Set Up Bidirectional Replication for Oracle GoldenGate Microservices Architecture

This quickstart demonstrates an active-active bidirectional replication between two pluggable databases over a single multitenant container Oracle database instance.

Workflow showing bidirectional data replication for an on-premises Oracle GoldenGate deployment.

An active-active bidirectional replication implies that both data sources and targets (PDBs in this case), have the potential to send updates to each other. There are two data sources with identical sets of data that can be changed by application users on either side. Oracle GoldenGate replicates transactional data changes from each database to the other to keep both sets of data current.

The following diagram depicts the bidirectional replication workflow shown in this quickstart:

Data replication processes in a bidirectional environment

Note:

This quickstart uses a single multitenant container database with two PDBs to demonstrate bidirectional replication between two PDBs. However, in most real-life scenarios, bidirectional data replication happens across different multitenant container databases or different database instances.

Process Names in the Bidirectional Data Replication Environment

The following nomenclature is used to refer to processes for the database and Oracle GoldenGate.
Container Database (CDB$ROOT) Process Names Pluggable Database (DBEAST) Process Names Pluggable Database (DBWEST) Process Name
  • CDB$ROOT database user: c##ggadmin

  • Database credential alias: cggnorth

  • Database user: ggadmin

  • Database alias: ggeast

  • Extract: exte

  • Replicat repn

  • Database user: ggadmin

  • Database alias: ggwest

  • Extract: extw

  • Replicat: reps

On DBWest:

Considerations for Configuring a Bidirectional Replication

To maintain data integrity and avoid conflicts, you need to configure the Extract and Replicat processes to prevent data looping and conflict using certain parameters and the automatic conflict detection and resolution (ACDR) feature.

Ideally, all situations that could lead to potential conflicts in a bidirectional or multidirectional replication must be avoided. However, if conflicts occur, Oracle GoldenGate provides the automatic conflict detection and resoution (ACDR) feature to handle them.

  • At the PDB level:

    The Automatic Conflict Detection and Resolution feature (ACDR) available with Oracle database, allows you to manage conflict detection and resolution using the DBMS_GOLDENGATE_ADM package, using the ADD_AUTO_CDR procedure. You need to enable this package at the database level on both PDBs in this case. See Enable ACDR.

  • Oracle GoldenGate Extract parameter settings

    • LOGALLSUPCOLS: This parameter controls writing of supplementally logged columns specified using ADD TRANDATA and the columns enabled for Conflict Detection and Resolution (CDR) in Oracle GoldenGate. This parameter is set by default for Extract.

    • UPDATERECORDFORMAT: This parameter is set by default for integrated Extract, so don't need to set it in the parameter file. Its function is to combine the before and after images of an UPDATE operation into a single record in the trail. The COMPACT option generates one trail record that contains the before and after images of an UPDATE, where the before image includes all the columns that are available in the transaction record, but the after image is limited to the primary key columns and the columns that were modified in the UPDATE.

    • EXCLUDETAG option ensures that there is not looping of data. Looping of data happens when a database sends updates to the second database and the second database assumes those updates to be a new changes, and tries to replicate this update back to the source database itself. These parameter settings are done when configuring the Extract parameter file, as shown in Step 3: Add Extracts of this document.

  • Oracle GoldenGate Replicat parameter settings:

    ACDR works with integrated Replicat or parallel integrated Replicat. See the Replicat Parameter file in this document to know more.

Set the Required Privileges for Oracle Multitenant Database

In Oracle database, you need to enable replication for Oracle GoldenGate and assign privileges to the database user at the CDB level and the pluggable database (PDB) level.

The database is in ARCHIVELOG mode and FORCE LOGGING and Supplemental Logging is enabled. For the container database, assign the following privileges to the common user (cdb$root):

CDB User Privileges
## CGGNORTH DATABASE SETUP AT CDB LEVEL
ALTER SESSION SET CONTAINER=cdb$root;
ALTER SYSTEM SET ENABLE_GOLDENGATE_REPLICATION=TRUE;
ALTER SYSTEM SET STREAMS_POOL_SIZE=2G;
ALTER DATABASE FORCE LOGGING;
ALTER DATABASE ADD SUPPLEMENTAL LOG DATA;
CREATE USER c##ggadmin IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD CONTAINER=ALL DEFAULT TABLESPACE GG_DATA TEMPORARY TABLESPACE TEMP;
GRANT CONNECT, RESOURCE, DBA TO c##ggadmin CONTAINER=ALL;
GRANT CREATE SESSION TO c##ggadmin CONTAINER=ALL;
EXEC DBMS_GOLDENGATE_AUTH.GRANT_ADMIN_PRIVILEGE('c##ggadmin',CONTAINER=>'ALL');
PDB User Privileges for DBEAST
ALTER SESSION SET CONTAINER=dbeast;
CREATE USER ggadmin IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD CONTAINER=CURRENT;
GRANT CONNECT, RESOURCE, DBA TO GGADMIN CONTAINER=CURRENT;
GRANT CREATE SESSION TO ggadmin CONTAINER=CURRENT;
EXEC DBMS_GOLDENGATE_AUTH.GRANT_ADMIN_PRIVILEGE('ggadmin');
PDB User Privileges for DBWEST
ALTER SESSION SET CONTAINER=dbwest;
CREATE USER ggadmin IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD CONTAINER=CURRENT;
GRANT CONNECT, RESOURCE, DBA TO ggadmin CONTAINER=CURRENT;
GRANT CREATE SESSION TO ggadmin CONTAINER=CURRENT;
EXEC DBMS_GOLDENGATE_AUTH.GRANT_ADMIN_PRIVILEGE('ggadmin');

Note:

Granting DBA role is not mandatory for every user. Privileges should be granted depending on the actions that the user needs to perform on the database. For example, to grant DML operation privileges to insert, update, and delete transactions to ggadmin, use the GRANT ANY INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE privileges and to further allow users to work with tables and indexes as part of DML operations, use the GRANT CREATE/DROP/ALTER ANY TABLE/INDEX privileges. In this quickstart, the assumption is that the database user is a database administrator. See Grant User Privileges for Oracle Database 21c and Lower and Configure a Multitenant Container Database to know more about specific privilege requirements.

Enable ACDR

Before enabling ACDR at the database level, it is recommended that you stop any running Extract or Replicat processes. To enable ACDR for the PDB DBEAST:
EXEC DBMS_GOLDENGATE_ADM.ADD_AUTO_CDR('hr', 'employees', RECORD_CONFLICTS=>TRUE);
The output will show as:
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
Now, switch to the other PDB, DBWEST and run the same command:
EXEC DBMS_GOLDENGATE_ADM.ADD_AUTO_CDR('hr', 'employees');

This enables the ACDR package on both PDBs.

You can check if ACDR has been enabled for the PDBs by checking for invisible columns that are added to manage ACDR at the column level. Run the following commands to test this:

Use the view ALL_GG_AUTO_CDR_TABLES to list down the columns used for ACDR in the PDBs:
SELECT table_owner, table_name, tombstone_table, row_resolution_column, FROM all_gg_auto_cdr_tables;
The output for this command shows:
TABLE_OWNER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TABLE_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOMBSTONE_TABLE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ROW_RESOLUTION_COLUMN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HR
EMPLOYEES
DT$_EMPLOYEES
CDRTS$ROW
Notice the two invisible columns that are added here:
  • DT$_EMPLOYEES: This is the tombstone table used for locking any delete transactions.

  • CDRTS$ROW: This is the row resolution column. When there is a conflict, this column which contains the timestamp for the transaction, is used to decide the record that would be applied in a row. This implies that the record with the latest timestamp would be used to apply changes in the row.

These columns are appended to schema.table on both PDBs, DBEAST and DBWEST.

After you have enabled ACDR, you'll need to edit the Replicat parameter file to include the invisible columns. Add the MAPINVISIBLECOLUMNS parameter in the Replicat parameter file, to allow Replicat to include target columns with default column mapping. This is explained in detail when configuring the Replicat Parameter File in Step 4: Add Replicat section.

Restart the Extract and Replicat processes from the web interface:
  1. Log in to the Administration Service web interface.

  2. From the Administration Service Overview page, click the Action button next to the Extract process, exte.

  3. Click Start. Start option in the Action button used to start the Extract process

    The green check mark would appear next to the process indicating that the processes started successfully.

Similarly, start the other Extract and Replicat processes on both PDBs.

Configure the Replication Process from Oracle GoldenGate MA Web Interface

Using the following steps, you'll be able to configure data capture (Extract) and apply (Replicat) processes. You'll also be able to test if the replication has started.

The DISTPATH process is not used for this configuration.

Step 1: Add Database Credentials from the Administration Service

In this section, you'll add the database credentials to connect to the source and target databases using EZConnect.

  1. Keep your database user credentials, which created in the previous session, ready. You'll use them to connect Oracle GoldenGate to the database server.

  2. Open the Service Manager login page in a web browser and log in to the Service Manager with your Oracle GoldenGate administrator user credentials. If logging in for the first time, you have to log in with the administrator account user credentials, created when adding your deployment with Oracle GoldenGate Configuration Assistant wizard.

  3. From the Service Manager Overview page, click the port number for the Administration Service of the deployment.


    Service Manager Overview page

    This opens the Administration Service login page.

  4. Log in to the Administration Service using the same credentials, which you used to log in to the Service Manager. The Administration Service Overview page is displayed.


    Administration Service Overview page

  5. Click the Application Navigation icon to open the left-navigation pane and click Configuration to open the Database tab of the Configuration page.


    Application Navigation option and Configuration page

  6. Click the plus (+) sign in the Credentials section to begin adding database user credentials.


    Adding database credentials

  7. You need to add connections for container database (CDB) and pluggable databases (PDBs). Each CDB is used to capture (Extract) from the source database and PDB for delivery (Replicat).

    Use the EZconnect syntax to configure the database connection. You need the username, password, hostname, port number, and service name connection information to use the EZConnect syntax.

    Here's the syntax that you need to specify in the User ID field:

    username@hostname:port/service_name

    Here's an example for setting the User ID with EZConnect:

    c##ggadmin@dc.example.com:1521/DBWEST.example.com

  8. Click on the blue icon in the Actions column to connect to the database. The icon turns blue when the connection is successful.


    Connected to the database after adding database credentials

    After connecting to the database, the sections to add checkpoint table, TRANDATA, and heartbeat table are displayed.

Step 2: Add Heartbeat, and Checkpoint Tables

Add the heartbeat tables for the PDBs to monitor any possible lags.

Add a checkpoint table for the target database to ensure that if there is a failure, then the Extract and Replicat processes can restart from the point of failure.

Note:

You don't need to add TRANDATA as this is internally done with the PL/SQL call of ADD_AUTO_CDR. You might want to check that supplemental logging is enabled for the tables.
  1. Use the TRANDATA Information section to check if supplemental logging has been enabled for the tables set up for capture.

    You can search for the schema for which you added the trandata, using the magnifier glass search icon. This will display the trandata information. The following image shows the trandata information for the HR schema in the pluggable database DBEAST.


    Adding trandata using the search option

    See Configuring Logging Properties to learn the steps for configuring the logging properties at the Schema, Table or Procedure level.

  2. To set up the checkpoint table for Replicat, you need to connect to the target database credentials (ggwest) from the Credentials section.

  3. Click the plus sign (+) to add the checkpoint table for the PDBs.


    Adding checkpoint table for ggadmin for Replicat repn.

    Click Submit. The checkpoint table is added.


    Checkpoint table is added for the PDB DBEAST.

    Also see the Before Adding an Extract section, for details on creating heartbeat tables.

  4. Add another checkpoint table for the second Replicat, reps, by repeating the steps 3 and 4.

  5. Add the heartbeat tables for both source and target endpoints by connecting to ggeast and ggwest database credential aliases.

    For bidirectional, active/active replication, the heartbeat table should be in the same schema for the outgoing Extracts and incoming Replicats at each site. For example, see the following use case:

    Site A Site B

    EAB –-------------> RAB

    RBA –-------------> EBA

    In this example, EAB and RBA heartbeat tables must use the same schema. However, EAB and RAB can use different schemas.

    Add the heartbeat table by clicking the plus sign.


    Heartbeat table added for source and target endpoints

  6. Click Submit after adjusting the heartbeat options.

Step 3: Add Extracts

In this section, you will add two extracts, exte and extw. The Extract process captures data from the source database and writes it to a trail file. The trail file for exte is ea and for extw is ew.

  1. Click the Overview option from the left-navigation pane of the Administration Service and click the plus sign (+) from the Extract section.


    Overview page with Add Extract section

  2. From Add Extract wizard, select Integrated Extract.


    Add Extract wizard

  3. Click Next and specify the Extract options in the Extract Options screen. See the detailed steps to add an Extract from the Add a Primary Extract section.


    Adding Extract options with the Register to PDBs option

    If you are creating the Extract for a pluggable database, then you'll see option Register to PDBs as soon as you enter the credentials domain and alias. Select the PDB in the container database that you want to use for replication.

  4. After you enter the options for the Extract (exte), click Next. The next screen displays the Extract parameter file to help you review the Extract settings.

    Here's the Extract parameter file for the Extract exte:
    EXTRACT exte
    USERIDALIAS cggnorth DOMAIN OracleGoldenGate
    EXTTRAIL east/ea
    SOURCECATALOG DBEAST 
    TRANLOGOPTIONS EXCLUDETAG 00
    DDL INCLUDE MAPPED OBJNAME hr.*
    DDLOPTIONS REPORT
    TABLE DBEAST.hr.*;

    Review these settings and update the Extract configuration as needed.

    For multitenant databases, you need to add entries for Extract to capture from multiple pluggable databases to a single trail. In the parameter file, source objects must be specified in TABLE statements with the fully qualified three-part names in the format of container.schema.object or using the SOURCECATALOG parameter with two-part names schema.object.

    Click Create and Run to start your Extract.

To create the Extract extw:
  1. Navigate back to the Overview page using the Application Navigation pane.

  2. From Add Extract wizard, select Integrated Extract.

  3. Click Next and specify the Extract options in the Extract Options screen.Extract options for the second Extract, extw

  4. Select the PDB as DBWEST in the container database that you want to use for replication.

  5. After you enter the options for the Extract, click Next. The next screen displays the Extract parameter file to help you review the Extract settings.

  6. Enter the options for Extract parameter:
    EXTRACT extw
    USERIDALIAS cggnorth DOMAIN OracleGoldenGate
    EXTTRAIL west/ew
    SOURCECATALOG DBWEST
    TRANLOGOPTIONS EXCLUDETAG 00
    DDL INCLUDE MAPPED OBJNAME hr.*
    DDLOPTIONS REPORT
    TABLE DBWEST.hr.*;

    Review these settings and update the Extract configuration as needed.

  7. Click Create and Run to start your Extract.

Step 4: Add a Replicat

In this section, you will add Replicats repe and repw. The Replicat process delivers the change data from the trail file (ea) created by the Extract, to the target database. Replicat reads the trail file on the target database, reconstructs the DML or DDL operations, and applies them to the target database.

  1. Before you Add a Replicat, make sure that you added your checkpoint table for the target database (DBWEST) by connecting to the ggwest database credentials.

  2. Select a Replicat type to deliver data to the target database. Follow the wizard to complete adding a Replicat.


    Add a Replicat

  3. Select the Parallel Integrated Replicat option in the Replicat Options screen.


    Replicat Options

  4. Click Next to view the Replicat Parameter File screen. All the parameters that you have specified are available for review here.

    For multitenant container databases, Replicat can only apply to one pluggable database. To specify the correct one, use a SQL*Net connect string for the database user that you specify with the USERID or USERIDALIAS parameter. For example: ggadmin@DBWEST.

    In the parameter file, specify only the schema.object in the TARGET portion of the MAP statements. In the MAP portion, identify source objects captured from more than one pluggable database with their three-part names or use the SOURCECATALOG parameter with two-part names.

    In case of integrated parallel Replicat, MAPINVISIBLECOLUMNS parameter is set by default. You don't need to set it in the Replicat parameter file explicitely.

    Here's a sample of the Replicat Parameter File:

    REPLICAT repe
    USERIDALIAS ggwest DOMAIN OracleGoldenGate
    DDLOPTIONS REPORT
    SOURCECATALOG DBEAST
    MAP hr.*, TARGET hr.*;
    
To create the second Replicat repw, follow these steps:
  1. Repeat steps 1 and 2 from the steps to add the first Replicat (repe).

  2. In the Replicat options screen, enter the following details:Replicat options for repw

    Apart from entering the other options, make sure you enter the following details:
    1. Specify the trail name as ew and the trail file subdirectory as west.

    2. Select the checkpoint table as DBWEST.ggs_checkpoint.

    3. Click Next.

    4. Change or modify the Replicat parameter file, as follows:
      REPLICAT repw
      USERIDALIAS ggeast DOMAIN OracleGoldenGate
      SOURCECATALOG DBWEST
      DDL INCLUDE ALL
      DDLOPTIONS REPORT
      MAPEXCLUDE ggadmin.ggs_checkpoint*
      MAPINVISIBLECOLUMNS
      MAP hr.*, TARGET hr.*;

After the Replicat starts successfully, you can see the Extract and Replicat processes in running state on the Administration Service Overview page.

Test and Monitor Transactions

The following screen shows that records were captured by the exte Extract from the hr.employees table on DBEAST.Statistics page showing two records captured by exte Extract from hr.employees on DBEAST

Check that the same is updated on the Replicat (repe) as well:Checking the Replicat (repe) statistics page for the updated records

The 2 records in the hr.employees table are replicated to the endpoint (DBWEST).

Let's see the Extract (extw) on DBWEST. Statistics page on Extract extw for DBWEST

Notice that the value of inserted records is 5. Out of these 5 records, 2 were replicated by repe into hr.employees on DBWEST. 3 new records were then inserted into hr.employees on DBWEST.

When these 3 records are inserted in the hr.employees table in the PDB DBWEST, then only the updated records should be replicated in DBEAST. The following screen shows that only the updated records are added to DBEAST.

Statistics for Replicat repw showing the differential records that were added to the hr.employees table in DBEAST

As shown in this figure, there are 3 INSERTS, indicating that there was no duplication of records.

This is one way of implementing an active-active bidirectional replication in Oracle GoldenGate MA.

Test Automatic Conflict Detection and Resolution

In this section, the latest timestamp of a record is checked to check if ACDR is able to resolve the conflict in records. To check automatic resolution of conflicts, let's create the following records.

Transaction in DBEAST:

In the following example, UPDATE transactions have been run simulateneously on DBEAST and DBWEST and with ACDR, the conflict is detected and resolved.

Here's the query to update a records in hr.employees on DBEAST:
UPDATE hr.employees set LAST_NAME='Simmonds', EMAIL='HSIMMONDS' where EMPLOYEE_ID=204;
UPDATE hr.employees set SALARY='15000' where EMPLOYEE_ID=203;
Simulteneously, another query is run on DBWEST for the same rows, as shown in the following example:
UPDATE hr.employees set LAST_NAME='Symmonds', EMAIL='HSYMMONDS' where EMPLOYEE_ID=204;
UPDATE hr.employees set SALARY='25000' where EMPLOYEE_ID=203;

To check which of these entries was the winner or the entry that was finally applied, and to know the criteria used to apply that entry, use the following options:

Use DBA_APPLY_ERROR_MESSAGES view

On DBEAST, run the following query:
select OBJECT_NAME, CONFLICT_TYPE,APPLIED_STATE,CONFLICT_INFO from DBA_APPLY_ERROR_MESSAGES;

The output for this query displays the following:Output for the DBA_APPLY_ERROR_MESSAGES query

Run the same query on DBWEST also.

Make the CDRTS$ROW visible by running the following command:
ALTER TABLE hr.employees modify CDRTS$ROW visible;
To check the record that was eventually applied to the rows, run the SELECT query on the table hr.employees. You can run this query on either DBEAST or DBWEST:
SELECT * from hr.employees WHERE employee_id=204

The output shows as follows:

SELECT query output for hr.employees in DBWEST.

You can note the timestamp for this transaction: 11.38.45.774317 AM.

Now, let's check the timestamp on DBWEST:

SELECT query on hr.employees table in DBEAST

As the conflict is resolved, the timestamp shows the same data on both PDBs.

Run the following command to check if the conflicts were detected and resolved on the Oracle GoldenGate side. Here's the command to check this:
STATS REPLICAT repe, REPORTCDR

The output for this command displays the following:

Running the statistics for the repe Replicat to check for conflicts

As shown in this statistical report, there were 3 conflicts and 2 of them were resolved. The UPDATEROWEXISTS conflict type is used for resolution.

You can also see this report from the web interface:Viewing the Replicat statistics from the MA web interface