Java™ Platform
Standard Ed. 6

java.util.concurrent
Class SynchronousQueue<E>

java.lang.Object
  extended by java.util.AbstractCollection<E>
      extended by java.util.AbstractQueue<E>
          extended by java.util.concurrent.SynchronousQueue<E>
Type Parameters:
E - the type of elements held in this collection
All Implemented Interfaces:
Serializable, Iterable<E>, Collection<E>, BlockingQueue<E>, Queue<E>

public class SynchronousQueue<E>
extends AbstractQueue<E>
implements BlockingQueue<E>, Serializable

A blocking queue in which each insert operation must wait for a corresponding remove operation by another thread, and vice versa. A synchronous queue does not have any internal capacity, not even a capacity of one. You cannot peek at a synchronous queue because an element is only present when you try to remove it; you cannot insert an element (using any method) unless another thread is trying to remove it; you cannot iterate as there is nothing to iterate. The head of the queue is the element that the first queued inserting thread is trying to add to the queue; if there is no such queued thread then no element is available for removal and poll() will return null. For purposes of other Collection methods (for example contains), a SynchronousQueue acts as an empty collection. This queue does not permit null elements.

Synchronous queues are similar to rendezvous channels used in CSP and Ada. They are well suited for handoff designs, in which an object running in one thread must sync up with an object running in another thread in order to hand it some information, event, or task.

This class supports an optional fairness policy for ordering waiting producer and consumer threads. By default, this ordering is not guaranteed. However, a queue constructed with fairness set to true grants threads access in FIFO order.

This class and its iterator implement all of the optional methods of the Collection and Iterator interfaces.

This class is a member of the Java Collections Framework.

Since:
1.5
See Also:
Serialized Form

Constructor Summary
SynchronousQueue()
          Creates a SynchronousQueue with nonfair access policy.
SynchronousQueue(boolean fair)
          Creates a SynchronousQueue with the specified fairness policy.
 
Method Summary
 void clear()
          Does nothing.
 boolean contains(Object o)
          Always returns false.
 boolean containsAll(Collection<?> c)
          Returns false unless the given collection is empty.
 int drainTo(Collection<? super E> c)
          Removes all available elements from this queue and adds them to the given collection.
 int drainTo(Collection<? super E> c, int maxElements)
          Removes at most the given number of available elements from this queue and adds them to the given collection.
 boolean isEmpty()
          Always returns true.
 Iterator<E> iterator()
          Returns an empty iterator in which hasNext always returns false.
 boolean offer(E e)
          Inserts the specified element into this queue, if another thread is waiting to receive it.
 boolean offer(E o, long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
          Inserts the specified element into this queue, waiting if necessary up to the specified wait time for another thread to receive it.
 E peek()
          Always returns null.
 E poll()
          Retrieves and removes the head of this queue, if another thread is currently making an element available.
 E poll(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
          Retrieves and removes the head of this queue, waiting if necessary up to the specified wait time, for another thread to insert it.
 void put(E o)
          Adds the specified element to this queue, waiting if necessary for another thread to receive it.
 int remainingCapacity()
          Always returns zero.
 boolean remove(Object o)
          Always returns false.
 boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c)
          Always returns false.
 boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c)
          Always returns false.
 int size()
          Always returns zero.
 E take()
          Retrieves and removes the head of this queue, waiting if necessary for another thread to insert it.
 Object[] toArray()
          Returns a zero-length array.
<T> T[]
toArray(T[] a)
          Sets the zeroeth element of the specified array to null (if the array has non-zero length) and returns it.
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractQueue
add, addAll, element, remove
 
Methods inherited from class java.util.AbstractCollection
toString
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait
 
Methods inherited from interface java.util.concurrent.BlockingQueue
add
 
Methods inherited from interface java.util.Queue
element, remove
 
Methods inherited from interface java.util.Collection
addAll, equals, hashCode
 

Constructor Detail

SynchronousQueue

public SynchronousQueue()
Creates a SynchronousQueue with nonfair access policy.


SynchronousQueue

public SynchronousQueue(boolean fair)
Creates a SynchronousQueue with the specified fairness policy.

Parameters:
fair - if true, waiting threads contend in FIFO order for access; otherwise the order is unspecified.
Method Detail

put

public void put(E o)
         throws InterruptedException
Adds the specified element to this queue, waiting if necessary for another thread to receive it.

Specified by:
put in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Parameters:
o - the element to add
Throws:
InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting
NullPointerException - if the specified element is null

offer

public boolean offer(E o,
                     long timeout,
                     TimeUnit unit)
              throws InterruptedException
Inserts the specified element into this queue, waiting if necessary up to the specified wait time for another thread to receive it.

Specified by:
offer in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Parameters:
o - the element to add
timeout - how long to wait before giving up, in units of unit
unit - a TimeUnit determining how to interpret the timeout parameter
Returns:
true if successful, or false if the specified waiting time elapses before a consumer appears.
Throws:
InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting
NullPointerException - if the specified element is null

offer

public boolean offer(E e)
Inserts the specified element into this queue, if another thread is waiting to receive it.

Specified by:
offer in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Specified by:
offer in interface Queue<E>
Parameters:
e - the element to add
Returns:
true if the element was added to this queue, else false
Throws:
NullPointerException - if the specified element is null

take

public E take()
       throws InterruptedException
Retrieves and removes the head of this queue, waiting if necessary for another thread to insert it.

Specified by:
take in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Returns:
the head of this queue
Throws:
InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting

poll

public E poll(long timeout,
              TimeUnit unit)
       throws InterruptedException
Retrieves and removes the head of this queue, waiting if necessary up to the specified wait time, for another thread to insert it.

Specified by:
poll in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Parameters:
timeout - how long to wait before giving up, in units of unit
unit - a TimeUnit determining how to interpret the timeout parameter
Returns:
the head of this queue, or null if the specified waiting time elapses before an element is present.
Throws:
InterruptedException - if interrupted while waiting

poll

public E poll()
Retrieves and removes the head of this queue, if another thread is currently making an element available.

Specified by:
poll in interface Queue<E>
Returns:
the head of this queue, or null if no element is available.

isEmpty

public boolean isEmpty()
Always returns true. A SynchronousQueue has no internal capacity.

Specified by:
isEmpty in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
isEmpty in class AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
true

size

public int size()
Always returns zero. A SynchronousQueue has no internal capacity.

Specified by:
size in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
size in class AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
zero.

remainingCapacity

public int remainingCapacity()
Always returns zero. A SynchronousQueue has no internal capacity.

Specified by:
remainingCapacity in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Returns:
zero.

clear

public void clear()
Does nothing. A SynchronousQueue has no internal capacity.

Specified by:
clear in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
clear in class AbstractQueue<E>

contains

public boolean contains(Object o)
Always returns false. A SynchronousQueue has no internal capacity.

Specified by:
contains in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
contains in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Overrides:
contains in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
o - the element
Returns:
false

remove

public boolean remove(Object o)
Always returns false. A SynchronousQueue has no internal capacity.

Specified by:
remove in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
remove in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Overrides:
remove in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
o - the element to remove
Returns:
false

containsAll

public boolean containsAll(Collection<?> c)
Returns false unless the given collection is empty. A SynchronousQueue has no internal capacity.

Specified by:
containsAll in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
containsAll in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
c - the collection
Returns:
false unless given collection is empty
See Also:
AbstractCollection.contains(Object)

removeAll

public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c)
Always returns false. A SynchronousQueue has no internal capacity.

Specified by:
removeAll in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
removeAll in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
c - the collection
Returns:
false
See Also:
AbstractCollection.remove(Object), AbstractCollection.contains(Object)

retainAll

public boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c)
Always returns false. A SynchronousQueue has no internal capacity.

Specified by:
retainAll in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
retainAll in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
c - the collection
Returns:
false
See Also:
AbstractCollection.remove(Object), AbstractCollection.contains(Object)

peek

public E peek()
Always returns null. A SynchronousQueue does not return elements unless actively waited on.

Specified by:
peek in interface Queue<E>
Returns:
null

iterator

public Iterator<E> iterator()
Returns an empty iterator in which hasNext always returns false.

Specified by:
iterator in interface Iterable<E>
Specified by:
iterator in interface Collection<E>
Specified by:
iterator in class AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
an empty iterator

toArray

public Object[] toArray()
Returns a zero-length array.

Specified by:
toArray in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
toArray in class AbstractCollection<E>
Returns:
a zero-length array

toArray

public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a)
Sets the zeroeth element of the specified array to null (if the array has non-zero length) and returns it.

Specified by:
toArray in interface Collection<E>
Overrides:
toArray in class AbstractCollection<E>
Parameters:
a - the array
Returns:
the specified array
Throws:
NullPointerException - if the specified array is null

drainTo

public int drainTo(Collection<? super E> c)
Description copied from interface: BlockingQueue
Removes all available elements from this queue and adds them to the given collection. This operation may be more efficient than repeatedly polling this queue. A failure encountered while attempting to add elements to collection c may result in elements being in neither, either or both collections when the associated exception is thrown. Attempts to drain a queue to itself result in IllegalArgumentException. Further, the behavior of this operation is undefined if the specified collection is modified while the operation is in progress.

Specified by:
drainTo in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Parameters:
c - the collection to transfer elements into
Returns:
the number of elements transferred
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if addition of elements is not supported by the specified collection
ClassCastException - if the class of an element of this queue prevents it from being added to the specified collection
NullPointerException - if the specified collection is null
IllegalArgumentException - if the specified collection is this queue, or some property of an element of this queue prevents it from being added to the specified collection

drainTo

public int drainTo(Collection<? super E> c,
                   int maxElements)
Description copied from interface: BlockingQueue
Removes at most the given number of available elements from this queue and adds them to the given collection. A failure encountered while attempting to add elements to collection c may result in elements being in neither, either or both collections when the associated exception is thrown. Attempts to drain a queue to itself result in IllegalArgumentException. Further, the behavior of this operation is undefined if the specified collection is modified while the operation is in progress.

Specified by:
drainTo in interface BlockingQueue<E>
Parameters:
c - the collection to transfer elements into
maxElements - the maximum number of elements to transfer
Returns:
the number of elements transferred
Throws:
UnsupportedOperationException - if addition of elements is not supported by the specified collection
ClassCastException - if the class of an element of this queue prevents it from being added to the specified collection
NullPointerException - if the specified collection is null
IllegalArgumentException - if the specified collection is this queue, or some property of an element of this queue prevents it from being added to the specified collection

Java™ Platform
Standard Ed. 6

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