Java™ Platform
Standard Ed. 6

java.util.concurrent
Class Exchanger<V>

java.lang.Object
  extended by java.util.concurrent.Exchanger<V>
Type Parameters:
V - The type of objects that may be exchanged

public class Exchanger<V>
extends Object

A synchronization point at which threads can pair and swap elements within pairs. Each thread presents some object on entry to the exchange method, matches with a partner thread, and receives its partner's object on return. An Exchanger may be viewed as a bidirectional form of a SynchronousQueue. Exchangers may be useful in applications such as genetic algorithms and pipeline designs.

Sample Usage: Here are the highlights of a class that uses an Exchanger to swap buffers between threads so that the thread filling the buffer gets a freshly emptied one when it needs it, handing off the filled one to the thread emptying the buffer.

class FillAndEmpty {
   Exchanger<DataBuffer> exchanger = new Exchanger<DataBuffer>();
   DataBuffer initialEmptyBuffer = ... a made-up type
   DataBuffer initialFullBuffer = ...

   class FillingLoop implements Runnable {
     public void run() {
       DataBuffer currentBuffer = initialEmptyBuffer;
       try {
         while (currentBuffer != null) {
           addToBuffer(currentBuffer);
           if (currentBuffer.isFull())
             currentBuffer = exchanger.exchange(currentBuffer);
         }
       } catch (InterruptedException ex) { ... handle ... }
     }
   }

   class EmptyingLoop implements Runnable {
     public void run() {
       DataBuffer currentBuffer = initialFullBuffer;
       try {
         while (currentBuffer != null) {
           takeFromBuffer(currentBuffer);
           if (currentBuffer.isEmpty())
             currentBuffer = exchanger.exchange(currentBuffer);
         }
       } catch (InterruptedException ex) { ... handle ...}
     }
   }

   void start() {
     new Thread(new FillingLoop()).start();
     new Thread(new EmptyingLoop()).start();
   }
 }
 

Memory consistency effects: For each pair of threads that successfully exchange objects via an Exchanger, actions prior to the exchange() in each thread happen-before those subsequent to a return from the corresponding exchange() in the other thread.

Since:
1.5

Constructor Summary
Exchanger()
          Creates a new Exchanger.
 
Method Summary
 V exchange(V x)
          Waits for another thread to arrive at this exchange point (unless the current thread is interrupted), and then transfers the given object to it, receiving its object in return.
 V exchange(V x, long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
          Waits for another thread to arrive at this exchange point (unless the current thread is interrupted or the specified waiting time elapses), and then transfers the given object to it, receiving its object in return.
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
 

Constructor Detail

Exchanger

public Exchanger()
Creates a new Exchanger.

Method Detail

exchange

public V exchange(V x)
           throws InterruptedException
Waits for another thread to arrive at this exchange point (unless the current thread is interrupted), and then transfers the given object to it, receiving its object in return.

If another thread is already waiting at the exchange point then it is resumed for thread scheduling purposes and receives the object passed in by the current thread. The current thread returns immediately, receiving the object passed to the exchange by that other thread.

If no other thread is already waiting at the exchange then the current thread is disabled for thread scheduling purposes and lies dormant until one of two things happens:

If the current thread:

then InterruptedException is thrown and the current thread's interrupted status is cleared.

Parameters:
x - the object to exchange
Returns:
the object provided by the other thread
Throws:
InterruptedException - if the current thread was interrupted while waiting

exchange

public V exchange(V x,
                  long timeout,
                  TimeUnit unit)
           throws InterruptedException,
                  TimeoutException
Waits for another thread to arrive at this exchange point (unless the current thread is interrupted or the specified waiting time elapses), and then transfers the given object to it, receiving its object in return.

If another thread is already waiting at the exchange point then it is resumed for thread scheduling purposes and receives the object passed in by the current thread. The current thread returns immediately, receiving the object passed to the exchange by that other thread.

If no other thread is already waiting at the exchange then the current thread is disabled for thread scheduling purposes and lies dormant until one of three things happens:

If the current thread:

then InterruptedException is thrown and the current thread's interrupted status is cleared.

If the specified waiting time elapses then TimeoutException is thrown. If the time is less than or equal to zero, the method will not wait at all.

Parameters:
x - the object to exchange
timeout - the maximum time to wait
unit - the time unit of the timeout argument
Returns:
the object provided by the other thread
Throws:
InterruptedException - if the current thread was interrupted while waiting
TimeoutException - if the specified waiting time elapses before another thread enters the exchange

Java™ Platform
Standard Ed. 6

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For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java SE Developer Documentation. That documentation contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions, with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples.

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