4 Removed APIs

This section provides details about Java SE APIs that were removed in JDK 16, JDK 15, JDK 14, JDK 13, JDK 12, and JDK 11 releases.

Run jdeprscan --release 16 -l --for-removal to get the list of APIs that are marked for removal in JDK 16.

Note:

The jdeprscan tool is available since JDK 9. If you want to print the list of APIs for a different JDK version, then replace the release number with 9 or later.

API Removed in Java SE 16

Constructor

javax.tools.ToolProvider.<init>()          

APIs Removed in Java SE 15

The following APIs have been removed in Java SE 15.

Fields

java.management.rmi.RMIConnectorServer.CREDENTIAL_TYPES      

Constructors

java.lang.invoke.ConstantBootstraps.<init> 
    java.lang.reflect.Modifier.<init>          

APIs Removed in Java SE 14

The following APIs have been removed in Java SE 14.

Packages
java.security.acl      

Interfaces

java.security.acl.Acl
java.security.acl.AclEntry
java.security.acl.Group
java.security.acl.Owner
java.security.acl.Permission
java.util.jar.Pack200.Packer    
java.util.jar.Pack200.Unpacker            
Classes
java.util.jar.Pack200      

APIs Removed in Java SE 13

The following APIs were removed in Java SE 13. Both of these APIs were deprecated and marked for removal with JDK 9. Both have been superseded by JVM-specific tracing mechanisms. See JVMTM Tool Interface specification.

java.lang.Runtime.traceInstructions(boolean)      
java.lang.Runtime.traceMethodCalls(boolean)

APIs Removed in Java SE 12

The following APIs were removed in Java SE 12.

            java.io.FileInputStream.finalize()      
            java.io.FileOutputStream.finalize()       
            java.util.zip.Deflater.finalize()       
            java.util.zip.Inflater.finalize()      
            java.util.zip.ZipFile.finalize()      

APIs Removed in JDK 11

The following APIs were removed in JDK 11. Many of these APIs were deprecated in previous releases and have been replaced by newer APIs.

javax.security.auth.Policy 
java.lang.Runtime.runFinalizersOnExit(boolean)
java.lang.SecurityManager.checkAwtEventQueueAccess() 
java.lang.SecurityManager.checkMemberAccess(java.lang.Class,int)
java.lang.SecurityManager.checkSystemClipboardAccess()
java.lang.SecurityManager.checkTopLevelWindow(java.lang.Object)
java.lang.System.runFinalizersOnExit(boolean)
java.lang.Thread.destroy()
java.lang.Thread.stop(java.lang.Throwable)

APIs Removed in JDK 10

The following common DOM APIs were removed in JDK 10.

com.sun.java.browser.plugin2.DOM
sun.plugin.dom.DOMObject

APIs Removed JDK 9

The following are some important APIs that have been removed from JDK 10 and JDK 9 releases.

Removed java.* APIs

The Java team is committed to backward compatibility. If an application runs in JDK 8, then it will run on JDK 9 and later releases as long as it uses APIs that are supported and intended for external use.

These include:

  • JCP standard, java.*, javax.*
  • JDK-specific APIs, some com.sun.*, some jdk.*

Supported APIs can be removed from the JDK, but only with notice. Find out if your code is using deprecated APIs by running the static analysis tool jdeprscan.

java.* APIs that were removed in JDK 9 include the previously deprecated methods from the java.util.logging.LogManager and java.util.jar.Pack200 packages:

java.util.logging.LogManager.addPropertyChangeListener
java.util.logging.LogManager.removePropertyChangeListener
java.util.jar.Pack200.Packer.addPropertyChangeListener
java.util.jar.Pack200.Packer.removePropertyChangeListener
java.util.jar.Pack200.Unpacker.addPropertyChangeListener
java.util.jar.Pack200.Unpacker.removePropertyChangeListener

Removal and Future Removal of sun.misc and sun.reflect APIs

Unlike the java.* APIs, almost all of the sun.* APIs are unsupported, JDK-internal APIs, and may go away at any time.

A few sun.* APIs were removed in JDK 9. Notably, sun.misc.BASE64Encoder and sun.misc.BASE64Decoder were removed. Instead, use the supported java.util.Base64 class, which was added in JDK 8.

If you use these APIs, you may wish to migrate to their supported replacements:

See JEP 260: Encapsulate Most Internal APIs.

java.awt.peer Not Accessible

The java.awt.peer and java.awt.dnd.peer packages aren’t accessible, starting in JDK 9. The packages were never part of the Java SE API, despite being in the java.* namespace.

All methods in the Java SE API that refer to types defined in these packages were removed from JDK 9. Code that calls a method that previously accepted or returned a type defined in these packages no longer compiles or runs.

There are two common uses of the java.awt.peer classes. You should replace them as follows:
  • To see if a peer has been set yet:
    if (component.getPeer() != null) { .. }
    Replace this with Component.isDisplayable() from the JDK 1.1 API:
    public boolean isDisplayable() {
    	return getPeer() != null;
  • To test if a component is lightweight:
    if (component.getPeer() instanceof LightweightPeer) ..
    Replace this with Component.isLightweight() from the JDK 1.2 API:
    public boolean isLightweight() {
    	return getPeer() instanceof LightweightPeer;

Removed com.sun.image.codec.jpeg Package

The nonstandard package com.sun.image.codec.jpeg has been removed. Use the Java Image I/O API instead.

The com.sun.image.codec.jpeg package was added in JDK 1.2 as a nonstandard way of controlling the loading and saving of JPEG format image files. It has never been part of the platform specification.

In JDK 1.4, the Java Image I/O API was added as a standard API, residing in the javax.imageio package. It provides a standard mechanism for controlling the loading and saving of sampled image formats and requires all compliant Java SE implementations to support JPEG based on the Java Image I/O specification.

Removed Tools Support for Compact Profiles

Starting in JDK 9, you can choose to build and run your application against any subset of the modules in the Java runtime image, without needing to rely on predefined profiles.

Profiles, introduced in Java SE 8, define subsets of the Java SE Platform API that can reduce the static size of the Java runtime on devices that have limited storage capacity. The tools in JDK 8 support three profiles, compact1, compact2, and compact3. For the API composition of each profile, see Detailed Profile Composition and API Reference in the JDK 8 documentation.

In JDK 8, you use the -profile option to specify the profile when running the javac and java commands. Starting in JDK 9, the -profile option is supported by javac only in conjunction with the --release 8 option, and isn’t supported by java.

JDK 9 and later releases let you choose the modules that are used at compile and run time. By specifying modules with the new --limit-modules option, you can obtain the same APIs that are in the compact profiles. This option is supported by both the javac and java commands, as shown in the following examples:

javac --limit-modules java.base,java.logging MyApp.java
java --limit-modules java.base,java.logging MyApp
The packages specified for each profile in Java SE 8 are exported, collectively, by the following sets of modules:
  • For the compact1 profile: java.base, java.logging, java.scripting

  • For the compact2 profile: java.base, java.logging, java.scripting, java.rmi, java.sql, java.xml

  • For the compact3 profile: java.base, java.logging, java.scripting, java.rmi, java.sql, java.xml, java.compiler, java.instrument, java.management, java.naming, java.prefs, java.security.jgss, java.security.sasl, java.sql.rowset, java.xml.crypto

You can use the jdeps tool to do a static analysis of the Java packages that are being used in your source code. This gives you the set of modules that you need to execute your application. If you had been using the compact3 profile, for example, then you may see that you don’t need to include that entire set of modules when you build your application. See jdeps in Java Development Kit Tool Specifications.

See JEP 200: The Modular JDK.

Use CLDR Locale Data by Default

Starting in JDK 9, the Unicode Consortium's Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR) data is enabled as the default locale data, so that you can use standard locale data without any further action.

In JDK 8, although CLDR locale data is bundled with the JRE, it isn’t enabled by default.

Code that uses locale-sensitive services such as date, time, and number formatting may produce different results with the CLDR locale data. Remember that even System.out.printf() is locale-aware.

To enable behavior compatible with JDK 8, set the system property java.locale.providers to a value with COMPAT ahead of CLDR, for example, java.locale.providers=COMPAT,CLDR.

See CLDR Locale Data Enabled by Default in the Java Platform, Standard Edition Internationalization Guide and JEP 252: Use CLDR Locale Data by Default.