)
      Prints a message to the current JDBC log stream.
      Parameters:
      message - a log or tracing message