Interface ResourceScope

All Superinterfaces:
AutoCloseable

public sealed interface ResourceScope extends AutoCloseable
A resource scope manages the lifecycle of one or more resources. Resources (e.g. MemorySegment) associated with a resource scope can only be accessed while the resource scope is alive, and by the thread associated with the resource scope (if any).

Deterministic deallocation

Resource scopes support deterministic deallocation; that is, they can be closed explicitly. When a resource scope is closed, it is no longer alive, and subsequent operations on resources associated with that scope (e.g. attempting to access a MemorySegment instance) will fail with IllegalStateException.

Closing a resource scope will cause all the close actions associated with that scope to be called. Moreover, closing a resource scope might trigger the releasing of the underlying memory resources associated with said scope; for instance:

  • closing the scope associated with a native memory segment results in freeing the native memory associated with it;
  • closing the scope associated with a mapped memory segment results in the backing memory-mapped file to be unmapped;
  • closing the scope associated with an upcall stub results in releasing the stub;
  • closing the scope associated with a variable arity list results in releasing the memory associated with that variable arity list instance.

Implicit deallocation

Resource scopes can be associated with a Cleaner instance, so that they are also closed automatically, once the scope instance becomes unreachable. This can be useful to allow for predictable, deterministic resource deallocation, while still preventing accidental native memory leaks. In case a managed resource scope is closed explicitly, no further action will be taken when the scope becomes unreachable; that is, close actions associated with a resource scope, whether managed or not, are called exactly once.

Global scope

An important implicit resource scope is the so called global scope; the global scope is a resource scope that cannot be closed, either explicitly or implicitly. As a result, the global scope will never attempt to release resources associated with it. Examples of resources associated with the global scope are: In other words, the global scope is used to indicate that the lifecycle of one or more resources must, where needed, be managed independently by clients.

Thread confinement

Resource scopes can be divided into two categories: thread-confined resource scopes, and shared resource scopes.

Confined resource scopes, support strong thread-confinement guarantees. Upon creation, they are assigned an owner thread, typically the thread which initiated the creation operation. After creating a confined resource scope, only the owner thread will be allowed to directly manipulate the resources associated with this resource scope. Any attempt to perform resource access from a thread other than the owner thread will result in a runtime failure.

Shared resource scopes, on the other hand, have no owner thread; as such, resources associated with shared resource scopes can be accessed by multiple threads. This might be useful when multiple threads need to access the same resource concurrently (e.g. in the case of parallel processing). For instance, a client might obtain a Spliterator from a segment backed by a shared scope, which can then be used to slice the segment and allow multiple threads to work in parallel on disjoint segment slices. The following code can be used to sum all int values in a memory segment in parallel:

try (ResourceScope scope = ResourceScope.newSharedScope()) {
    SequenceLayout SEQUENCE_LAYOUT = MemoryLayout.sequenceLayout(1024, ValueLayout.JAVA_INT);
    MemorySegment segment = MemorySegment.allocateNative(SEQUENCE_LAYOUT, scope);
    int sum = segment.elements(ValueLayout.JAVA_INT).parallel()
                     .mapToInt(s -> s.get(ValueLayout.JAVA_INT, 0))
                     .sum();
}

Shared resource scopes, while powerful, must be used with caution: if one or more threads accesses a resource associated with a shared scope while the scope is being closed from another thread, an exception might occur on both the accessing and the closing threads. Clients should refrain from attempting to close a shared resource scope repeatedly (e.g. keep calling close() until no exception is thrown). Instead, clients of shared resource scopes should always ensure that proper synchronization mechanisms (e.g. using temporal dependencies, see below) are put in place so that threads closing shared resource scopes can never race against threads accessing resources managed by same scopes.

Temporal dependencies

Resource scopes can depend on each other. More specifically, a scope can feature temporal dependencies on one or more other resource scopes. Such a resource scope cannot be closed (either implicitly or explicitly) until all the scopes it depends on have also been closed.

This can be useful when clients need to perform a critical operation on a memory segment, during which they have to ensure that the scope associated with that segment will not be closed; this can be done as follows:

MemorySegment segment = ...
try (ResourceScope criticalScope = ResourceScope.newConfinedScope()) {
    criticalScope.keepAlive(segment.scope());
    <critical operation on segment>
}
Note that a resource scope does not become unreachable until all the scopes it depends on have been closed.

Implementation Requirements:
Implementations of this interface are immutable, thread-safe and value-based.
  • Method Details

    • isAlive

      boolean isAlive()
      Returns true, if this resource scope is alive.
      Returns:
      true, if this resource scope is alive
      See Also:
    • ownerThread

      Thread ownerThread()
      The thread owning this resource scope.
      Returns:
      the thread owning this resource scope, or null if this resource scope is shared.
    • close

      void close()
      Closes this resource scope. As a side effect, if this operation completes without exceptions, this scope will be marked as not alive, and subsequent operations on resources associated with this scope will fail with IllegalStateException. Additionally, upon successful closure, all native resources associated with this resource scope will be released.
      Specified by:
      close in interface AutoCloseable
      API Note:
      This operation is not idempotent; that is, closing an already closed resource scope always results in an exception being thrown. This reflects a deliberate design choice: resource scope state transitions should be manifest in the client code; a failure in any of these transitions reveals a bug in the underlying application logic.
      Throws:
      IllegalStateException - if one of the following condition is met:
      • this resource scope is not alive
      • this resource scope is confined, and this method is called from a thread other than the thread owning this resource scope
      • this resource scope is shared and a resource associated with this scope is accessed while this method is called
      • one or more scopes which depend on this resource scope have not been closed.
      UnsupportedOperationException - if this resource scope is the global scope.
    • addCloseAction

      void addCloseAction(Runnable runnable)
      Add a custom cleanup action which will be executed when the resource scope is closed. The order in which custom cleanup actions are invoked once the scope is closed is unspecified.
      Parameters:
      runnable - the custom cleanup action to be associated with this scope.
      Throws:
      IllegalStateException - if this scope has been closed, or if access occurs from a thread other than the thread owning this scope.
    • keepAlive

      void keepAlive(ResourceScope target)
      Creates a temporal dependency between this scope and the target scope. As a result, the target scope cannot be closed before this scope.
      Implementation Note:
      A given scope can support up to Integer.MAX_VALUE pending keep alive requests.
      Parameters:
      target - the scope that needs to be kept alive.
      Throws:
      IllegalArgumentException - if target == this.
      IllegalStateException - if this scope or target have been closed, or if access occurs from a thread other than the thread owning this scope or target.
    • newConfinedScope

      static ResourceScope newConfinedScope()
      Creates a new confined scope.
      Returns:
      a new confined scope.
    • newConfinedScope

      static ResourceScope newConfinedScope(Cleaner cleaner)
      Creates a new confined scope, managed by the provided cleaner instance.
      Parameters:
      cleaner - the cleaner to be associated with the returned scope.
      Returns:
      a new confined scope, managed by cleaner.
    • newSharedScope

      static ResourceScope newSharedScope()
      Creates a new shared scope.
      Returns:
      a new shared scope.
    • newSharedScope

      static ResourceScope newSharedScope(Cleaner cleaner)
      Creates a new shared scope, managed by the provided cleaner instance.
      Parameters:
      cleaner - the cleaner to be associated with the returned scope.
      Returns:
      a new shared scope, managed by cleaner.
    • newImplicitScope

      static ResourceScope newImplicitScope()
      Creates a new shared scope, managed by a private Cleaner instance. Equivalent to (but likely more efficient than) the following code:
      newSharedScope(Cleaner.create());
      
      Returns:
      a shared scope, managed by a private Cleaner instance.
    • globalScope

      static ResourceScope globalScope()
      Returns the global scope.
      Returns:
      the global scope.