Oracle9i Database Concepts
Release 1 (9.0.1)

Part Number A88856-02
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Part I What Is Oracle?

1 Introduction to the Oracle Server

Introduction to Databases and Information Management
The Oracle Server
Database Structure and Space Management
Logical Database Structures
Physical Database Structures
Memory Structure and Processes
Memory Structures
Process Architecture
The Program Interface Mechanism
An Example of How Oracle Works
Processes and Threads on Windows NT
The Object-Relational Model for Database Management
The Relational Model
The Object-Relational Model
Type Inheritance
Description of Schemas and Schema Objects
Data Dictionary
Data Concurrency and Consistency Overview
Read Consistency
Locking Mechanisms
Quiesce Database
Startup and Shutdown Operations

2 Oracle Server Features

Internet Computing and Distributed Databases
Client/Server Architecture: Distributed Processing
Multitier Architecture: Application Servers
Distributed Databases
Heterogeneous Services
Advanced Queuing Overview
Uses for Message Queuing
Advantages of Oracle Advanced Queuing
Data Warehousing Overview
Data Access Overview
SQL--The Structured Query Language
PL/SQL--Procedural Language Extension to SQL
Data Integrity
Database Security Overview
Security Mechanisms
Database Backup and Recovery Overview
Why Recovery Is Important
Types of Failures
Structures Used for Recovery
Basic Recovery Steps
Transparent Application Failover (TAF)
Recovery Manager
Instance Recovery Tuning
Introduction to Oracle9i Data Guard
Background of Oracle9i Data Guard
Overview of Oracle9i Data Guard
How the Data Guard Components Work Together
Disaster Recovery Server and DRMON
Limiting Data Loss
LogMiner SQL-Based Log Analyzer Overview

Part II Database Structures

3 Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments

Introduction to Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments
Data Blocks Overview
Data Block Format
Free Space Management
PCTFREE, PCTUSED, and Row Chaining
Extents Overview
When Extents Are Allocated
Determine the Number and Size of Extents
How Extents Are Allocated
When Extents Are Deallocated
Segments Overview
Introduction to Data Segments
Introduction to Index Segments
Introduction to Temporary Segments
Automatic Undo Management
Introduction to Rollback Segments

4 Tablespaces, Datafiles, and Control Files

Introduction to Tablespaces, Datafiles, and Control Files
Allocate More Space for a Database
Tablespaces Overview
The SYSTEM Tablespace
Undo Tablespaces
Default Temporary Tablespace
Multiple Tablespace Usage
Space Management in Tablespaces
Nonstandard Block Sizes
Online and Offline Tablespaces
Read-Only Tablespaces
Temporary Tablespaces for Sorts
Transport of Tablespaces between Databases
Datafiles Overview
Datafile Contents
Size of Datafiles
Offline Datafiles
Temporary Datafiles
Control Files Overview
Control File Contents
Multiplexed Control Files

5 The Data Dictionary

Introduction to the Data Dictionary
The Structure of the Data Dictionary
SYS, the Owner of the Data Dictionary
How the Data Dictionary Is Used
How Oracle Uses the Data Dictionary
How Users and DBAs Can Use the Data Dictionary
The Dynamic Performance Tables
Database Object Metadata

Part III The Oracle Instance

6 Database and Instance Startup and Shutdown

Introduction to an Oracle Instance
The Instance and the Database
Connection with Administrator Privileges
Initialization Parameter Files
Instance and Database Startup
How an Instance Is Started
How a Database Is Mounted
What Happens When You Open a Database
Database and Instance Shutdown
Close a Database
Unmount a Database
Shut Down an Instance

7 Distributed Processing

Client/Server Architecture
Multitier Architecture
Application Servers
Database Servers
Distributed Processing Overview
Oracle Net Services
How Oracle Net Services Works
The Listener
Oracle Internet Directory

8 Memory Architecture

Introduction to Oracle Memory Structures
System Global Area (SGA) Overview
Dynamic SGA
The Database Buffer Cache
The Redo Log Buffer
The Shared Pool
The Large Pool
Control of the SGA's Use of Memory
Other SGA Initialization Parameters
Program Global Areas (PGA) Overview
Content of the PGA
SQL Work Areas
PGA Memory Management for Dedicated Mode
Dedicated and Shared Servers
Software Code Areas

9 Process Architecture

Introduction to Processes
Multiple-Process Oracle Systems
Types of Processes
User Processes Overview
Connections and Sessions
Oracle Processes Overview
Server Processes
Background Processes
Trace Files and the Alert Log
Shared Server Architecture
Internet Scalability
Dispatcher Request and Response Queues
Shared Server Processes (Snnn)
Restricted Operations of the Shared Server
Dedicated Server Configuration
The Program Interface
Program Interface Structure
Program Interface Drivers
Communications Software for the Operating System

10 Database Resource Management

Introduction to the Database Resource Manager
Database Resource Manager Terms
Example of a Simple Resource Plan
How the Database Resource Manager Works
Resource Control
Database Integration
Performance Overhead
Resource Plans and Resource Consumer Groups
Activation of a Resource Plan
Groups of Resource Plans
Resource Allocation Methods and Resource Plan Directives
Resource Plan Directives
CPU Resource Allocation
Interaction with Operating-System Resource Control
Dynamic Reconfiguration

Part IV The Object-Relational DBMS

11 Schema Objects

Introduction to Schema Objects
How Table Data Is Stored
Nulls Indicate Absence of Value
Default Values for Columns
Partitioned Tables
Nested Tables
Temporary Tables
External Tables
Storage for Views
How Views Are Used
The Mechanics of Views
Dependencies and Views
Updatable Join Views
Object Views in an Oracle Database
Inline Views
Materialized Views
Define Constraints on Views
Refresh Materialized Views
Materialized View Logs
The Sequence Generator
Unique and Nonunique Indexes
Composite Indexes
Indexes and Keys
Indexes and Nulls
Function-Based Indexes
How Indexes Are Stored
How Indexes Are Searched
Key Compression
Reverse Key Indexes
Bitmap Indexes
Bitmap Join Indexes
Index-Organized Tables
Benefits of Index-Organized Tables
Index-Organized Tables with Row Overflow Area
Secondary Indexes on Index-Organized Tables
Bitmap Indexes on Index-Organized Tables
Partitioned Index-Organized Tables
B-tree Indexes on UROWID Columns for Heap- and Index-Organized Tables
Index-Organized Table Applications
Application Domain Indexes
Hash Clusters

12 Partitioned Tables and Indexes

Introduction to Partitioning
Partition Key
Partitioned Tables
Partitioned Index-Organized Tables
Partitioning Methods
Range Partitioning
List Partitioning
Hash Partitioning
Composite Partitioning
When to Partition a Table
Partitioned Indexes
Local Partitioned Indexes
Global Partitioned Indexes
Global Nonpartitioned Indexes
Index Examples
Miscellaneous Information about Creating Indexes on Partitioned Tables
Using Partitioned Indexes in OLTP Applications
Using Partitioned Indexes in DSS Applications
Partitioned Indexes on Composite Partitions
Partitioning to Improve Performance
Partition Pruning
Partition-wise Joins
Parallel DML

13 System-Provided Datatypes

Introduction to Oracle Datatypes
Character Datatypes
CHAR Datatype
VARCHAR2 and VARCHAR Datatypes
Length Semantics for Character Datatypes
NCHAR and NVARCHAR2 Datatypes
Use of Unicode Data in an Oracle Database
LOB Character Datatypes
LONG Datatype
NUMBER Datatype
Internal Numeric Format
DATE Datatype
Use of Julian Dates
Date Arithmetic
Centuries and the Year 2000
Daylight Savings Support
Time Zones
LOB Datatypes
BLOB Datatype
CLOB and NCLOB Datatypes
BFILE Datatype
RAW and LONG RAW Datatypes
ROWID and UROWID Datatypes
The ROWID Pseudocolumn
Physical Rowids
Logical Rowids
Rowids in Non-Oracle Databases
ANSI, DB2, and SQL/DS Datatypes
XML Datatypes
Data Conversion

14 User-Defined Datatypes

Introduction to User-Defined Datatypes
Complex Data Models
Multimedia Datatypes
User-Defined Datatype Categories
Object Types
Collection Types
Type Inheritance
NOT INSTANTIABLE Types and Methods
User-Defined Aggregate Functions
Why Have User-Defined Aggregate Functions?
Creation and Use of UDAGs
How Do Aggregate Functions Work?
Application Interfaces
Datatype Evolution

15 Object Views

Introduction to Object Views
Advantages of Object Views
How Object Views Are Defined
Use of Object Views
Updates of Object Views
Updates of Nested Table Columns in Views
View Hierarchies

Part V Data Access

16 SQL, PL/SQL, and Java

Introduction to Structured Query Language
SQL Statements Overview
Identification of Nonstandard SQL
Recursive SQL
Cursors Overview
Shared SQL
SQL Processing
Overview of SQL Statement Execution
DML Statement Processing
DDL Statement Processing
Control of Transactions
The Optimizer
Execution Plans
PL/SQL Overview
How PL/SQL Executes
Language Constructs for PL/SQL
Stored Procedures
PL/SQL Server Pages
PL/SQL Program Units
Introduction to Stored Procedures and Packages
Stored Procedures and Functions
Procedures and Functions Overview
Benefits of Procedures
Procedure Guidelines
Anonymous PL/SQL Blocks Compared with Stored Procedures
Standalone Procedures
Dependency Tracking for Stored Procedures
External Procedures
Table Functions
Packages Overview
Java Overview
Java and Object-Oriented Programming Terminology
Class Hierarchy
The Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
Java Program Units

17 Transaction Management

Introduction to Transactions
Statement Execution and Transaction Control
Statement-Level Rollback
Resumable Space Allocation
Oracle and Transaction Management
Commit Transactions
Rollback of Transactions
Savepoints In Transactions
Transaction Naming
The Two-Phase Commit Mechanism
Discrete Transaction Management
Autonomous Transactions
Autonomous PL/SQL Blocks
Transaction Control Statements in Autonomous Blocks

18 Triggers

Introduction to Triggers
How Triggers Are Used
Parts of a Trigger
The Triggering Event or Statement
Trigger Restriction
Trigger Action
Types of Triggers
Row Triggers and Statement Triggers
BEFORE and AFTER Triggers
Triggers on System Events and User Events
Trigger Execution
The Execution Model for Triggers and Integrity Constraint Checking
Data Access for Triggers
Storage of PL/SQL Triggers
Execution of Triggers
Dependency Maintenance for Triggers

19 Dependencies Among Schema Objects

Introduction to Dependency Issues
Resolution of Schema Object Dependencies
Compilation of Views and PL/SQL Program Units
Function-Based Index Dependencies
Dependency Management and Nonexistent Schema Objects
Shared SQL Dependency Management
Local and Remote Dependency Management
Management of Local Dependencies
Management of Remote Dependencies

Part VI Parallel SQL and Direct-Load INSERT

20 Parallel Execution of SQL Statements

Introduction to Parallel Execution
When to Implement Parallel Execution
When Not to Implement Parallel Execution
How Parallel Execution Works
Parallelized SQL Statements
Degree of Parallelism
Parallel Query Intra- and Inter-Operation Example
SQL Operations That Can Be Parallelized
Parallel Query
Parallel DDL
Parallel DML
How to Make a Statement Run in Parallel

21 Direct-Path INSERT

Introduction to Direct-Path INSERT
Advantages of Direct-Path INSERT
Serial and Parallel Direct-Path INSERT
Direct-Path INSERT Into Partitioned and Nonpartitioned Tables
Serial Direct-Path Insert into Partitioned and Nonpartitioned Tables
Parallel Direct-Path INSERT into Partitioned Tables
Parallel Direct-Path INSERT into a Nonpartitioned Table
Direct-Path INSERT and Logging Mode
Direct-Path INSERT with Logging
Direct-Path INSERT without Logging
Additional Considerations for Direct-Path INSERT
Index Maintenance
Space Considerations
Locking Considerations

Part VII Data Protection

22 Data Concurrency and Consistency

Introduction to Data Concurrency and Consistency in a Multiuser Environment
Preventable Phenomena and Transaction Isolation Levels
Overview of Locking Mechanisms
How Oracle Manages Data Concurrency and Consistency
Multiversion Concurrency Control
Statement-Level Read Consistency
Transaction-Level Read Consistency
Read Consistency with Oracle9i Real Application Clusters
Oracle Isolation Levels
Comparison of Read Committed and Serializable Isolation
Choice of Isolation Level
How Oracle Locks Data
Transactions and Data Concurrency
Types of Locks
DML Locks
DDL Locks
Latches and Internal Locks
Explicit (Manual) Data Locking
Oracle Lock Management Services
Flashback Query
Flashback Query Benefits
Some Uses of Flashback Query

23 Data Integrity

Introduction to Data Integrity
Types of Data Integrity
How Oracle Enforces Data Integrity
Introduction to Integrity Constraints
Advantages of Integrity Constraints
The Performance Cost of Integrity Constraints
Types of Integrity Constraints
NOT NULL Integrity Constraints
UNIQUE Key Integrity Constraints
PRIMARY KEY Integrity Constraints
Referential Integrity Constraints
CHECK Integrity Constraints
The Mechanisms of Constraint Checking
Default Column Values and Integrity Constraint Checking
Deferred Constraint Checking
Constraint Attributes
Unique Constraints and Indexes
Constraint States
Constraint State Modification

24 Controlling Database Access

Introduction to Database Security
Schemas, Database Users, and Security Domains
User Authentication
Authentication by the Operating System
Authentication by the Network
Authentication by the Oracle Database
Multitier Authentication and Authorization
Authentication by the Secure Socket Layer Protocol
Authentication of Database Administrators
User Tablespace Settings and Quotas
Default Tablespace Option
Temporary Tablespace Option
Tablespace Access and Quotas
The User Group PUBLIC
User Resource Limits and Profiles
Types of System Resources and Limits
Overview of Licensing
Concurrent Usage Licensing
Named User Licensing

25 Privileges, Roles, and Security Policies

Introduction to Privileges
System Privileges
Schema Object Privileges
Table Security
View Security
Procedure Security
Type Security
Introduction to Roles
Common Uses for Roles
The Mechanisms of Roles
Grant and Revoke Roles
Who Can Grant or Revoke Roles?
Role Names
Security Domains of Roles and Users
PL/SQL Blocks and Roles
Data Definition Language Statements and Roles
Predefined Roles
The Operating System and Roles
Roles in a Distributed Environment
Fine-Grained Access Control
Dynamic Predicates
Security Policy Example
Application Context
Secure Application Roles
Creation of Secure Application Roles

26 Auditing

Introduction to Auditing
Features of Auditing
Mechanisms for Auditing
Statement Auditing
Privilege Auditing
Schema Object Auditing
Schema Object Audit Options for Views and Procedures
Fine-Grained Auditing
Focus Statement, Privilege, and Schema Object Auditing
Successful and Unsuccessful Statement Executions Auditing
BY SESSION compared with BY ACCESS Clauses of Audit Statement
Audit By User
Audit in a Multitier Environment

A Operating System Specific Information



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