The Java™ Tutorials
Trail: Learning the Java Language
Lesson: Language Basics


As you learned in the previous lesson, an object stores its state in fields.

int cadence = 0;
int speed = 0;
int gear = 1;

The What Is an Object? discussion introduced you to fields, but you probably have still a few questions, such as: What are the rules and conventions for naming a field? Besides int, what other data types are there? Do fields have to be initialized when they are declared? Are fields assigned a default value if they are not explicitly initialized? We'll explore the answers to such questions in this lesson, but before we do, there are a few technical distinctions you must first become aware of. In the Java programming language, the terms "field" and "variable" are both used; this is a common source of confusion among new developers, since both often seem to refer to the same thing.

The Java programming language defines the following kinds of variables:

Having said that, the remainder of this tutorial uses the following general guidelines when discussing fields and variables. If we are talking about "fields in general" (excluding local variables and parameters), we may simply say "fields". If the discussion applies to "all of the above", we may simply say "variables". If the context calls for a distinction, we will use specific terms (static field, local variables, etc.) as appropriate. You may also occasionally see the term "member" used as well. A type's fields, methods, and nested types are collectively called its members.


Every programming language has its own set of rules and conventions for the kinds of names that you're allowed to use, and the Java programming language is no different. The rules and conventions for naming your variables can be summarized as follows:

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