Apply Map Backgrounds and Map Layers to Enhance Visualizations

You can use geographical information to enhance the analysis of your data.

About Map Backgrounds

You can enhance map visualizations in projects by adding and maintaining map backgrounds.

Oracle Data Visualization includes ready-to-use map backgrounds that you can easily apply to a project. You can also add backgrounds from the available list of Web Map Service (WMS) providers such as Google Maps and Baidu Maps. Background maps from these providers offer details and language support (such as city or region name) that certain geographic regions (such as Asian countries) require. You can enhance backgrounds in these ways:
  • Modify the background parameters such as map type, format, language and API keys. The parameters are different for each WMS provider.

  • Assign or change the default background in a project.

  • Reverse the inherited default background settings in a project.

You can add a WMS provider and perform the following types of functions:
  • Add the WMS map servers, and make them available as additional map background options.

  • Select one or more map backgrounds available from the WMS provider.

  • Assign an added WMS provider’s map as the default map background.

Enhance Visualizations with Map Backgrounds

You can use map backgrounds to enhance visualizations in a project.

Based on the column values a specific set of dimensions and metrics is displayed on the map visualization.Data Visualization displays either the default map background or an existing Oracle map background if no default is set.
  1. Create or open a project and confirm that you’re working in the Visualize canvas.
  2. To select a column and render it in a map view, do one of the following:
    • Right-click a map-related column in the Data Element pane and click Pick Visualization, then select Map.
    • Drag and drop a map-related column from the Data Element pane to the blank canvas, or between visualizations on the canvas. On the visualization toolbar, click Change Visualization Type and select Map.
    The selected column or attribute is displayed as a data layer in the Category (Geography) section of the Grammar Panel and in the Data Layers tab of the properties pane.
  3. In the properties pane, click Map and specify the visualization properties.
  4. If you want to use a different map background, click the Background Map value in the properties pane and select a background. For example, select Google Maps, and the visualization displays Google Maps as the map background.
    • If you want to see the list of available map backgrounds or change the backgrounds that you can use, do one of the following:
      • Click the Background Map value and select Manage Map Backgrounds to display the Map Background tab.
      • Open the Console page, click Maps and select the Backgrounds tab.
    • Optionally, select another map background such as Satellite, Road, Hybrid, or Terrain.
  5. Click Save.

Use Different Map Backgrounds in a Project

As an author you can use different map backgrounds in map visualizations.

Here is an example of how you might use a map background in a project.
  1. On the Home page click Create, then click Project.
  2. Select a data set in the Add Data Set dialog.
  3. Click Add to Project.
    The Project pane and list of Data Elements is displayed.
  4. Select a map-related data element (for example, click City), and click Pick Visualization.
  5. Select Map from the list of available visualizations.
    Data Visualization displays either the default map background or an existing Oracle map background if no default is set.
  6. In the visualization properties pane, select the Map tab.
  7. Click the Background Map value and select a map from the drop-down list.
    For example, select Google Maps, and Data Visualization displays Google Maps as the map background.
  8. (Optional) Click another value to change the type of map (such as Satellite, Road, Hybrid, or Terrain).
  9. (Optional) Click Manage Map Backgrounds from the Background Map options to display the Map Backgrounds pane.
    Use this option to maintain the map backgrounds that you want to use.

Interpret Data Values with Color and Size in Map Visualizations

You can use the color and size of a shape such as a polygon or a bubble, to interpret values in a map visualization.

  1. Create or open a project and confirm that you’re working in the Visualize canvas.
  2. Select a column and render it in a map view, doing one of the following:
    • Right-click a map-related column in the Data Element pane and click Pick Visualization, then select Map.
    • Drag and drop a map-related column from the Data Element pane to the blank canvas, or between visualizations on the canvas. On the visualization toolbar, click Change Visualization Type and select Map.
  3. Drag and drop columns to the following sections on the Visualization Grammar Pane:
    Section Description
    Color Change the color for geometries displayed in the corresponding map layer (for example, polygon fill color, bubble color) based on the values.
    Size (Bubble) Change color bubble size based on the measure column values.

    To change the size of the color bubble you’ve to drag and drop measure columns only. The size shows the aggregated measure for a specific geographic location in a map visualization.

    Trellis Columns / Rows Compare multiple map visualizations based on the column values using filters.

In the map visualization, you can also use the following to interpret measure columns and attribute values:

  • Legend - If a measure column or an attribute has multiple values, then the legend is displayed that shows values by size or color.
  • Tooltip - If you hover the mouse pointer over a color bubble or data point, then the values are displayed in a tooltip.

Add Custom Map Layers

You can add custom map layers to use in map visualizations.

You add a custom map layer to Data Visualization using a geometric data file with the .json extension that conforms to GeoJSON schema https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GeoJSON. You then use the custom map layer to view geometric map data in a project. For example, you might add a Mexico_States.json file to enable you to visualize geometric data in a map of Mexico States.
When creating a custom map layer, you must select layer keys that correspond with data columns that you want to analyze in a map visualization. For example, if you want to analyze Mexican States data on a map visualization, you might start by adding a custom map layer for Mexican States, and select HASC code layer key from the Mexican_States.json file. Here is an extract from the Mexican_States.json file that shows some of the geometric data for the Baja California state.

Description of mexstatesjsonbajasnap.gif follows
Description of the illustration mexstatesjsonbajasnap.gif

If you wanted to use the Mexican_States.json file, the layer keys that you select must match columns that you want to analyze from the Mexican States Data tables. For example, if you know there is a data cell for the Mexican state Baja California then select the corresponding name field in the JSON file to display state names in the Map visualization. When you create a project and select column (such as State, and HASC), then Mexican states are displayed on the map. When you hover the mouse pointer over a state, the HASC code (such as MX BN) for each state is displayed on the map.
  1. Open the Console page and click Maps to display the Map Layers page.

    You can perform the following actions when managing System Map Layers and Custom Map Layers.

    What action can I perform? System Map Layer Custom Map Layer
    Enable Yes Yes
    Disable Yes Yes
    Create No Yes
    Delete No Yes
  2. To add a custom map layer, click Add Custom Layer or drag and drop a JSON file from File Explorer to the Custom Maps area.
  3. Browse the Open dialog, and select a JSON file (for example, Mexico_States.json).

    The JSON file must be a GeoJSON file that conforms to the standard specified in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GeoJSON.

    Custom layers that use the Line String geometry type aren't fully supported. The Color and Size section on Visualization Grammer pane doesn't apply to line geometries.

  4. Click Open to display the Map Layer dialog.
  5. Enter a Name and an optional Description.
  6. Select the layer keys that you want to use from the Layer Keys list.
    The layer keys are a set of property attributes for each map feature, such as different codes for each state in Mexico. The layer keys originate from the JSON file. Where possible, select only the layer keys that correspond with your data.
  7. Click Add. A success message is displayed when the process is complete and the layer is added.

Update Custom Map Layers

You can maintain custom map layers that you’ve added to Data Visualization.

  1. Open the Console page and click Maps to display the Map Layers page.
  2. In the Custom Map Layers section, right-click the map layer and click Options, then do the following:
    • To view or make changes to the map layer settings, select Inspect.

      The Map Layer dialog is displayed where you can update the Name, Description, or the Layer Keys used in this layer.

    • To upload the JSON file again, select Reload.
    • To save the JSON file locally, select Download.
    • To delete the custom map layer, select Delete.

      You can disable or enable a System Map Layer and a Custom Map Layer, but you can’t add or delete a System Map Layer.

  3. Click the map layer to enable or disable it. For example, if you want to exclude us_states_hexagon_geo on the map, click the layer to disable it and remove it from searches.
  4. To switch from using one map layer to another, do the follwoing:
    1. In the properties pane, select the Map tab to display the map properties.
    2. Click the current Map Layer for example Mexican States. This displays a list of available custom map layers that you can choose from.
    3. Click the map layer that you want to use to match your data points.

Apply Multiple Data Layers to a Single Map Visualization

You can use the data layer feature to display multiple data series (different sets of dimensions and metrics) on a single map visualization. The data layers are overlaid on one another in a single map visualization.

  1. Create or open the project where you want to display multiple data layer overlays on a single map visualization. Confirm that you’re working in the Visualize canvas.
  2. Drag and drop a measure or attribute columns containing map-related data from the Data Panel to the Category (Geography) section on the Grammar Panel.

    If you’re creating a map visualization, in the Data Panel, right-click an attribute column and click Pick Visualization then select Map.

  3. Click Layer options in the Category (Geography) section of the Grammar Panel and click Add Layer to add a new data layer (for example, Layer 2).

    Alternatively in the Data Layers tab click Add Layer (+).

  4. Drag and drop a column to the Category (Geography) section. Based on the column values the map visualization automatically updates with a different set of dimensions, and it overlays on the previous layer.
  5. Repeat step 3 and 4 to add multiple data layers on the map visualization.
  6. Click Layer options to use other options such as Order Layer, Hide Layer, and Manage Layers.
  7. In the Data Layers tab of the properties pane, you can specify the options for a layer such as Layer Type, Map Layer, Transparency, and Show Layer.
  8. To refine the data shown for the measure and attribute columns in all the data layers, you can apply a filter such as a Range Filter or List Filter, to the map visualization. For example, you can select a measure or attribute for a layer, then apply filter to reduce the amount of data shown, and add the same measure or attribute to the Color section on the Grammar Panel.

Create Heatmap Layers on a Map Visualization

You can use a heatmap as a data layer type on a map visualization to identify the density or high concentration of point values or metric values associated with the points. For example, you can use a heatmap to identify the high profit stores in a geographic region or country.

You can create two types of heatmap layers:

  • Density heatmap - Uses only map-related column data (such as latitude and longitude columns). Density heatmap layers show the cumulative sum of a point, where each point carries a specific weight. A point has a radius of influence around it, such that other points that fall in the same area also contribute to the total cumulative result of a point.
  • Metric heatmap - Uses measure column data in the same layer. For example, if you add a measure column to the Color section on the Grammar Panel the heatmap is updated to show interpolated metric values.
  1. Create or open the project where you want to use a heatmap layer on a map visualization. Confirm that you’re working in the Visualize canvas.
  2. Create an empty map visualization.
  3. Drag and drop attribute columns containing map-related data from the Data Panel to the Category (Geography) section on the Grammar Panel.
    • If you’re creating a project with a map visualization, in the Data Panel, right-click an attribute column and click Pick Visualization then select Map.
  4. Go to the Data Layers tab of the properties pane.
    • Alternatively, click Layer options in the Category (Geography) section and click Manage Layers.
  5. To create a density heatmap, click Layer Type value and select Heatmap.
    • Alternatively, you can add a new map layer, change the layer type to Heatmap, then add attribute columns to the Category (Geography) section.
  6. To create a metric heatmap, drag and drop a metric column from the Data Panel to the Color section. The heatmap visualization changes from density to metric.
  7. In the Data Layers tab of the properties pane, specify the options for the heatmap layer such as Radius, Interpolation, Transparency, and Color.
    • The default interpolation method is automatically selected based on the aggregation rule of the metric column or value that you’ve selected for the layer.
    • You can select the radius value in pixels (px). The radius value is the extent of influence of a measure around a point value on a map.
The heatmap is automatically updated based on the options selected in the Data Layers tab.

Create Cluster Layers on a Map Visualization

You can use a cluster layer as a type of data layer on a map visualization. In a cluster layer, points that are positioned near each other are grouped together into a common bubble.

The number of points clustered in the group is indicated in the bubble's label. If selected points are grouped with unselected points, the circle is dotted to indicate a partial selection. Individual points are displayed as pin icons to emphasize the distinction between grouped and ungrouped points. Points are grouped based on their proximity in pixels and on the map's zoom factor.

  1. Create or open the project where you want to use a point cluster layer on a map visualization. Confirm that you’re working in the Visualize canvas.
  2. Create an empty map visualization by dragging the Map visualization from the Data Panel to the canvas.
  3. Drag and drop attribute columns containing map-related data from the Data Panel to the Category (Geography) section on the Grammar Panel.
    If you’re creating a project with a map visualization, in the Data Panel, right-click an attribute column and click Pick Visualization then select Map.
  4. Click the Data Layers tab of the properties pane.
    Alternatively, click Layer options in the Category (Geography) section and click Manage Layers.
  5. To create a point cluster, click Layer Type value and select Cluster.
    Alternatively, you can add a new map layer, change the layer type to Cluster, then add attribute columns to the Category (Geography) section.
The point cluster is automatically updated based on the zoom level.

Represent Point Data With Custom Icons on a Map

You can use the Shapes edge to represent point data with custom icons in a map visualization.

You can associate a column with the Shape edge to display a custom shape for point data. For example, you can distinguish between cities by displaying them using custom shapes (for example, a square, a triangle, or a currency symbol). You can also change which custom shape you want to apply to one or more data points.
  1. Create or open the project with a map visualization that contains point data and confirm that you're working on the Visualize canvas.
  2. Drag and drop an attribute column containing point data (for example, city) from the Data Panel to the Category (Geography) edge on the Grammar Panel.
  3. Drag and drop a column from the Data Panel to the Shapes edge and optionally to the Color edge on the Grammar Panel.
    The map visualization automatically updates based on your selection and overlays the previous layer.
  4. (Optional) You can change how you assign custom shapes to data points and to the map legend.
    1. Highlight one or more data points on the map using one of the selection tools, or use Ctrl-click to select one or more data points.
    2. Right-click one of the multiple-selected data points, select Custom Shapes and then select Series or Data Point.
    3. Select a custom shape and click Done.
      Custom shapes are applied as follows:
      • Series dialog - custom data point shape not previously set

        Replaces highlighted data points and series items with the custom shape.

      • Series dialog - custom data point shape previously set

        Replaces only corresponding series items with the custom shape.

      • Data Point dialog

        Replaces only highlighted data points with the custom shape.

  5. If you want to reassign the custom shape for a data point:
    1. Right-click any data point, select Shape, and click Custom Shapes.
    2. To change the custom shape assigned to a data point, click the shape corresponding to the data point that you want to change.
    3. Select a new custom shape and click Done, then click Done again.
  6. If you want to reset all of the custom shapes currently applied to data points on a map visualization, right-click any data point, select Shape, and click Reset Custom Shapes.

    This resets all of the shapes applied to data points on the map to the default setting.

Select Points or Area on a Map

You can select multiple points on the map in a specific area that you define using the selection tools.

  1. Create or open the project with map visualizations and confirm that you're working on the Visualize canvas
  2. Select the map visualization.
  3. On the visualization toolbar, do one of the following:
    • Click the Rectangle Selection tool and drag a rectangle on the map to select the points or area you want.
    • Click the Radial Selection tool and select a point on the map, then drag outward to create a circle. The unit shows the total distance covered on the map.
    • Click the Polygon Selection tool and drag a freehand border around the points or area you want to select on the map.

    The selected points or area is highlighted on the map.

Represent Line Data Using Size and Color on a Map

You can represent the weight of line data through thickness and color in a map visualization.

You can associate a measure with the Size edge to indicate the relative weight of a line. For example, to compare delays in airline routes, you can display flight routes with varying line thickness, where a thicker line and a darker color correspond to a higher number of delays.
  1. Create or open the project with a map visualization that contains line data and confirm that you're working on the Visualize canvas.
  2. Select the map visualization that displays the line data.
  3. Drag and drop a column containing line data (for example airline routes) from the Data Panel to the Category (Geography) edge on the Grammar Panel.
  4. Drag and drop a line measure column from the Data Panel to the Size edge and optionally to the Color edge on the Grammar Panel.
    The map visualization automatically updates based on your selection and overlays the previous layer.

Make Maps Available to Users

For visualization projects, administrators make maps available to end users or hide them from end users.

You can include or exclude a map from users.

  1. On the Home page, click Console.

  2. Click Maps.

  3. Use the Include option to make a map layer available to end users or hide it from end users.

    You can hide or display custom map and system map layers.

Make Map Backgrounds Available to Users

Oracle provides two preconfigured map backgrounds with Data Visualization. As an administrator, you can add map backgrounds for use in map visualizations.

  1. On the Home page, click Console, select Maps, and then click Backgrounds.
    • To set a background as the default map background, click the Default column.
    • To include or exclude a map background as an available option to users, click the Include column.
  2. To add a map background, click Add Background and select a map background from the list.
    Oracle Maps are preconfigured and shipped with the product. Other background maps that you can add are Google Maps and Baidu Maps. For a map provider other than Oracle (for example, Google or Baidu), you must obtain an Map API access key for which you may be charged based on your usage.
  3. Copy and paste in the appropriate Maps API access key.

    You must sign up with the provider to be able to add and use any of these map types.

    • To use the Google Maps tiles, you must obtain a Google Maps API access key from Google. Google prompts you to enter your Maps API access key and, when applicable, your Google “Client ID”. Usage of the tiles must meet the terms of service specified by Google in the Google Developers Site Terms of Service.
    • To use the Baidu Maps tiles, you must obtain a Baidu Maps API access key from Baidu. Baidu prompts you to enter your Maps API access key. Usage of the tiles must meet the terms of service specified by Baidu in the Baidu User Agreement.
  4. Select a default map type if applicable and enter a helpful description if needed.
  5. Click Add to include the map in the list of available map backgrounds.
    Data Visualization displays a message when the map background is successfully added.