BEA WebLogic Server runs on hardware ranging from low-end PCs to high-end mainframes. The process of determining what type of hardware and software configuration is required to meet application needs adequately is called capacity planning. This document provides capacity planning efforts for solutions on WebLogic Server, with a focus on server hardware requirements.
Note: Capacity planning is not an exact science. Every application is different and every user behavior is different. This document is intended as a guide for developing capacity planning numbers and encourages you to err on the side of caution.
Any and all recommendations generated by this guide should be adequately verified before a given system is placed into production. There is no substitute for adequately testing a prototype for capacity planning numbers.
A number of factors influence how much capacity a given hardware configuration will need in order to support a WebLogic Server instance and a given application. The hardware capacity required to support your application depends on the specifics of the application and configuration. You should consider how each of these factors applies to your configuration and application.
The following sections discuss several of these factors. Understanding these factors and considering the requirements of your application will aid you in generating server hardware requirements for your configuration. Consider how much your application differs from a baseline application numbers provided in Examining Results from the Baseline Applications Consider the capacity planning questions in Table 1-1.
The stateless nature of HTTP requires that the server handle more overhead than is the case with programmatic clients. However, the benefits of HTTP clients are numerous, such as the availability of browsers and firewall compatibility, and are usually worth the performance costs.
Programmatic clients are generally more efficient than HTTP clients because T3 does more of the presentation work on the client side. Programmatic clients typically call directly into EJBs while Web clients usually go through servlets. This eliminates the work the server must do for presentation. The T3 protocol operates using sockets and has a long-standing connection to the server.
A WebLogic Server installation that relies only on programmatic clients should be able to handle more concurrent clients than an HTTP proxy that is serving installations. If you are tunneling T3 over HTTP, you should not expect this performance benefit. In fact, performance of T3 over HTTP is generally 15 percent worse than typical HTTP and similarly reduces the optimum capacity of your WebLogic Server installation.
What types of server traffic do the clients generate? If you are using T3 clients, most interaction with the server involves Remote Method Invocation (RMI.) Clients using RMI do not generate heavy traffic to the server because there is only one sender and one listener.
Secure sockets layer (SSL) is a standard for secure Internet communications. WebLogic Server security services support X.509 digital certificates and access control lists (ACLs) to authenticate participants and manage access to network services. For example, SSL can protect JSP pages listing employee salaries, blocking access to confidential information.
Note the number of SSL connections required out of the total number of clients required. Typically, for every SSL connection that the server can handle, it can handle three non-SSL connections. SSL reduces the capacity of the server by about 33 to 50 percent depending upon the strength of encryption used in the SSL connections. Also, the amount of overhead SSL imposes is related to how many client interactions have SSL enabled. WebLogic Server includes native performance packs for SSL operations.
What is running on the machine in addition to a WebLogic Server? The machine may be processing much more than presentation and business logic. For example, it could be running a Web server or maintaining a remote information feed, such as a stock information feed from a quote service.
Consider how much of your WebLogic Server machine's processing power is consumed by processes unrelated to WebLogic Server. In the case in which WebLogic Server (or the machine on which it resides) is doing substantial additional work, you need to determine how much processing power will be drained by other processes. When a Web server proxy is running on the same machine as WebLogic Server, expect anywhere from 25 to 50 percent of the computing capacity.
Is the database a bottleneck? Are there additional user storage requirements? Often the database server runs out of capacity much sooner that WebLogic Server does. Plan for a database that is sufficiently robust to handle the application. Typically, a good application's database requires hardware three to four times more powerful than the application server hardware. It is good practice to use a separate machine for your database server.
Generally, you can tell if your database is the bottleneck if you are unable to maintain WebLogic Server CPU usage in the 85 to 95 percent range. This indicates that WebLogic Server is often idle and waiting for the database to return results. With load balancing in a cluster, the CPU utilization across the nodes should be about even.
An application might require user storage for operations that do not interact with a database. For example, in a secure system disk and memory are required to store security information for each user. You should calculate the size required to store one user's information, and multiply by the maximum number of expected users.
How many transactions must run concurrently? Determine the maximum number of concurrent sessions WebLogic Server will be called upon to handle. For each session, you will need to add more RAM for efficiency. BEA Systems recommends that you install a minimum of 256 MB of memory for each WebLogic Server installation that will be handling more than minimal capacity.
Next, research the maximum number of clients that will make requests at the same time, and how frequently each client will be making a request. The number of user interactions per second with WebLogic Server represents the total number of interactions that should be handled per second by a given WebLogic Server deployment. Typically for Web deployments, user interactions access JSP pages or servlets. User interactions in application deployments typically access EJBs.
Consider also the maximum number of transactions in a given period to handle spikes in demand. For example, in a stock report application, plan for a surge after the stock market opens and before it closes. If your company is broadcasting a Web site as part of an advertisement during the World Series or World Cup Soccer playoffs, you should expect spikes in demand.
Is the bandwidth sufficient? WebLogic Server requires enough bandwidth to handle all connections from clients. In the case of programmatic clients, each client JVM will have a single socket to the server. Each socket requires bandwidth. A WebLogic Server handling programmatic clients should have 125 to 150 percent the bandwidth that a server with Web-based clients would handle. If you are interested in the bandwidth required to run a web server, you can assume that each 56kbps (kilobits per second) of bandwidth can handle between seven and ten simultaneous requests depending upon the size of the content that you are delivering. If you are handling only HTTP clients, expect a similar bandwidth requirement as a Web server serving static pages.
The primary factor affecting the requirements for a LAN infrastructure is the use of in-memory replication of session information for servlets and stateful session EJBs. In a cluster, in-memory replication of session information is the biggest consumer of LAN bandwidth. Consider whether your application will require the replication of session information for servlets and EJBs.
To determine whether you have enough bandwidth in a given deployment, look at the network tools provided by your network operating system vendor. In most cases, including Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Solaris, you can inspect the load on the network system. If the load is very high, bandwidth may be a bottleneck for your system.
Clusters greatly improve efficiency and failover. Customers using clustering should not see any noticeable performance degradation. A number of WebLogic Server deployments in production involve placing a cluster of WebLogic Server instances on a single multiprocessor server.
Large clusters performing in-memory replication of session data for Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs) or servlets require more bandwidth than smaller clusters. Consider the size of session data and the size of the cluster.
How well-designed is the application? WebLogic Server is a platform for user applications. Badly designed or unoptimized user applications can drastically slow down the performance of a given configuration from 10 to 50 percent The prudent course is to assume that every application that is developed for WebLogic Server will not be optimal and will not perform as well as benchmark applications. I increase the maximum capacity that you calculate or expect.
Tune your WebLogic Server deployment according to BEA WebLogic Server Performance and Tuning. If the server is not tuned, expect about a 33% decrease in performance compared to the baseline numbers in Examining Results from the Baseline Applications.
The next step is to examine the characteristics and baseline results from sample applications. This step can assist you in generating capacity planning requirements for your application. Proceed to Examining Results from the Baseline Applications.