Skip navigation.

Programming WebLogic JSP

  Previous Next vertical dots separating previous/next from contents/index/pdf Contents Index View as PDF   Get Adobe Reader

WebLogic JSP Reference

The following sections provide reference information for writing JavaServer Pages (JSPs):


JSP Tags

The following table describes the basic tags that you can use in a JSP page. Each shorthand tag has an XML equivalent.

Table 3-1 Basic Tags for JSP Pages





<% java_code %>

. . . or use the XML equivalent:


Embeds Java source code scriptlet in your HTML page. The Java code is executed and its output is inserted in sequence with the rest of the HTML in the page. For details, see Scriptlets on page 3-7.


<%@ dir-type dir-attr %>

. . . or use the XML equivalent:

<jsp:directive.dir_type dir_attr />

Directives contain messages to the application server.

A directive can also contain name/value pair attributes in the form attr="value", which provides additional instructions to the application server. See Directives for WebLogic JSP on page 3-5.


<%! declaration %>

. . . or use XML equivalent...


Declares a variable or method that can be referenced by other declarations, scriptlets, or expressions in the page. See Declarations on page 3-6


<%= expression %>

. . . or use XML equivalent...


Defines a Java expression that is evaluated at page request time, converted to a String, and sent inline to the output stream of the JSP response. See Expressions on page 3-7.


<jsp:useBean ... >

JSP body is included if the bean is instantiated here

<jsp:setProperty ... >
<jsp:getProperty ... >
<jsp:include ... >
<jsp:forward ... >
<jsp:plugin ... >

Provide access to advanced features of JSP, and only use XML syntax. These actions are supported as defined in the JSP 1.2 specification. See Actions on page 3-9.


<%/* comment */%>

Ensure that your comments are removed from the viewable source of your HTML files by using only JSP comment tags. HTML comments remain visible when the user selects view source in the browser.


Reserved Words for Implicit Objects

JSP reserves words for implicit objects in scriptlets and expressions. These implicit objects represent Java objects that provide useful methods and information for your JSP page. WebLogic JSP implements all implicit objects defined in the JSP 1.2 specification. The JSP API is described in the Javadocs available from the Sun Microsystems JSP Home Page.

Note: Use these implicit objects only within Scriptlets or Expressions. Using these keywords from a method defined in a declaration causes a translation-time compilation error because such usage causes your page to reference an undefined variable.


request represents the HttpServletRequest object. It contains information about the request from the browser and has several useful methods for getting cookie, header, and session data.


response represents the HttpServletResponse object and several useful methods for setting the response sent back to the browser from your JSP page. Examples of these responses include cookies and other header information.

Warning: Use the out implicit object instead of the response.getWriter() method to send the JSP response back to the browser from within your scriptlet code whenever possible. The WebLogic Server implementation of javax.servlet.jsp.JspWriter uses javax.servlet.ServletOutputStream, which implies that you can use response.getServletOutputStream(). Keep in mind, however, that this implementation is specific to WebLogic Server. To keep your code maintainable and portable, use the out keyword.


out is an instance of javax.jsp.JspWriter that has several methods you can use to send output back to the browser.

If you are using a method that requires an output stream, then JspWriter does not work. You can work around this limitation by supplying a buffered stream and then writing this stream to out. For example, the following code shows how to write an exception stack trace to out:

  ByteArrayOutputStream ostr = new ByteArrayOutputStream(); 
exception.printStackTrace(new PrintWriter(ostr));


pageContext represents a javax.servlet.jsp.PageContext object. It is a convenience API for accessing various scoped namespaces and servlet-related objects, and provides wrapper methods for common servlet-related functionality.


session represents a javax.servlet.http.HttpSession object for the request. The session directive is set to true by default, so the session is valid by default. The JSP 1.2 specification states that if the session directive is set to false, then using the session keyword results in a fatal translation time error. For more information about using sessions with servlets, see Programming WebLogic HTTP Servlets.


application represents a javax.servlet.ServletContext object. Use it to find information about the servlet engine and the servlet environment.

When forwarding or including requests, you can access the servlet requestDispatcher using the ServletContext, or you can use the JSP forward directive for forwarding requests to other servlets, and the JSP include directive for including output from other servlets.


config represents a javax.servlet.ServletConfig object and provides access to the servlet instance initialization parameters.


page represents the servlet instance generated from this JSP page. It is synonymous with the Java keyword this when used in your scriptlet code.

To use page, you must cast it to the class type of the servlet that implements the JSP page, because it is defined as an instance of java.lang.Object. By default, the servlet class is named after the JSP filename. For convenience, we recommend that you use the Java keyword this to reference the servlet instance and get access to initialization parameters, instead of using page.

For more information on the underlying HTTP servlet framework, see the related developers guide, Programming WebLogic HTTP Servlets.


Directives for WebLogic JSP

Use directives to instruct WebLogic JSP to perform certain functions or interpret the JSP page in a particular way. You can insert a directive anywhere in a JSP page. The position is generally irrelevant (except for the include directive), and you can use multiple directive tags. A directive consists of a directive type and one or more attributes of that type.

You can use either of two types of syntax: shorthand or XML:

Replace dir_type with the directive type, and dir_attr with a list of one or more directive attributes for that directive type.

There are three types of directives page, taglib, or include.

Using the page Directive to Set Character Encoding

To specify a character encoding set, use the following directive at the top of the page:

<%@ page contentType="text/html; charset=custom-encoding" %>

Replace the custom-encoding with a standard HTTP-style character set name .

The character set you specify with a contentType directive specifies the character set used in the JSP as well as any JSP included in that JSP.

You can specify a default character encoding by specifying it in the WebLogic-specific deployment descriptor for your Web Application. For more information, see the jsp-descriptor section.

Using the taglib Directive

Use a taglib directive to declare that your JSP page uses custom JSP tag extensions that are defined in a tag library. For details about writing and using custom JSP tags, see Programming WebLogic JSP Extensions.



Use declarations to define variables and methods at the class-scope level of the generated JSP servlet. Declarations made between JSP tags are accessible from other declarations and scriptlets in your JSP page. For example:

int i=0;
String foo= "Hello";
private void bar() {
// code here...

Remember that class-scope objects are shared between multiple threads being executed in the same instance of a servlet. To guard against sharing violations, synchronize class scope objects. If you are not confident writing thread-safe code, you can declare your servlet as not-thread-safe by including the following directive:

<%@ page isThreadSafe="false" %>

By default, this attribute is set to true. When set to false, the generated servlet implements the javax.servlet.SingleThreadModel interface, which prevents multiple threads from running in the same servlet instance. Setting isThreadSafe to false consumes additional memory and can cause performance to degrade.



JSP scriptlets make up the Java body of your JSP servlet's HTTP response. To include a scriptlet in your JSP page, use the shorthand or XML scriptlet tags shown here:


// Your Java code goes here


// Your Java code goes here

Note the following features of scriptlets:



To include an expression in your JSP file, use the following tag:

<%= expr %>

Replace expr with a Java expression. When the expression is evaluated, its string representation is placed inline in the HTML response page. It is shorthand for

   <% out.print( expr ); %>

This technique enables you to make your HTML more readable in the JSP page. Note the use of the expression tag in the example in the next section.

Expressions are often used to return data that a user has previously supplied. Any time you print user-supplied data, BEA recommends that you remove any HTML special characters that a user might have entered. If you do not remove these characters, your Web site could be exploited by cross-site scripting. For more information, refer to Securing User-Supplied Data in JSPs.


Example of a JSP with HTML and Embedded Java

The following example shows a JSP with HTML and embedded Java:

<head><title>Hello World Test</title></head>
<body bgcolor=#ffffff>
<h1> <font color=#DB1260> Hello World Test </font></h1>
<font color=navy>
    out.print("Java-generated Hello World");
<p> This is not Java!
<p><i>Middle stuff on page</i>
<font color=navy>
     for (int i = 1; i<=3; i++) {
        <h2>This is HTML in a Java loop! <%= i %> </h2>

After the code shown here is compiled, the resulting page is displayed in a browser as follows:

Figure: Image of a Java-generated Hello World test and HTML in a Java loop.



You use JSP actions to modify, use, or create objects that are reperesented by JavaBeans. Actions use XML syntax exclusively.

Using JavaBeans in JSP

The <jsp:useBean> action tag allows you to instantiate Java objects that comply with the JavaBean specification, and to refer to them from your JSP pages.

To comply with the JavaBean specification, objects need:

Instantiating the JavaBean Object

The <jsp:useBean> tag attempts to retrieve an existing named Java object from a specific scope and, if the existing object is not found, may attempt to instantiate a new object and associate it with the name given by the id attribute. The object is stored in a location given by the scope attribute, which determines the availability of the object. For example, the following tag attempts to retrieve a Java object of type examples.jsp.ShoppingCart from the HTTP session under the name cart.

<jsp:useBean id="cart"
class="examples.jsp.ShoppingCart" scope="session"/>

If such an object does not currently exist, the JSP attempts to create a new object, and stores it in the HTTP session under the name cart. The class should be available in the CLASSPATH used to start WebLogic Server, or in the WEB-INF/classes directory of the Web Application containing the JSP.

It is good practice to use an errorPage directive with the <jsp:useBean> tag because there are run-time exceptions that must be caught. If you do not use an errorPage directive, the class referenced in the JavaBean cannot be created, an InstantiationException is thrown, and an error message is returned to the browser.

You can use the type attribute to cast the JavaBean type to another object or interface, provided that it is a legal type cast operation within Java. If you use the attribute without the class attribute, your JavaBean object must already exist in the scope specified. If it is not legal, an InstantiationException is thrown.

Doing Setup Work at JavaBean Instantiation

The <jsp:useBean> tag syntax has another format that allows you to define a body of JSP code that is executed when the object is instantiated. The body is not executed if the named JavaBean already exists in the specified scope. This format allows you to set up certain properties when the object is first created. For example:

<jsp:useBean id="cart" class="examples.jsp.ShoppingCart"
Creating the shopping cart now...
<jsp:setProperty name="cart"
property="cartName" value="music">

Note: If you use the type attribute without the class attribute, a JavaBean object is never instantiated, and you should not attempt to use the tag format to include a body. Instead, use the single tag format. In this case, the JavaBean must exist in the specified scope, or an InstantiationException is thrown. Use an errorPage directive to catch the potential exception.

Using the JavaBean Object

After you instantiate the JavaBean object, you can refer to it by its id name in the JSP file as a Java object. You can use it within scriptlet tags and expression evaluator tags, and you can invoke its setXxx() or getXxx() methods using the <jsp:setProperty> and <jsp:getProperty> tags, respectively.

Defining the Scope of a JavaBean Object

Use the scope attribute to specify the availability and life-span of the JavaBean object. The scope can be one of the following:


This is the default scope for a JavaBean, which stores the object in the javax.servlet.jsp.PageContext of the current page. It is available only from the current invocation of this JSP page. It is not available to included JSP pages, and it is discarded upon completion of this page request.


When the request scope is used, the object is stored in the current ServletRequest, and it is available to other included JSP pages that are passed the same request object. The object is discarded when the current request is completed.


Use the session scope to store the JavaBean object in the HTTP session so that it can be tracked across several HTTP pages. The reference to the JavaBean is stored in the page's HttpSession object. Your JSP pages must be able to participate in a session to use this scope. That is, you must not have the page directive session set to false.


At the application-scope level, your JavaBean object is stored in the Web Application. Use of this scope implies that the object is available to any other servlet or JSP page running in the same Web Application in which the object is stored.

For more information about using JavaBeans, see the JSP 1.2 specification .

Forwarding Requests

If you are using any type of authentication, a forwarded request made with the <jsp:forward> tag, by default, does not require the user to be re-authenticated. You can change this behavior to require authentication of a forwarded request by adding the <check-auth-on-forward/> element to the <container-descriptor> element of the WebLogic-specific deployment descriptor, weblogic.xml. For example:


For information on editing the WebLogic-specific deployment descriptor, see Writing the WebLogic-Specific Deployment Descriptor.

Including Requests

You can use the <jsp:include> tag to include another resource in a JSP. This tag takes two attributes:


Use the page attribute to specify the included resource. For example:

<jsp:include page="somePage.jsp"/>


Setting this boolean attribute to true buffers the page output and then flushes the buffer before including the resource.

Setting flush="false" can be useful when the <jsp:include> tag is located within another tag on the JSP page and you want the included resource to be processed by the tag.


Securing User-Supplied Data in JSPs

Expressions and scriptlets enable a JSP to receive data from a user and return the user supplied data. For example, the sample JSP in Listing 3-1 prompts a user to enter a string, assigns the string to a parameter named userInput, and then uses the <%= request.getParameter("userInput")%> expression to return the data to the browser.

Listing 3-1 Using Expressions to Return User-Supplied Content

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
    <h1>My Sample JSP</h1>
      <form method="GET" action="mysample.jsp">
          Enter string here:
          <input type="text" name="userInput" size=50>
          <input type=submit value="Submit">
    Output from last command:
    <%= request.getParameter("userInput")%>

This ability to return user-supplied data can present a security vulnerability called cross-site scripting, which can be exploited to steal a user's security authorization. For a detailed description of cross-site scripting, refer to "Understanding Malicious Content Mitigation for Web Developers" (a CERT security advisory) at

To remove the security vulnerability, before you return data that a user has supplied, scan the data for any of the HTML special characters in Table 3-2. If you find any special characters, replace them with their HTML entity or character reference. Replacing the characters prevents the browser from executing the user-supplied data as HTML.

Table 3-2 HTML Special Characters that Must Be Replaced

Replace this special character:

With this entity/character reference:













Using a WebLogic Server Utility Method

WebLogic Server provides the method to replace the special characters in user-supplied data. To use this method, provide the user-supplied data as input. For example,

To secure an entire application, you must use the encodeXSS() method each time you return user-supplied data. While the previous example is an obvious location in which to use the encodeXSS() method, Table 3-3 describes other locations to consider.

Table 3-3 Code that Returns User-Supplied Data

Page Type

User-Supplied Data


Error page

Erroneous input string, invalid URL, username

An error page that says "username is not permitted access."

Status page

Username, summary of input from previous pages

A summary page that asks a user to confirm input from previous pages.

Database display

Data presented from a database

A page that displays a list of database entries that have been previously entered by a user.


Using Sessions with JSP

Sessions in WebLogic JSP perform according to the JSP 1.2 specification. The following suggestions pertain to using sessions:


Deploying Applets from JSP

Using the JSP provides a convenient way to include the Java Plug-in in a Web page, by generating HTML that contains the appropriate client browser tag. The Java Plug-in allows you to use a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) supplied by Sun Microsystems instead of the JVM implemented by the client Web browser. This feature avoids incompatibility problems between your applets and specific types of Web browsers. The Java Plug-in is available from Sun at

Because the syntax used by Internet Explorer and Netscape is different, the servlet code generated from the <jsp:plugin> action dynamically senses the type of browser client and sends the appropriate <OBJECT> or <EMBED> tags in the HTML page.

The <jsp:plugin> tag uses many attributes similar to those of the <APPLET> tag, and some other attributes that allow you to configure the version of the Java Plug-in to be used. If the applet communicates with the server, the JVM running your applet code must be compatible with the JVM running WebLogic Server.

In the following example, the plug-in action is used to deploy an applet:

<jsp:plugin type="applet" code="examples.applets.PhoneBook1"
 codebase="/classes/" height="800" width="500"
",1,3,0" >
  <param name="weblogic_url" value="t3://localhost:7001">
  <param name="poolname" value="demoPool">
  <font color=#FF0000>Sorry, cannot run java applet!!</font>

The sample JSP syntax shown here instructs the browser to download the Java Plug-in version 1.3.1 (if it has not been downloaded previously), and run the applet identified by the code attribute from the location specified by codebase.

The jreversion attribute identifies the spec version of the Java Plug-in that the applet requires to operate. The Web browser attempts to use this version of the Java Plug-in. If the plug-in is not already installed on the browser, the nspluginurl and iepluginurl attributes specify URLs where the Java Plug-in can be downloaded from the Sun Web site. Once the plug-in is installed on the Web browser, it is not downloaded again.

Because WebLogic Server uses the Java 1.3.x VM, you must specify the Java Plug-in version 1.3.x in the <jsp:plugin> tag. To specify the 1.3 JVM in the previous example code, replace the corresponding attribute values with the following:


The other attributes of the plug-in action correspond with those of the <APPLET> tag. You specify applet parameters within a pair of <params> tags, nested within the <jsp:plugin> and </jsp:plugin> tags.

The <jsp:fallback> tags allow you to substitute HTML for browsers that are not supported by the <jsp:plugin> action. The HTML nested between the <fallback> and </jsp:fallback> tags is sent instead of the plug-in syntax.


File Lookups for JSPs and Case Sensitivity

The WebAppFilesCaseInsensitive attribute of the SecurityConfigMBean specifies whether file lookups for Java Server Pages (JSPs) are case sensitive on all platforms except win32; file lookups from standard win32 file systems are always case-insensitive.

On case-insensitive file systems other than win32 (such as NT Samba mounts from UNIX or Mac OS that has been installed in case-insensitive mode), specify case insensitive lookups (set this attribute to <code>false</code>) to prevent the JSP from returning its source code.

For example, if a JSP is being served from a Samba mount and you have specified case insensitive lookups, WebLogic Server converts all file name extensions in a request to lower case before looking up the JSP.


Using the WebLogic JSP Compiler

Because the JSP Servlet automatically calls the WebLogic JSP compiler to process your JSP pages, you generally do not need to use the compiler directly. However, in some situations, such as when you are debugging, accessing the compiler directly is useful. This section is a reference for the compiler.

The WebLogic JSP compiler parses your JSP file into a .java file, and then compiles the generated .java file into a Java class, using a standard Java compiler.

Running JSPC on Windows Systems

When you run the JSP compiler on Windows systems, output files names are always created with lower case names. To prevent this behavior, and preserve the case used in class names, set the system property, to true. You can set the property at the command line when compiling a JSP using this following command:

java weblogic.jspc *.jsp

or include this command in your WebLogic Server startup scripts:

JSP Compiler Syntax

The JSP compiler works in much the same way that other WebLogic compilers work (including the RMI and EJB compilers). To start the JSP compiler, enter the following command.

$ java weblogic.jspc -options fileName

Replace fileName with the name of the JSP file that you want to compile. You can specify any options before or after the target fileName. The following example uses the -d option to compile myFile.jsp into the destination directory, weblogic/classes:

$ java weblogic.jspc -d /weblogic/classes myFile.jsp

Note: If you are precompiling JSPs that are part of a Web Application and that reference resources in the Web Application (such as a JSP tag library), you must use the -webapp flag to specify the location of the Web Application. The -webapp flag is described in the following listing of JSP compiler options.

JSP Compiler Options

You can use any combination of the following options:


Add a list (separated by semi-colons on Windows NT/2000 platforms or colons on UNIX platforms) of directories that make up the desired CLASSPATH. Include directories containing any classes required by the JSP. For example (to be entered on one line):

$ java weblogic.jspc
   -classpath java/;/weblogic/


Specifies mapping of IANA or unofficial charset names used in JSP contentType directives to java charset names. For example:

-charsetMap x-sjis=Shift_JIS,x-big5=Big5

The most common mappings are built into the JSP compiler. Use this option only if a desired charset mapping is not recognized.


Causes the JSP compiler to include comments from the JSP in the generated HTML page. If this option is omitted, comments do not appear in the generated HTML page.


Recursively compiles all JSPs in the current directory, or in the directory specified with the -webapp flag. (See the listing for -webapp in this list of options.). JSPs in subdirectories are also compiled.


Passes one or more command-line flags to the compiler. Enclose multiple flags in quotes, separated by a space. For example:

java weblogic.jspc -compileFlags "-g -v" myFile.jsp


Specifies the Java compiler to be used to compile the class file from the generated Java source code. The default compiler used is javac. The Java compiler program should be in your PATH unless you specify the absolute path to the compiler explicitly.


Runs a Java compiler as a Java class and not as a native executable.


Specifies that the compiler used supports encoding such as that used by other compilers.

-d <dir>

Specifies the destination of the compiled output (that is, the class file). Use this option as a shortcut for placing the compiled classes in a directory that is already in your CLASSPATH.


If a previously generated class file for a JSP has a more recent date stamp than the JSP source file, the JSP is not recompiled.


Compile with debugging on.


Warn about the use of deprecated methods in the generated Java source file when compiling the source file into a class file.

-docroot directory

See -webapp.

-encoding default|named character encoding

Valid arguments include (a) default which specifices using the default character encoding of your JDK, (b) a named character encoding, such as 8859_1. If the -encoding flag is not specified, an array of bytes is used.


Instructs the Java compiler to include debugging information in the class file.


Displays a list of all the available flags for the JSP compiler.


Takes a list of options that are passed to your compiler.


When compiling multiple JSPs with with a single command, the compiler continues compiling even if one or more of the JSPs failed to compile.


Keeps the Java source code files that are created as an intermediary step in the compilation process. Normally these files are deleted after compilation.


If a JSP file has numerous or deeply nested custom JSP tags and you receive a java.lang.VerifyError exception when compiling, use this flag to allow the JSPs to compile correctly.


Turns off warning messages from the Java compiler.


Shows "null" in jsp expressions as "".


Compiles the generated Java source file with optimization turned on. This option overrides the -g flag.

-package packageName

Sets the package name that is prepended to the package name of the generated Java HTTP servlet. Defaults to jsp_servlet.

-superclass classname

Sets the classname of the superclass extended by the generated servlet. The named superclass must be a derivative of HttpServlet or GenericServlet.


Passes the verbose flag to the Java compiler specified with the compiler flag. See the compiler documentation for more information. The default is off.


Prints messages generated by the designated JSP compiler.


Prints the version of the JSP compiler.

-webapp directory

Name of a directory containing a Web Application in exploded directory format. If your JSP contains references to resources in a Web Application such as a JSP tag library or other Java classes, the JSP compiler will look for those resources in this directory. If you omit this flag when compiling a JSP that requires resources from a Web Application, the compilation will fail.

Precompiling JSPs

You can configure WebLogic Server to precompile your JSPs when a Web Application is deployed or re-deployed or when WebLogic Server starts up by setting the precompile parameter to true in the <jsp-descriptor> element of the weblogic.xml deployment descriptor. To avoid recompiling your JSPs each time the server restarts and when you target additional servers, precompile them using weblogic.jspc and place them in the WEB-INF/classes folder and archive them in a .war file. Keeping your source files in a separate directory from the archived .war file will eliminate the possibility of errors caused by a JSP having a dependency on one of the class files.

For more information on the web.xml deployment descriptor, see Assembling and Configuring Web Applications.

Java Server Pages that are contained within a .war file can be precompiled using appc rather than weblogic.jspc. For additional information on using appc, see appc at Windows NT command length limitations can be overcome using the new compilerclass option for WebLogic JSPs. It can be configured in the weblogic.xml file.

JSPs can be complied either in memory (in process) or by forking a new process for the compilation.

A new process is forked when the compilerclass is not specified and production mode is the startup mode.

The in memory compilerclass option uses the compiler class used by Sun to internally compile Java files. This does not require creating a new process and thus is more efficient than compiling each Java file separately using a new process.

The compilerclass can be used by adding the following to weblogic.xml:



Another way to prevent your JSPs from recompiling is to use the JSPClassServlet in place of JSPServlet and to place your precompiled JSPs into the WEB-INF/classes directory. This will remove any possibility of the JSPs being recompiled, as the server will not look at the source code. The server will not note any changes to the JSPs and recompile them if you choose this option. This option allows you to completely remove the JSP source code from your application after precompiling.

This is an example of how to add the JSPClassServlet to your Web Application's web.xml file.









As when using virtual hosting, you must have physical directories that correspond to the mappings you create to allow your files to be found by the server.

Increasing JSP Performance and Best Practices

If you have precompiled your JSPs, the precompile parameter should be set to false.

  1. Compile your JSPs using weblogic.jspc.
  2. Put your compiled JSP classes into their proper locations under the WEB-INF/classes directory of your web application. If you use the default package name, then your classes should all be under WEB-INF/classes/jsp_servlet i.e. if you have login.jsp, then it should be located under WEB-INF/classes/jsp_servlet/login.class
  3. Create or edit the weblogic.xml file for your web application following the instructions found in Developing Web Applications for WebLogic Server.
  4. In the jsp-descriptor element make sure you have set the following two parameters:
  5. <jsp-descriptor>










    When optimizing for speed, increase pageCheckSeconds to 10, 20 or 30+ seconds by determining how many times your JSPs will change during the day and setting the parameter appropriately.

  6. Archive your web application into a WAR.
  7. Deploy your web application.

If the classes are still being recompiled then you are running different WLS versions - make sure you are compiling your classes using the same release & version as the one to which you are deploying.


Skip navigation bar  Back to Top Previous Next