The Java™ Tutorials
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Trail: The Reflection API

Lesson: Members

Reflection defines an interface java.lang.reflect.Member which is implemented by java.lang.reflect.Field, java.lang.reflect.Method, and java.lang.reflect.Constructor . These objects will be discussed in this lesson. For each member, the lesson will describe the associated APIs to retrieve declaration and type information, any operations unique to the member (for example, setting the value of a field or invoking a method), and commonly encountered errors. Each concept will be illustrated with code samples and related output which approximate some expected reflection uses.

Note: According to The Java Language Specification, Java SE 7 Edition, the members of a class are the inherited components of the class body including fields, methods, nested classes, interfaces, and enumerated types. Since constructors are not inherited, they are not members. This differs from the implementing classes of java.lang.reflect.Member.


Fields have a type and a value. The java.lang.reflect.Field class provides methods for accessing type information and setting and getting values of a field on a given object.


Methods have return values, parameters, and may throw exceptions. The java.lang.reflect.Method class provides methods for obtaining the type information for the parameters and return value. It may also be used to invoke methods on a given object.


The Reflection APIs for constructors are defined in java.lang.reflect.Constructor and are similar to those for methods, with two major exceptions: first, constructors have no return values; second, the invocation of a constructor creates a new instance of an object for a given class.

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