5 Removed Tools and Components

The following section lists tools and components that are experimental, obsolete, or no longer used and have been removed from the JDK.

Tools and Components Removed in JDK 16

Removal of Experimental Features AOT and Graal JIT

The Java Ahead-of-Time compilation experimental tool jaotc and Java-based Graal JIT compiler have been removed. See Removal of experimental features AOT and Graal JIT.

Removed Root Certificates with 1024-bit Keys

The root certificates with weak 1024-bit RSA public keys have been removed from the cacerts keystore. For details, see Remove root certificates with 1024-bit keys.

Removal of Legacy Elliptic Curves

The SunEC provider no longer supports the following elliptic curves that were deprecated in JDK 14.

secp112r1, secp112r2, secp128r1, secp128r2, secp160k1, secp160r1, secp160r2, 
secp192k1, secp192r1, secp224k1, secp224r1, secp256k1, sect1

To continue using any of these curves, find third-party alternatives. See Remove the legacy elliptic curves.

Deprecated Tracing Flags Are Obsolete and Must Be Replaced With Unified Logging Equivalents

When Unified Logging was added in Java 9, several tracing flags were deprecated and mapped to their unified logging equivalent. These flags are now obsolete and you must explicitly replace the use of these flags with their unified logging equivalent.

Obsolete Tracing Flag Unified Logging Replacement
-XX:+TraceClassLoading -Xlog:class+load=info
-XX:+TraceClassUnloading -Xlog:class+unload=info
-XX:+TraceExceptions -Xlog:exceptions=info

Tools and Components Removed and Deprecated in JDK 15

Removal of Nashorn JavaScript Engine

Nashorn JavaScript script engine and APIs, and the jjs tool have been removed in JDK 15. The engine, APIs, and tool were deprecated for removal in Java 11. See JEP 372: Remove the Nashorn JavaScript Engine.

Removal of RMI Static Stub Compiler (rmic) Tool

The RMI static stub compiler (rmic) tool has been removed. The rmic tool was deprecated for removal in JDK 13. See Remove rmic from the set of supported tools.

Disable and Deprecate Biased Locking

The biased locking is disabled by default and all related command-line options have been deprecated. See JEP 374: Disable and Deprecate Biased Locking.

Deprecate RMI Activation for Removal

The RMI Activation mechanism has been deprecated and may be removed in a future version of the platform. See JEP 385: Deprecate RMI Activation for Removal.

Features and Components Removed in JDK 14

Remove the Concurrent Mark Sweep (CMS) Garbage Collector

The CMS garbage collector has been removed. See JEP 363: Remove the Concurrent Mark Sweep (CMS) Garbage Collector.

Removal of Pack200 Tools and API

The Pack200 tools and API were deprecated in JDK 11 and have been removed in JDK 14.

The pack200 and unpack200 tools, and Pack200 in java.util.jar.Pack200 package have been removed .

See JEP 367: Remove the Pack200 Tools and API.

Tools and Components Removed in JDK 13

Removal of Old Features from javadoc Tool

The following four features have been removed from the javadoc tool:

  • Support for generating API documentation using HTML 4
  • Support for the old javadoc API
  • Support for generating documentation using HTML frames
  • Support for the --no-module-directories options

For details about removed javadoc features, see JDK-8215608 : Remove old javadoc features.

See Removed Features and Options of JDK 13 Release Notes for list of removed tools and components.

Tools and Components Removed in JDK 12

To know more about the tools and components that are removed in JDK 12, see Removed Features and Options in JDK 12.

Tools and Components Removed in JDK 11

Removal of the Deployment Stack

Java deployment technologies were deprecated in JDK 9 and removed in JDK 11.

Java applet and Web Start functionality, including the Java plug-in, the Java Applet Viewer, Java Control Panel, and Java Web Start, along with javaws tool, have been removed in JDK 11.

See Remove Java Deployment Technologies.

Removal of Java EE and CORBA Modules

In JDK 11, the Java EE and CORBA modules were removed. These modules were deprecated for removal in JDK 9.

The removed modules were:

  • java.xml.ws: Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS), Web Services Metadata for the Java Platform, and SOAP with Attachments for Java (SAAJ)
  • java.xml.bind: Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
  • java.xml.ws.annotation: The subset of the JSR-250 Common Annotations defined by Java SE to support web services
  • java.corba: CORBA
  • java.transaction: The subset of the Java Transaction API defined by Java SE to support CORBA Object Transaction Services
  • java.activation: JavaBeans Activation Framework
  • java.se.ee: Aggregator module for the six modules above
  • jdk.xml.ws: Tools for JAX-WS
  • jdk.xml.bind: Tools for JAXB

Existing code with references to classes in these APIs will not compile without changes to the build. Similarly, code on the class path with references to classes in these APIs will fail with NoDefClassFoundError or ClassNotFoundException unless changes are made in how the application is deployed. 

See JEP 320: Remove the Java EE and CORBA Modules to get more information about possible replacements for the modules.

Note:

You can download JAXB and JAX-WS from Maven.

Removal of Tools and Components

Main Tools

CORBA Tools

  • idlj
  • orbd
  • servertool
  • tnamesrv

In addition, the rmic (the RMI compiler) no longer supports the -idl or -iiop options. See JDK 11 Release Notes.

Java Web Services Tools

  • schemagen
  • wsgen
  • wsimport
  • xjc

Java Deployment Tools

Monitoring Tools

  • jmc: In JDK 11, JMC is available as a standalone package and not bundled in the JDK.

See Removal of JMC from JDK and Java Mission Control.

JVM-MANAGEMENT-MIB.mib

The specification for JVM monitoring and management through SNMP JVM-MANAGEMENT-MIB.mib has been removed. See Removal of JVM-MANAGEMENT-MIB.mib.

SNMP Agent

The jdk.snmp module has been removed. See Removal of SNMP Agent.

Oracle Desktop Specific Removals

  • Oracle JDK T2K font rasterizer has been removed.
  • Lucida Fonts: Oracle JDK no longer ships any fonts and relies entirely on fonts installed on the operating system. See Removal of Lucida Fonts from Oracle JDK.

Tools and Components Removed in JDK 9 and JDK 10

This list includes tools and components that are no longer bundled with the JDK.

Removed Native-Header Generation Tool (javah)

The javah tool has been superseded by superior functionality in javac. It was removed in JDK 10.

Since JDK 8, javac provides the ability to write native header files at the time that Java source code is compiled, thereby eliminating the need for a separate tool.

Instead of javah, use
javac -h

Removed JavaDB

JavaDB, which was a rebranding of Apache Derby, is no longer included in the JDK.

JavaDB was bundled with JDK 7 and JDK 8. It was found in the db directory of the JDK installation directory.

You can download and install Apache Derby from Apache Derby Downloads.

Removed the JVM TI hprof Agent

The hprof agent library has been removed.

The hprof agent was written as demonstration code for the JVM Tool Interface and wasn’t intended to be a production tool. The useful features of the hprof agent have been superseded by better alternatives, including some that are included in the JDK.

For creating heap dumps in the hprof format, use a diagnostic command (jcmd) or the jmap tool:

  • Diagnostic command: jcmd <pid> GC.heap_dump. See jcmd.
  • jmap: jmap -dump. See jmap.

For CPU profiler capabilities, use the Java Flight Recorder, which is bundled with the JDK.

See JEP 240: Remove the JVM TI hprof Agent.

Removed the jhat Tool

The jhat tool was an experimental, unsupported heap visualization tool added in JDK 6. Superior heap visualizers and analyzers have been available for many years.

Removed java-rmi.exe and java-rmi.cgi Launchers

The launchers java-rmi.exe from Windows and java-rmi.cgi from Linux and Solaris have been removed.

java-rmi.cgi was in $JAVA_HOME/bin on Linux.

java-rmi.exe was in $JAVA_HOME/bin on Windows.

These launchers were added to the JDK to facilitate use of the RMI CGI proxy mechanism, which was deprecated in JDK 8.

The alternative of using a servlet to proxy RMI over HTTP has been available, and even preferred, for several years. See Java RMI and Object Serialization.

Removed Support for the IIOP Transport from the JMX RMIConnector

The IIOP transport support from the JMX RMI Connector along with its supporting classes have been removed from the JDK.

In JDK 8, support for the IIOP transport was downgraded from required to optional. This was the first step in a multirelease effort to remove support for the IIOP transport from the JMX Remote API. In JDK 9, support for IIOP was removed completely.

Public API changes include:

  • The javax.management.remote.rmi.RMIIIOPServerImpl class has been deprecated. Upon invocation, all its methods and constructors throw java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException with an explanatory message.

  • Two classes, org.omg.stub.javax.management.rmi._RMIConnection_Stub, and org.omg.stub.javax.management.rmi._RMIConnection_Tie, aren’t generated.

Dropped Windows 32–bit Client VM

The Windows 32–bit client VM is no longer available. Only a server VM is offered.

JDK 8 and earlier releases offered both a client JVM and a server JVM for Windows 32-bit systems. JDK 9 and later releases offer only a server JVM, which is tuned to maximize peak operating speed.

Removed Java VisualVM

Java VisualVM is a tool that provides information about code running on a Java Virtual Machine. The jvisualvm tool was provided with JDK 6, JDK 7, and JDK 8.

Java VisualVM is no longer bundled with the JDK, but you can get it from the VisualVM open source project site.

Removed native2ascii Tool

The native2ascii tool has been removed from the JDK. Because JDK 9 and later releases support UTF-8 based properties resource bundles, the conversion tool for UTF-8 based properties resource bundles to ISO-8859-1 is no longer needed.

See UTF-8 Properties Files in Java Platform, Standard Edition Internationalization Guide.