Oracle9i Database Administrator's Guide
Release 1 (9.0.1) for Windows

Part Number A90164-01
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Identification of a user, device, or other entity in a computer system, often as a prerequisite for allowing access to resources in a system.


Permission given to a user, program, or process to access an Oracle database or operating system.


A representative copy of data. This copy includes important parts of your database such as the control file, redo log files, and data files.

A backup is a safeguard against unexpected data loss; if you lose your original data, you can use the backup to make the data available again. A backup is also a safeguard against an application error; if an application makes incorrect changes, you can restore the backup.

connect string

See net service name.

control file

A file that records the physical structure of a database and contains the database name, the names and locations of associated databases and online redo log files, the timestamp of the database creation, the current log sequence number, and checkpoint information.

data dictionary

A set of read-only tables that provide information about a database.

database alias

See net service name.

Dynamic Link Library (DLL)

An executable file that a Windows application can load when needed.

external routine

A function written in a third-generation language (3GL), such as C, and callable from within PL/SQL or SQL as if it were a PL/SQL function or procedure.

Globalization Support

The Oracle architecture that ensures that database utilities, error messages, sort order, date, time, monetary, numeric, and calendar conventions automatically adapt to the native language and locale.


Represents a unique registry subkey for each Oracle home directory in which you install products. A new HOMEID is created and incremented each time you install products to a different Oracle home directory on one computer. Each HOMEID contains its own configuration parameter settings for installed Oracle products.


Represents the name of an ORACLE_HOME. In release 8.1.6 or later, all Oracle homes have a unique HOME_NAME.

initialization parameter file

An ASCII text file that contains information needed to initialize a database and instance.


Every running Oracle database is associated with an Oracle instance. When a database is started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle allocates a memory area called the System Global Area (SGA) and starts one or more Oracle processes. This combination of the SGA and the Oracle processes is called an instance. The memory and processes of an instance manage the associated database's data efficiently and serve the one or more users of the database.

instantiate, instantiation

Producing a more defined version of some object by replacing variables with values (or other variables).

In object-oriented programming, producing a particular object from its class template. This involves allocation of a structure with the types specified by the template, and initialization of instance variables with either default values or those provided by the constructor function of the class.

Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP)

A standard that enables Object Request Brokers (ORBs) from different vendors to communicate with each other using TCP/IP.


The server process that listens for and accepts incoming connection requests from client applications. Oracle listener processes start up Oracle database processes to handle subsequent communications with the client.


A configuration file that describes one or more Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) listeners on a server.

Microsoft Management Console

An application that serves as a host for administrative tools called snap-ins. By itself, Microsoft Management Console does not provide any functionality.


To transform an installed version of an Oracle database from a major release to another major release, for example, from Oracle8 to Oracle9i. See upgrade.


To associate a database with an instance that has been started.

multiple Oracle homes

The capability of having more than one Oracle home on a computer.

net service name

The name used by clients to identify Oracle Net server. A net service name is mapped to a port number and protocol. Also known as a connect string, database alias, or service name.

network listener

A listener on a server that listens for connection requests for one or more databases on one or more protocols. See listener.

network service

In an Oracle application network, a service performs tasks for its service consumers. For example, a Names Server provides name resolution services for clients.

NT global groups

Contains users with access to computers and resources throughout the current domain and within any other domains that trust it. Global groups only contain global domain user accounts as their members.

Object Request Broker (ORB)

A software component that serves as the middleware between distributed objects. The distributed objects must comply with the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) standard.

Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA)

A set of file naming and placement guidelines for Oracle software and databases.

Oracle9i Enterprise Edition, Oracle9i Standard Edition and Oracle9i Personal Edition

The information in this guide applies to the Oracle9i Enterprise Edition, the Oracle9i Standard Edition, and the Oracle9i Personal Edition. Unless otherwise noted, the features and functionality described in this guide are common to both Oracle9i Enterprise Edition and Oracle9i.


Corresponds to the environment in which Oracle products run. This environment includes the location of installed product files, the PATH variable pointing to the products' binary files, registry entries, net service names, and program groups.

If you install an OFA-compliant database, using Oracle Universal Installer defaults, Oracle home (known as \ORACLE_HOME in this guide) is located beneath X:\ORACLE_BASE. It contains subdirectories for Oracle software executables and network files.

Oracle Net

The Oracle network interface that enables Oracle tools running on network workstations and servers to access, modify, share, and store data on other servers.

Oracle Protocol Support

A product that maps the functions of a given network protocol into Oracle Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) architecture. This process translates TNS function calls into requests to the underlying network protocol. This allows TNS to act as an interface among all protocols. Oracle Net requires Oracle protocol support.

Oracle service

A service that is associated with an Oracle component.


Oracle base, known as ORACLE_BASE in this guide, is the root of the Oracle directory tree.

If you install an OFA-compliant database using Oracle Universal Installer defaults, ORACLE_BASE is X:\oracle where X is any hard drive (for example, C:\oracle).


Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL.

PL/SQL enables you to mix SQL statements with procedural constructs. You can define and execute PL/SQL program units such as procedures, functions, and packages.


A programming tool that enables you to embed SQL statements in a high-level source program.


A right to execute a particular type of SQL statement or to access another user's object.


A mechanism in an operating system that can run an executable. (Some operating systems use the terms job or task.) A process normally has its own private memory area in which it runs. On Windows NT a process is created when a program runs (such as Oracle or Microsoft Word). In addition to an executable program, all processes consist of at least one thread. The ORACLE master process contains hundreds of threads.


A limit on a resource, such as a limit on the amount of database storage used by a database user. A database administrator can set tablespace quotas for each Oracle user name.

raw partition

A portion of a physical disk that is accessed at the lowest possible disk (block) level.


To restore a physical backup is to reconstruct it and make it available to the Oracle server. To recover a restored backup is to update it using redo records (that is, records of changes made to the database after the backup was taken). Recovering a backup involves two distinct operations: rolling forward the backup to a more current time by applying redo data, and rolling back all changes made in uncommitted transactions to their original state.

redo log files

A file that contains a record of all changes made to data in the database buffer cache. If an instance failure occurs, the redo log files are used to recover the modified data that was in memory.

redo log buffer

A circular buffer in the System Global Area (SGA) that contains information about changes made to the database.


A Windows repository that stores configuration information for a computer.

remote computer

A computer on a network other than the local computer.

remote database

A database on a computer other than the local database.


The process of copying and maintaining database objects in multiple databases that make up a distributed database system.


A named group of related privileges. You can grant a role to users or other roles.


A named collection of objects, such as tables, views, clusters, procedures, and packages, associated with a particular user.


An executable process installed in the Windows NT registry and administered by Windows NT. Once a service is created and started, it can run even when no user is logged on to the computer.

service name

See net service name.


See System Identifier (SID).


An administrative tool that runs within Microsoft Management Console.


(1) Information stored in rollback segments to provide transaction recovery and read consistency. Rollback segment information can be used to recreate a snapshot of a row before an update.

(2) A read-only copy of a master table located on a remote node. Snapshots can be queried, but not updated; only the master table can be updated. Snapshots are periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table.

starter database

A preconfigured, ready-to-use database that requires minimal user input to create.


An alias for a table, view, sequence, or program unit. A synonym is not actually an object itself; rather, it is a direct reference to its base object.


A special database administration role that contains all system privileges with the ADMIN OPTION, and the SYSOPER system privilege. SYSDBA also permits CREATE DATABASE actions and time-based recovery.


A special database administration role that permits a database administrator to perform STARTUP, SHUTDOWN, ALTER DATABASE OPEN/MOUNT, ALTER DATABASE BACKUP, ARCHIVE LOG, and RECOVER, and includes the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege.

System Global Area (SGA)

A group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for an Oracle instance.

System Identifier (SID)

A unique name for an Oracle instance. To switch between Oracle databases, users must specify the desired SID. The SID is included in the CONNECT DATA parts of the connect descriptors in a tnsnames.ora file, and in the definition of the network listener in alistener.ora file.

SYSTEM user name

One of two standard DBA user names automatically created with each database. (The other user name is SYS.) SYSTEM is created with an initial password of MANAGER. The SYSTEM user name is the preferred user name for DBAs to use for database maintenance.


A database is divided into one or more logical storage units called tablespaces. Tablespaces are divided into logical units of storage called segments, which are further divided into extents.


An individual path of execution within a process. Threads are objects within a process that execute program instructions. Threads allow concurrent operations within a process so that a process can execute different parts of its program simultaneously on different processors. A thread is the most fundamental component that can be scheduled on Windows NT.


A file that contains connect descriptors mapped to net service names. The file may be maintained centrally or locally, for use by all or individual clients.

trace file

Each server and background process can write to an associated trace file. When a process detects an internal error, it dumps information about the error to its trace file. Some of the information written to a trace file is intended for the database administrator, while other information is intended for Oracle Support Services. Trace file information is also used to tune applications and instances.


To transform an installed version of an Oracle database major release into another major release of the same version. For example release 8.1.6 to release 8.1.7. See migrate.


A name that can connect to and access objects in a database.


A selective presentation of the structure of, and data in, one or more tables (or other views).

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