|Oracle9i Net Services Reference Guide
Release 1 (9.0.1)
Part Number A90155-01
The group of access directives that you define. The directives grant levels of access to specific data for specific clients and/or groups of clients.
A feature of Oracle Connection Manager that sets rules for denying or allowing certain clients to access designated servers.
A unique network location used to identify a network object, such as a listener, Oracle Connection Manager, or Oracle Names server. Addresses have a specific format and must be unique.
An organizational entity for administering Oracle Network Services' components. Each administrative region includes:
An alternative name for an existing network object. Once an alias is created, it is resolved to the same name as the initial network object. An Oracle Names server stores aliases for any defined net service name, database server, or database link.
A host computer that runs the Oracle Net Firewall Proxy. An application gateway looks and acts like a real server from the client's point of view, and a real client from the server's point of view. An application gateway sits between the Internet and company's internal network and provides middleman services (or proxy services) to users on either side.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange character set, a convention for representing alphanumeric information using digital data. The collation sequence used by most computers with the exception of IBM and IBM-compatible computers.
A piece of information that describes some aspect of a directory entry. An entry comprises a set of attributes, each of which belongs to an object class. Moreover, each attribute has both a type--which describes the kind of information in the attribute--and a value--which contains the actual data.
A security method that enables you to have high confidence in the identity of users, clients, and servers in distributed environments. Network authentication methods can also provide the benefit of single sign-on for users. The following authentication methods are supported in Oracle9i, depending on whether or not Oracle Advanced Security is installed:
Memory that stores recently-accessed data to so that subsequent requests to access the same data can be processed quickly.
An external naming method that enables users to use Oracle tools transparently and applications to access Oracle databases in a Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) environment.
An Oracle Names network where network management consists of one administrative region for the entire network. All Oracle Names servers know about one another and about all the services in the network. Contrast with delegated administration.
A user, software application, or computer that requests the services, data, or processing of another application or computer. The client is the user process. In a network environment, the client is the local user process and the server may be local or remote.
Load balancing, whereby if more than one listener services a single database, a client can randomly choose between the listeners for its connect requests. This randomization enables all listeners to share the burden of servicing incoming connect requests.
The properties of a client, which may include the preferred order of naming methods, client and server logging and tracing, the domain from which to request names, and other client options for Oracle Names and Oracle Advanced Security.
Software architecture based on a separation of processing between two CPUs. One CPU acts as the client in the transaction, requesting and receiving services. The other acts as the server that provides the requests.
An Oracle Connection Manager monitoring process that registers the location and load of the proxy process with the Oracle Connection Manager listener, enabling the listener to forward requests to the least loaded proxy process.
Files that are used to identify and characterize the components of a network. Configuration is largely a process of naming network components and identifying relationships among those components.
A portion of the connect descriptor that defines the destination database service name or Oracle System Identifier (SID). In the example below,
SERVICE_NAME defines a database service called
A specially formatted description of the destination for a network connection. A connect descriptor contains destination service and network route information.
The destination service is indicated by using its service name for Oracle9i or Oracle8i databases or its Oracle System Identifier (SID) for Oracle release 8.0 databases. The network route provides, at a minimum, the location of the listener through use of a network address.
A net service name or service name, that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users initiate a connect request by passing a user name and password along with a connect identifier in a connect string for the service to which they wish to connect, for example:
A client connect request is forwarded to a another listener if the first listener is not responding. Connect-time failover is enabled by service registration, because the listener knows if an instance is running to attempting a connection.
An interaction between two processes on a network. Connections are originated by an initiator (client) that requests a connection with a destination (server).
Load balancing, whereby the number of active connections among various instances and dispatchers for the same service are balanced. This enables listeners to make their routing decisions based on how many connections each dispatcher has and on how loaded the nodes that the instances run.
A notification sent by an initiator and received by a listener that indicates that the initiator wants to start a connection.
(1) A person responsible for operating and maintaining an Oracle Server or a database application. (2) An Oracle username that has been given DBA privileges and can perform database administration functions. Usually the two meanings coincide. Many sites have multiple DBAs.
A network object stored in the local database or in the network definition that identifies a remote database, a communication path to that database, and, optionally, a username and password. Once defined, the database link is used to access the remote database.
A public or private database link from one database to another is created on the local database by a DBA or user.
The domain domain within which most client requests take place. It could be the domain where the client resides, or it could be a domain from which the client requests network services often. Default domain is also the client configuration parameter that determines what domain should be appended to unqualified network name requests. A name request is unqualified if it does not have a "." character within it.
A network where network management is delegated to one or more administrative regions below the root administrative region. Also referred to as distributed or decentralized administration. Contrast with central administration.
The client that is the endpoint of a connection. The initiator of the connection requires some data or service of the destination.
A directory server provides central administration of database services and net service names, reducing the work effort associated with adding or relocating services. Although net service names can be configured to alias a service, the directory server can refer to a database service directly without using a net service name. The database service is automatically added as an entry to the directory server during installation.
A directory server that is accessed with the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). An LDAP-compliant directory server can provide centralized storage and retrieval of database network components, user and corporate policies preferences, user authentication and security information, replacing clientside and serverside localized files.
A process that enables many clients to connect to the same server without the need for a dedicated server process for each client. A dispatcher handles and directs multiple incoming network session requests to shared server processes. See also shared server.
Division of front-end and back-end processing to different computers. Oracle Network Services support distributed processing by transparently connecting applications to remote databases.
NAMES.DOMAIN_HINTS parameter in the
names.ora file that contains the name of the domain and at least one address of an Oracle Names server in that domain. This enables an Oracle Names server to forward the client requests to a specific address, reducing network traffic.
A system for naming computers and network services that is organized into a hierarchy of domains. DNS is used in TCP/IP networks to locate computers through user-friendly names. DNS resolves a friendly name into an IP address, which is understood by computers.
For Oracle Network Services, DNS translates the host name in a TCP/IP address into an IP address.
The set of domains that are managed within a given administrative region. Domains are domestic only in relation to a region; they are never domestic in any absolute sense. Also referred to as local domains.
A message from a computer program informing you of a potential problem or condition preventing program or command execution.
An enterprise role is analogous to a regular database role, except that it spans authorization on multiple databases. An enterprise role is a category of roles that define privileges on a particular database. An enterprise role is created the database administrator of a particular database. An enterprise role can be granted to or revoked to one or more enterprise users. The information for granting and revoking these roles is stored in the directory server.
A user that has a unique identity across an enterprise. Enterprise users connect to individual databases through a schema. Enterprise users are assigned enterprise roles that determine their access privileges on databases.
The building block of a directory server, it contains information about an object of interest to directory users.
Functions or procedures written in a third-generation language (3GL) that can be called from PL/SQL code. Only C is supported for external procedures.
An Oracle Names infrastructure in which there is only one domain. All names must be unique within that domain.
The set of domains not managed within a given administrative region. Domains are foreign only in relation to a region; they are not foreign in any absolute sense. A network administrator typically defines foreign domains relative to a particular region to optimize Names Server caching performance.
A database link that links each database in a network to all other databases. This enables any user of any database in the network to specify a global object name in a SQL statement or object definition. A global database link that is the same as the global database name is registered with the Oracle Names server.
The full name of the database which uniquely identifies it from any other database. The global database name is of the form "
database_domain," for example,
The database name portion,
sales, is a simple name you wish to call your database. The database domain portion,
us.acme.com, specifies the database domain in which the database is located, making the global database name unique. When possible, Oracle Corporation recommends that your database domain mirror the network domain.
An integrated component that provides the generic technology for accessing non-Oracle systems from the Oracle database server. Heterogeneous Services enables you to:
A naming method resolution that enables users in a TCP/IP environment to resolve names through their existing name resolution service. This name resolution service might be Domain Name System (DNS), Network Information Service (NIS), or simply a centrally-maintained set of
/etc/hosts files. Host Naming enables users to connect to an Oracle database server by simply providing the server computer's host name or host name alias. No client configuration is required to take advantage of this feature. This method is recommended for simple TCP/IP environments.
Hypertext transfer protocol. A protocol that provides the language that enables Web browsers and application Web servers to communicate.
File that contains information to initialize the database and instances.
The combination of the System Global Area (SGA) and the Oracle background processes. When a database is started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle allocates a memory area called the SGA and starts one or more Oracle processes. The memory and processes of an instance efficiently manage the associated database's data and serve the database users. You can connect to any instance to access information within a cluster database.
A name of an Oracle database instance. The instance name is identified by the
INSTANCE_NAME parameter in the database initialization parameter file.
INSTANCE_NAME corresponds to the Oracle System Identifier (SID) of the instance. Clients can connect to a specific instance by specifying the
INSTANCE_NAME parameter in the connect descriptor.
A protocol used by client applications that resides on the same node as the listener to communicate with the database. IPC can provide a faster local connection than TCP/IP.
Used to identify a node on a network. Each computer on the network is assigned a unique IP address, which is made up of the network ID, and a unique host ID. This address is typically represented in dotted-decimal notation, with the decimal value of each octet separated by a period, for example 188.8.131.52.
A driver that provides Java applications and applets access to an Oracle database.
The combination of a keyword and a value, used as the standard unit of information in connect descriptors and many configuration files. Keyword-value pairs may be nested; that is, a keyword may have another keyword-value pair as its value.
Networking round-trip time.
The set of standards for formatting an input file for any of the LDAP command line utilities.
A file created by Oracle Net Configuration Assistant that contains the following directory server access information:
ldap.ora file resides in
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin on UNIX platforms and
\network\admin on Windows operating systems.
A qualifier appended to a global database link to provide alternate settings for the database user name and password credentials. For example, a link qualifier of
fieldrep can be appended to a global database link of
A process that resides on the server whose responsibility is to listen for incoming client connection requests and manage the traffic to the server.
Every time a client requests a network session with a server, a listener receives the actual request. If the client information matches the listener information, then the listener grants a connection to the server.
listener.ora file typically resides in
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin on UNIX platforms and ORACLE_HOME
\network\admin on Windows NT.
A utility included with Oracle Network Services to control various listener functions, such as to starting, stopping, and getting the status of the listener.
A feature by which client connections are distributed evenly among multiple listeners, dispatchers, instances, and nodes so that no single component is overloaded.
A naming method that locates network addresses by using information configured and stored on each individual client's tnsnames.ora file. Local naming is most appropriate for simple distributed networks with a small number of services that change infrequently.
A distributed database characteristic that enables applications to access data tables without knowing where they reside. All data tables appear to be in a single database, and the system determines the actual data location based on the table name. The user can reference data on multiple nodes in a single statement, and the system automatically and transparently routes (parts of) SQL statements to remote nodes for execution if needed. The data can move among nodes with no impact on the user or application.
A feature in which errors, service activity, and statistics are written to a log file. The log file provides additional information for an administrator when the error message on the screen is inadequate to understand the failure. The log file, by way of the error stack, shows the state of the software at various layers.
A connection from the server back to itself. Performing a successful loopback verifies that Oracle Net is functioning on the database server.
Logical Unit Type 6.2. A protocol that enables an Oracle application on a PC to communicate with an Oracle database. This communication occurs over the System Network Architecture (SNA) network with the Oracle database on a host system that supports Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC) architecture.
An LDAP-compliant directory server included with the Windows 2000 Server. It stores information about objects on the network, and makes this information available to users and network administrators. Active Directory also provides access to resources on the network using a single logon process.
Active Directory can be configured as a directory naming method to store service information that clients can access.
A high-level interface protocol providing interprocess communications between clients and servers (distributed applications). Named Pipes enables client/server conversation over a network using Named Pipes.
A subtree that resides entirely on one directory server. It is a contiguous subtree, that is, it must begin at an entry that serves as the top of the subtree, and extend downward to either leaf entries or references to subordinate naming contexts. It can range in size from a single entry to the entire directory information tree (DIT).
The set and structure of domains within which names can be allocated.
In a flat naming model, there is a single domain.
In a hierarchical naming model, the highest level is the root domain, and all other domains are hierarchically related.
A simple name for a service that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users initiate a connect request by passing a user name and password along with a net service name in a connect string for the service to which they wish to connect:
Depending on your needs, net service names can be stored in a variety of places, including:
tnsnames.ora, on each client
A group of two or more computers linked together through hardware and software to allow the sharing of data and/or peripherals.
The person who performs network management tasks such as installing, configuring, and testing network components. The administrator typically maintains the configuration files, connect descriptors and service names, aliases, and public and global database links.
As defined by Oracle, the set of characters acceptable for use as values in keyword-value pairs (that is, in connect descriptors and configuration files). The set includes alphanumeric upper- and lowercase, and some special characters.
Sun Microsystems' Yellow Pages (
yp) client/server protocol for distributing system configuration data such as user and host names between computers on a network.
A network layer that provides a generic interface for Oracle clients, servers, or external processes to access Oracle Net functions. The NI layer handles the "break" and "reset" requests for a connection.
Any service that can be directly addressed on a network; for example, a listener or a Oracle Names server.
Network Naming (Oracle Names)
A computer or terminal that is part of a network
In a directory server, a named group of attributes. When you want to assign attributes to an entry, you do so by assigning to that entry the object classes that hold those attributes.
All objects associated with the same object class share the attributes of that object class.
A model of network architecture developed by ISO as a framework for international standards in heterogeneous computer network architecture.
The OSI architecture is split between seven layers, from lowest to highest:
1. Physical layer
2. Data link layer
3. Network layer
4. Transport layer
5. Session layer
6. Presentation layer
7. Application layer
Each layer uses the layer immediately below it and provides a service to the layer above.
A product that provides a comprehensive suite of security features to protect enterprise networks and securely extend corporate networks to the Internet. Oracle Advanced Security provides a single source of integration with network encryption and authentication solutions, single sign-on services, and security protocols. By integrating industry standards, it delivers unparalleled security to the network.
An application programming interface (API) that enables you to create applications that use the native procedures or function calls of a third-generation language to access an Oracle database server and control all phases of SQL statement execution. OCI supports the datatypes, calling conventions, syntax, and semantics of a number of third-generation languages including C, C++, COBOL and FORTRAN.
A router through which a client connection request may be sent either to its next hop or directly to the database server. Clients who route their connection requests through an Oracle Connection Manager can then take advantage of the session multiplexing, access control, or protocol conversion features configured on that Oracle Connection Manager.
A utility included with Oracle Network Services to control various functions, such as starting, stopping, and getting the status of the Oracle Connection Manager.
A RDN of
cn=OracleContext in a directory information tree (DIT) that is located under a naming context or an unpublished directory entry. An Oracle Context contains entries for use with Oracle features, such as Oracle Net directory naming and Oracle Advanced Security enterprise user security. There can be one or more Oracle Contexts in a directory server.
A tool that enables you to create, delete, and modify a database.
A directory server implemented as an application on the Oracle database. It enables retrieval of information about dispersed users and network resources. It combines Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Version 3, the open Internet standard directory server access protocol, with the high performance, scalability, robustness, and availability of the Oracle database.
An Oracle directory service made up of a system of Oracle Names servers that provide name-to-address resolution for each service on the network.
A utility included with Oracle Names to control various functions for Oracle Names servers, such as starting, stopping, and getting the status of an Oracle Names server.
Oracle Names servers that have been configured to proxy for directory servers. Upon startup, Oracle Names LDAP Proxy servers obtain network object information from a directory server. This provides a single point of definition for all data in a directory server and does not require that both Oracle Names servers and directory servers be maintained separately and simultaneously.
A computer that uses Oracle Names software to store network address information for a service along with its simple name so that client applications can request connections with simple names rather than lengthy addresses.
A component of Oracle Net Services that enables a network session from a client application to an Oracle database server. Once a network session is established, Oracle Net acts as a data courier for the client application and the database server. It is responsible for establishing and maintaining the connection between the client application and database server, as well as exchanging messages between them. Oracle Net is able to perform these jobs because it is located on each computer in the network.
A post-installation tool that configures basic network components after installation, including:
A networking communication layer that is responsible for establishing and maintaining the connection between the client application and server, as well as exchanging messages between them.
A graphical user interface tool that combines configuration abilities with component control to provide an integrated environment for configuring and managing Oracle Net Services. It can be used on either the client or server.
You can use Oracle Net Manager to configure the following network components:
Define connect identifiers and map them to connect descriptors to identify the network location and identification of a service. Oracle Net Manager supports configuration of connect descriptors in a local
tnsnames.ora file, centralized LDAP-compliant directory server, or an Oracle Names server.
Configure the different ways in which connect identifiers are resolved into connect descriptors.
Create and configure listeners to receive client connections.
A suite of networking components that provide enterprise-wide connectivity solutions in distributed, heterogeneous computing environments. Oracle Net Services are comprised of the Oracle Net, listener, Oracle Connection Manager, Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, and Oracle Net Manager.
A networking layer responsible for responding to each of the possible messages sent by OCI. For example, an OCI request to fetch 25 rows would have an OPI response to return the 25 rows once they have been fetched.
A database for Digital's 64-bit platforms. Because Oracle Rdb has its own listener, the client interacts with Rdb in the same manner as it does with an Oracle database.
A set of rules that determine what can be stored in a directory server. Oracle has its own schema that is applied to many types of Oracle entries, including Oracle Net Services' entries. The Oracle schema for Oracle Net Services' entries includes the attributes the entries may contain.
A name that identifies a specific instance of a running pre-release 8.1 Oracle database. For any database, there is at least one instance referencing the database.
For pre-release 8.1 databases, SID is used to identify the database. The SID is included in the connect descriptor of a tnsnames.ora file and in the definition of the listener in the listener.ora file.
An alternate name for the top directory in the Oracle directory hierarchy on some directory-based operating systems.
Provides support for Java stored procedures, JDBC, SQLJ, Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs) in the Oracle database.
A block of information sent over the network each time a connection or data transfer is requested. The information contained in packets depends on the type of packet: connect, accept, redirect, data, and so on. Packet information can be useful in troubleshooting.
Information passed to a program, command, or function, such as a file specification, a keyword, or a constant value.
A string (word or phrase) used for data security and known only to its owner. Passwords are entered in conjunction with an operating system login ID, Oracle username, or account name, in order to connect to an operating system or software application (such as the Oracle database). Whereas the username or ID is public, the secret password ensures that only the owner of the username can use that name, or access that data.
A process monitor database process that performs process recovery when a user process fails. PMON is responsible for cleaning up the cache and freeing resources that the process was using. PMON also checks on dispatcher and server processes and restarts them if they have failed. As a part of service registration, PMON registers instance information with the listener.
The Oracle Names server(s) preferred by a client for names resolution; usually the Oracle Names Server that is physically closest to the client, or available over the least expensive network link.
A networking communication layer that manages the representation of information that application layer entities either communicate or reference in their communication. Example of session layers are Two-Task Common (TTC) and General Inter-ORB Protocol (GIOP).
A database link created by one user for his or her exclusive use.
A collection of parameters that specifies preferences for enabling and configuring Oracle Net Services' features on the client or server. A profile is stored and implemented through the
A set of rules that defines how data is transported across the network.
An address that identifies the network address of a network object.
When a connection is made, the client and the receiver of the request, such as the listener, Oracle Names server, or Oracle Connection Manager, are configured with identical protocol addresses. The client uses this address to send the connection request to a particular network object location, and the recipient "listens" for requests on this address. It is important to install the same protocols for the client and the connection recipient, as well as to configure the same addresses.
A feature of Oracle Connection Manager that enables a client and server with different networking protocols to communicate with each other. This feature replaces functionality previously provided by the Oracle Multi-Protocol Interchange with SQL*Net version 2.
An Oracle Connection Manager worker process. Proxy processes receive the connections and evaluate against a set of rules whether to deny or allow access. If access is allowed, the proxy processes then forward the requests to the next hop, typically the database server. In addition to allowing or denying access, the proxy processes can also multiplex or funnel multiple client connections through a single protocol connection.
A server that substitutes for the real server, forwarding client connection requests to the real server or to other proxy servers. Proxy servers provide access control, data and system security, monitoring, and caching.
A database link created by a DBA on a local database that is accessible to all users on that database.
Relational Database Management System
The local, most granular level entry name. It has no other qualifying entry names that would serve to address the entry uniquely. In the example,
cn=sales is the RDN.
Tables in an Oracle database that store Oracle Names information.
The highest level administrative region in a distributed installation. The root administrative region contains the root domain.
The highest level domain in a hierarchical naming model.
Remote Procedure Call
An industry standard protocol designed by Netscape Communications Corporation for securing network connections. SSL provides authentication, encryption, and data integrity using public key infrastructure (PKI).
Database processes that handle a client request on behalf of a database.
Work done for others. The database is a service that stores and retrieves data for clients.
A logical representation of a database, which is the way a database is presented to clients. A database can be presented as multiple services and a service can be implemented as multiple database instances. The service name is a string that is the global database name, that is, a name comprised of the database name and domain name, entered during installation or database creation. If you are not sure what the global database name is, you can obtain it from the value of the
SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the initialization parameter file.
A feature by which the PMON process automatically registers information with a listener. Because this information is registered with the listener, the
listener.ora file does not need to be configured with this static information.
Service registration provides the listener with information about:
These enable the listener to direct a client request appropriately.
This load information enables the listener to determine which dispatcher can best handle a client connection request. If all dispatchers are blocked, the listener can spawn a dedicated server for the connection.
A process that fully replicates a directory system on the network. New services need to register with only one Oracle Names server. The service replication process automatically distributes the new registration to all other active Oracle Names servers on the network.
A buffer that Oracle Net uses to place data before transmitting it across the network. Oracle Net sends the data in the buffer either when requested or when it is full.
A network layer that provides the services needed by the protocol address entities that enable them to organize and synchronize their dialogue and manage their data exchange. This layer establishes, manages, and terminates network sessions between the client and server. An example of a session layer is Network Session (NS).
Combining multiple sessions for transmission over a single network connection in order to conserve the operating system's resources.
A database server that is configured to allow many user processes to share very few server processes, so the number of users that can be supported is increased. With shared server configuration, many user processes connect to a dispatcher. The dispatcher directs multiple incoming network session requests to a common queue. An idle shared server process from a shared pool of server processes picks up a request from the queue. This means that a small pool of server processes can serve a large number of clients. Contrast with dedicated server.
A section of the
listener.ora file that defines the Oracle System Identifier (SID) of the database served by the listener. This section is valid only for version 8.0 Oracle databases, as Oracle9i and Oracle8i instance information is automatically registered with the listener. Static configuration is also required for other services, such as external procedures and heterogeneous services, and some management tools, including Oracle Enterprise Manager.
The ability for a user to log in to different servers using a single password. This permits the user to authenticate to all servers the user is authorized to access.
A configuration file for the client or server that specifies:
sqlnet.ora file typically resides in
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin on UNIX platforms and
\network\admin on Windows operating systems.
Data used by the Oracle Names server to control regular functioning or communicate with other Oracle Names servers. Includes interchanges, Oracle Names servers in a root region, and Oracle Names servers in any delegated region.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The de facto standard communication protocol used for client/server conversation over a network.
The amount of time it takes for a message to be sent and processed from the client to the server or from the server to the client
Thin JDBC driver is Oracle's Type 4 driver designed for Java applet and Java application developers. The JDBC driver establishes a direct connection to the Oracle database server over Java sockets. Access to the database is assisted with a lightweight implementation of Oracle Net and Two-Task Common (TTC).
A configuration file that contains one or more domains mapped to connect descriptors. This file is used for the LU6.2 protocol method. The
tnsnames.ora file typically resides in
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin on UNIX platforms and
A facility that writes detailed information about an operation to an output file. The trace facility produces a detailed sequence of statements that describe the events of an operation as they are executed. Administrators use the trace facility for diagnosing an abnormal condition; it is not normally turned on.
A runtime failover for high-availability environments, such as Oracle9i Real Application Clusters and Oracle Fail Safe, that refers to the failover and re-establishment of application-to-service connections. It enables client applications to automatically reconnect to the database if the connection fails, and, optionally, resume a
SELECT statement that was in progress. This reconnect happens automatically from within the Oracle Call Interface (OCI) library.
User Program Interface
A piece of shared memory used by the dispatcher for client database connection requests and replies. The dispatcher places a virtual circuit on a common queue when a request arrives. An idle shared server picks up the virtual circuit from the common queue, services the request, and relinquishes the virtual circuit before attempting to retrieve another virtual circuit from the common queue.
Virtual Interface Protocol. A protocol used to improve latency and CPU utilization between application Web servers and database servers.
Addresses for one or more Oracle Names servers hard coded into both the Oracle Names server and its clients. Oracle Names servers then become available at these well known addresses, so that clients do not need to be told, by way of configuration files, where to find the server.